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class, and each class of paupers shall remain therein, without communication with those of any other class. Art. 99. Provided,
Firstly.--That the Guardians shall from time to time, after consulting the Medical Officer, make such arrangements as they may deem necessary with regard to persons labouring under any disease of body or mind.
Secondly.—The Guardians shall, so far as circumstances will permit, further subdivide any of the classes enumerated in Art. 98, with reference to the moral character, or behaviour, or the previous habits of the inmates, or to such other grounds as may seem expedient.
Thirdly. – That nothing in this order shall compel the Guardians to separate any married couple, being both paupers of the first and fourth classes respectively, provided the Guardians shall set apart for the exclusive use every such couple a sleeping apartment separate from that of the other paupers.
Fourthly.—That any paupers of the fifth and sixth classes may be employed constantly or occasionally in any of the female sick wards, or in the care of infants, or as assistants in the household work; and the Master and Matron shall make such arrangements as may enable the paupers of the fifth and sixth classes to be employed in the household work, without communication with the paupers of the second and third classes.
Fifthly.—That any pauper of the fourth class, whom the Master may deem fit to perform any of the duties of a nurse or assistant to the Matron, may be so employed in the sick wards, or those of the fourth, fifth, sixth, or seventh classes ; and any pauper of the first class, who may by the Master be deemed fit, may be placed in the ward of the third class, to aid in the management, and superintend the behaviour of the paupers of such class, or may be employed in the male sick ward.
Sixthly.—That the Guardians, for a special reason to be entered on their minutes, may place any boy or girl between the ages of ten and sixteen years, in a male or female ward respectively, different to that to which he or she properly belongs, unless the Commissioners shall otherwise direct.
Seventhly.—That the paupers of the seventh class may be placed in such of the wards appropriated to the female paupers as shall be deemed expedient, and the mothers of such paupers shall be permitted to have access to them at all reasonable times.
Eighthly.—That the Master (subject to any directions given or regulations made by the Guardians) shall allow the father or mother of any child in the same Workhouse, who may be desirous of seeing such child, to have an interview with such child at some one time in each day, in a room in the said Workhouse to be appointed for that purpose. And the Guardians shall make arrangements for permitting the members of the same family who may be in different Workhouses of the Union to have occasional interviews with each other, at such times and in such manner as may best suit the discipline of the several Workhouses.
Ninthly. — That casual poor wayfarers admitted by the Master or Matron shall be kept in a separate ward of the Workhouse.
Art. 100. The Guardians shall not admit into the Workhouse or any ward of the same, or retain therein, a larger number or a different class of paupers than that heretofore or hereafter from time to time to be fixed by the Commissioners ; and in case such number shall at any time be exceeded, the fact of such excess shall be forth with reported to the Commissioners by the Clerk.
Art. 101. No pauper of unsound mind, who may be dangerous or who may have been reported as such by the Medical Officer, or who may require habitual or frequent restraint, shall be detained in the Workhouse for any period exceeding fourteen days, and the Guardians shall cause the proper steps to be taken for the removal of every such pauper to some asylum or licensed house as soon as may be practicable.
I have given the whole of the Classification Order, including what does not relate to the question, in order to show that nothing has been left out. It will be clear that, as I said in the paper referred to, fifteen is the age at which boys and girls are placed in the able-bodied wards, and that the numerous exceptions permitted practically destroy the rule. The custom varies in different places according to circumstances. There is no doubt that in the new Consolidated Orders the age will be raised to sixteen.
The powers possessed by Guardians for lodging or maintaining a boy or girl altogether outside the workhouse or pauper school, between situations, are these :
1. In Unions under the Out-Relief Regulation Order (14 December, 1852), out-relief within the Union may be given to the able-bodied of any age, as limited by that Order.
2. Out-relief may be given in cases of sickness, in any Union, and to paupers of any age. The journeys to and from a Hospital, and the cost of maintenance there, may be paid, without special permission of the Local Government Board, and, with special permission of that Board, the Guardians may also subscribe to a Hospital.
