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already known. In the narrower and seen in their play (see Play). This inscholastic sense it refers to the gaining of stinctive impulse to muscular exertion is knowledge by the help of others' instruc- an important condition of the growth of tion. Hence the acquisition of knowledge the bodily powers, and of the acquisition is sometimes distinguished from the child's of the command of the organs of moveindependent discovery of it. Learning is ment by the will (see Will). Mental acoften spoken of as if it were a mere ex- tivity, as distinguished from bodily, is the ertion of the faculty of meniory.

But conscious exercise of mental power. The wherever new knowledge is gained there most general name for this is Attention is a preliminary process of comprehending (which see). It is now generally admitted or assimilating the new materials. Thus that all mental development is the result in grasping a new fact in geography or of the child's self-activity. A child learns natural history, a child's mind must put just in proportion to the degree in which forth activity in first analysing or resolving it actively exerts its intellectual faculties. the complex whole into its parts or ele- This mental activity is in the earlier ments, and then synthetically recombining stages of development closely connected these, and viewing them in their proper with bodily. It is by using the organs of relation one to another. Not only so, the sense in observation and by experimentnew fact presented can only be grasped or ing with the moving organs, more especirealised by the mind by the aid of its ally the hands, that the child's intellipoints of affinity with what is already gence is called into play. Hence the known. In other words, the mind has to educational signiticance of the child's Assimilate the new to the old. In the case spontaneous tendency to movement, a of learning new concrete facts hy verbal de significance which Froebel was the first scription, this assimilative process assumes to fully see and utilise. The higher form the form of constructing a new pictorial of mental activity shows itself in the volrepresentation out of materials supplied by untary concentration of attention in jethe reproductive faculty. (See IMAGINA- producing former impressions, and in sepaTION.) Where the new fact is not only rating and recombining these so as to imaginatively realised, but also understood, carry out the operations of imagination the process of assimilation includes the and thought. This so-called intellectual reference of it to some previously known activity is immediately dependent on an class, and to some familiar principle or exertion of will, and hence may be said to rule. It is thus evident that learning is contain a moral ingredient. At the same never a purely passive process of reception, time it is customary to distinguish from but always involves the activity of the this intellectual a moral activity, which child's own mind. There is no gaining of shows itself in an effort of will to do what knowledge where there is not close at- is right. Such exertion is the proper means tention and a serious effort to take apart by which the will is strengthened and and recombine the materials presented by character formed (see CHARACTER). Thus the teacher. (See K. A. Schmid's Ency- we see that the child's physical, intelclopädie des gesammt. Erziehungs- und lectual, and moral development alike deUnterrichtswesen, article Lehren und pend on its self-activity. (See K. A. Lernen.')

Schmid's Encyclopädie, article ThätigAcroamatic Method (åkpoquatıkós, to keitstrieb.'). be heard), a term applied to the oral Adam, Alexander, a celebrated Scotmethod of instruction adopted by Aris- tish teacher, born in Morayshire in 1741. totle.

In 1769 he succeeded to the rectorship of Activity.—By the activity of a thing the High School of Edinburgh, where he is meant the putting forth of its specific distinguished himself by introducing the and characteristic force. In a wide sense study of classical geography and history, nature as a whole is constantly active, and by teaching his pupils the dend Janand this activity is a special characteristic guages by aid of their native tongue, a of living things. In th: human being we method which he probably borrowed from have both a physical or bodily and a the Port-Royalists (9. v.). Adam puhmontal activity. Children, like young lished the first Latin grammar written in animals, exhibit a marked tendency to English. . Previous to him the whole of spontaneous muscular Action, 'as may be the text of grammars was written in

ADELAIDE UNIVERSITY

-ÆSTHETIC CULTURE

7

Latin. His innovation was condemned evening classes constitute an important by many, but soon became popular, and part of the curriculum. A great impetus edition after edition of his grammar ap- was given to adult education by the re. peared with great rapidity. He was also vival of the non-collegiate system at Oxthe founder of the first organisation of Scot- ford and Cambridge, and the establishment tish tutors for mutual benefit. He died of London University, for the purpose

of 1809.

examining and conferring degrees. Dur . o delaide University. See UNIVERSI- ham and Dublin also examine candidates TIES.

without residence, and so stimulate priAdministration. See EDUCATION DE- vate study. 4. Recreative Evening Classe 3, PARTMENT.