3. The allowance for children boarded out beyond the Union under the Order of 1870 may be continued up to sixteen. No child may be thus boarded out for the first time after ten years of age, but a child who has been once boarded out might be re-boarded (of course, with signing of fresh agreements), after having been sent to service, up to sixteen.
4. A boy or girl may be sent to a Certified School or Home, either within or beyond the Union, without special leave of the Local Government Board. The Statute does not limit the age of children who may be sent to these Schools.
5. A deaf and dumb or blind boy or girl of any age may be sent, with the special leave of the Local Government Board, to any uncertified Institution, either within or beyond the Union.
6. By the provisions of the Poor Law Act, 1879 (42 & 43 Vict. cap. 54, sec. 10), Guardians are empowered to subscribe to any Society for aiding girls and boys in service. It may be better to give the whole of the Section.
10. Whereas, by Section 4 of the Poor-Law Amendment Act, 1851, Guardians are authorised, with such consent as is therein mentioned, to subscribe towards the support and maintenance of any public hospital or infirmary as therein mentioned, and it is expedient to extend the said section : Be it therefore enacted as follows :
The provisions of the said Section shall extend to authorize the Guardians, with such consent as is therein mentioned, to subscribe towards any asylum or institution for blind persons, or for deaf and dumb pe ns, or for persons suffering from any permanent or natural infirmity, or towards any association or society for aiding such persons, or for providing nurses, or for aiding girls or boys in service, or towards any other asylum or institution which appears to the Guardians, with such consent as aforesaid, to be calculated to render useful aid in the administration of the relief of the poor.
Provided always, that nothing herein contained shall authorize any subscription to any asylum or institution unless the Local Government Board be satisfied that the paupers under the Guardians have or could have assistance therein in case of necessity.
Nothing can possibly be plainer than this.
A Board of Guardians may subscribe for one year only, without making any promises for the future; and if the sum subscribed be found insufficient, may, within the same year, increase the subscription, with the previous consent of the Local Government Board. The proposal should be submitted to the Local Government Board as a proposal to subscribe an annual sum, and not to give a donation. The Guardians may thus subscribe a regular and unvarying sum annually to a particular Society, for the general benefit of the boys and girls in service, without entering into the details of each case, as eighteen of the Metropolitan Boards thus subscribe to the Metropolitan Association for Befriending Young Servants; or they may subscribe to such a Society for one year only, and for a particular case—an arrangement constantly made for the purpose of sending a particular patient to a hospital. It is only necessary to satisfy the Local Government Board that the circumstances are such that they can properly sanction the proposal of the Guardians. It is usually enough to show the general usefulness of the Society in connexion with supervising and assisting children who have been chargeable to the rates and have been sent out to service, the application of the subscription being left to the discretion of the representatives of the Society. A Member or Associate of any such Society may thus place a boy or girl, suddenly thrown out of place, at once in a respectable lodging, and then apply to the Board of Guardians, not to repay the cost of such lodging, but to subscribe to the Society, so that the amount which has been thus expended may be repaid ; or the Member or Associate may apply for a subscription, with the view of meeting future expenses of this character. When the Guardians desire it, there may be an understanding between them and the representatives of the Society as to the particular case, or classes of cases, for which such a subscription shall be applied. It is sometimes necessary to place a child in safe lodgings on a sudden emergency, and impossible to wait until the case has been brought before the weekly or fortnightly meeting of the Board, the subsequent application made to the Local Government Board, and the answer received.
But the circumstances of each Union are different, and it must dcpend entirely upon what terms the members of any local branch of any such Society are on with the Guardians of their own Union, whether it is advisable or not for the Board to offer, or for the Society to ask for, a subscription, and in what manner. My own opinion is, that in large and populous Unions, where girls and boys without homes must frequently return to the workhouse unless means are taken to prevent it, the best method is to go back over as many years as possible, and, taking the average cost of such returns, for the Board to subscribe to that amount a regular and unvarying sum to some Society which will undertake to lodge and care for the young people in such cases. If the sum is one year in excess of the need, the Society can retain the surplus till another year,