-The most recent scheme for promoting Adult Education. The promoters of adult education has been the establishthe various systems of adult education con- ment of recreative evening classes. Among tend, in the first place, that the instruction the founders are eminent educationists, received in the day school ought to be con- and many representative working men. tinued, or that much of the advantage will They allege that previous efforts have been be lost; in the second place, that some , unsatisfactory because the programmes provision should be made for adults to have not been sufficiently entertaining. spend their leisure time in a manner at Their aim is to provide wholesome amuseonce enjoyable and profitable. The in- ment and technical instruction for young terests of commerce have led to the esta- men and boys who have left school. The blishment of technical schools, the main distinguishing features are modelling in object of which is to make the workman clay, wood-carving, calisthenic exercises more intelligent and skilful. In this gene- with dumb bells or wands to a musical ral activity higher education has not been accompaniment, and instruction in instruforgotten and adults of industry and ability mental as well as vocal music. have abundant opportunities at different Ægrotat.— When a candidate for colleges and schools of studying a univer- honours in any school at Oxford, or tripos sity course. The most important institu- at Cambridge, is prevented by illness from tions founded for the promotion of adult taking his examination or any part of it, education are: 1. Mechanics Institutes, the examiners may grant him what is initiated by Dr. Birkbeck (9. v.), who de- called an ægrotat degree. (Lat. æger, sick.) livered a course of free lectures to artisans Æsthetic Culture.—This concerns itat Glasgow in 1800. The first institute self with the strengthening and developwas established in London in 1823, and ing of the æsthetic feelings and judgment, since that time they have spread through which together constitute what is known out the length and breadth of the country. as taste This faculty includes the capaThe premises usually include a reading- bility of recognising and enjoying all room, circulating library, lecture-room, manifestations of the beautiful, both in and class-rooms. Although originally in- nature and in art. It stands on the one tended to be self-supporting, the subscrip- side in close relation to the two higher tions of the members are generally supple- senses, hearing and sight. The most rudi. mented by contributions. 2. Night Schools, mentary form of taste shows itself as a in connection with the different elementary retined sensibility to the impressions of schools of the country, are found in nearly colour and tone. A fondness for bright every town. They are taught by certiti- colours and the combinations of these is cated teachers, and supported by the fees observable, not only among young children of pupils, and by grants upon examination and backward races, but even among some by the Education Department. The sub- of the lower animals. In its fuller deve. jects of instruction include the three Rs,' lopment taste involves the activity of the geography, grammar, French, &c., as spe- higher intellectual faculties, and more parcified by the Code. 3. Evening Classes - ticularly the imagination (q.v.). This In London, at University College, King's applies even to the appreciation of the College, the City of London College, sights and sounds of nature, which, as Birkbeck Institutes, Polytechnic (Regent Alison has shown, owe much of their Street), South Kensington Museum, Fins- beauty and charm to suggestion. In the bury Technical College, &c., evening classes case of certain arts, as painting and, preare held. In the provincial colleges (q.v.) eminently, literature, the exercise of the

imagination is the chief source of the æs- | tellectual education becomes especially apthetic delight. The education of taste parent in the study of literature, which is aims at expanding and refining the æs- at once as a record of thought in words, thetic feelings, and guiding the judgment an appeal to the logical faculty, and as by providing a fixed standard. It is thus a variety of art embodying worthy and at once a development of emotional sen- noble ideas in a fitting harmonious form, sibility and of intellectual power. In a stimulus to the æsthetic feelings and the order to develop a child's taste it is neces critical udgment. The connection besary to awaken a genuine feeling for what tween æsthetic culture and moral training is pretty, graceful, pathetic, sublime, &c. is a question that has been much discussed Hence the educator must be on his guard both in ancient and in modern writings. against the mere affectation (q.v.) of (See Sully, Teacher's Handbook, chap. xviii., others'æsthetic sentiments and a mechani- and the references there appended ; also cal reproduction of their maxims. This Schmid's Encyclopädie, article Aestheevil may be most effectually prevented by tische Bildung:') carefully attending to the way in which Affectation.—This refers to the astaste naturally develops, by not forcing a sumption of the external marks of a mature standard on the unformed childish worthy feeling as the result of a volunmind, and by allowing, and even encou- tary effort, and not as the spontaneous raging, a certain degree of individuality manifestation of the feeling itself. It by no in taste. The education of taste includes means necessarily involves a deliberate infirst of all the exercise of the faculty tention to deceive another, as hypocrisy in distinguishing and appreciating the always does, and commonly falls short of beauties of our natural surroundings. deception as an 'awkward and forced This branch connects itself with the imitation of what should be genuine and training of the observing faculties, and easy?(Locke). It generally implies an inthe fortering of a love of nature. An- tensified form of self-consciousness. As a other branch concerns itself with the per- form of insincerity, and having one of its ception of what is graceful, noble, and so chief roots in vanity, it calls for careful forth, in human action. And here the watching on the part of the educator. At cultivation of taste becomes in a measure the same time it must be remembered that ancillary to moral education. Finally, it it often arises half-consciously from the embraces special technical training in the wish to please and the desire to be in symtine arts, more particularly music, draw. pathy with others. According to Locke ing and painting, and literary composi- affectation is not the product of untaught tion. Here the object of the educator nature, but grows up in connection with must be both to form the taste by the pre- management and instruction. It is thus sentation of good models, and also to exer a failing which a careless mode of educacise the child in the necessary processes tion is exceedingly likely to encourage, as of interpretative rendering, as in singing where a teacher looks for and even exacts and recitation, imitative reproduction, as the responsive manifestation of feelings in drawing, and original invention. The which belong to a later stage of developvalue of a wide æsthetic culture depends ment, such as the more refined forms of on the fact that it necessarily involves an æsthetic and moral feeling. (See Locke, harmonious development of the feelings Thoughts concerning Education, $ 66, and as a whole, and so a preparation of the Miss Edgeworth, Practical Education, child for the most varied and refined en-chap. x.). joyments, and also a considerable growth Affection.—This term, once used for of the intellectual faculties. Indeed, the all permanent and constant, as distinæsthetic feelings form one important guished from transitory and variable, source of interest in most, if not all, states of feeling, has come to be narrowed branches of study. Thus the scientific down to one specific variety of these, viz. observation of nature is sustained by a a feeling of attachment to others. It infeeling for its picturesque and sublime cludes two elements which it is important aspects, and the pursuit of history is com- to distinguish : a pleasurable feeling of monly inspired by an exceptional suscep tenderness showing itself in a liking for tibility to the dramatic side of human life. some particular person, and an element The connection between æsthetic and in- of sympathy or kindly sentiment. A true

AGE IN EDUCATION

atfection is a gradual attainment involv- there is, however, much preparatory work ing fixed relations of a happy kind, an to be done which will greatly facilitate accumulation of memories, and a final future progress. The child must be process of reflection. Hence it has been brought under training and taught obesaid that grateful affection for a parent or dience by being induced to rely upon the a teacher is one of the latest of attain- teacher, and so to submit to his guidments. The fact that a feeling of affec- ance. Advantage should be taken, too, tion prompts the subject of it to seek to of the great interest which is natural to please and further the happiness of the children in the objects of everyday life, Deloved object gives it a peculiar educa- especially animals. Simple descriptions tional value. It is now commonly held of the food we eat and of domestic animals that the most effectual way to influence afford infinite pleasure to the young, stimua child is to attach it by bonds of affec- late observation, furnish the mind with tion. This work, which varies in difficulty useful facts, and strengthen the memory. according to the natural disposition of the The power of imitation is strong at this child, is always much easier in the case of age, and drawing or writing may be a a parent than of a school teacher, for the source of both pleasure and profit. Readlatter, as the representative of a govern- ing and arithmetic are usually regardeil ment which is wont to appear unnatural as tasks, and only the very rudiments and excessive, is apt to arouse hostile feel should be attempted. A remarkable ings. These difficulties can only be got transformation has taken place in the inover by an habitual manifestation of kind- fants' schools of this country by the alness, consideration, and sympathy on the most universal adoption of the Kinderpart of the teacher. See SYMPATHY. garten method (q.v.) of teaching, founded

Age in Education. The connection by Froebel. Its general aim is to amuse between age and education has been the the child in such a way as to exercise its subject of much controversy, but, speaking faculties so that it may be educated withof the period up to manhood, it has been out being conscious of pressure.

The generally agreed that there are three dis- gratifying results which are obtained by tinct stages in the development of the this system prove the excellence of the mind corresponding to three clearly marked methods employed. periods in the development of the body. Childhood extends from the seventh to The three epochs extend each over seven the fourteenth year, or the attainment of years, and are strikingly distinguished by puberty, and coincides nearly with the physiological differences in the constitu- second dentition. Throughout this period tion, some of which are external and ob- the desire for more vigorous physical exervious. These periods are infancy, child- cise is manifested. The child begins to hood, and youth.

feel his strength, and gives evidence of his Infancy, which covers the first seven power and tastes by independent thought years of life, is the time of active physical and action, which point to a future career. development and of rapid growth. Its Natural propensities are now quickly close is indicated by the shedding of the developed, impressions are received and temporary teeth and the appearance of character formed. The desires and aspi. the earliest permanent teeth. Even dur-rations should be carefully observed by ing the last two or three years of this the teacher so as to approve and enstage a child is capable of little original courage what is good, or to restrain and etfort, and there are few manifestations check the evil. of mental activity beyond observation Youth embraces the period from four and memory

Instruction during this teen to twenty one years of age, during period should hold, therefore, only a se- which the development of the body is condary place, and the education should completed, and virility is attained. This be rather that of the body than that of is essentially the time of special prepara the inind. The voice of nature should tion for the battle of life. Except in the rule, and it demands considerable freedom case of the wealthy and those intending from restraint, exercise for the body, to adopt a profession, the opportunity of and for the intellect entertainment and giving undivided energy to study has ended amusement which are not too exciting. witli boyhood. The faculties of the mind In the application of this principle are now active and vigorous, the imagi

teen years

nation is quickened, and a youth should forth. Other agents extend their conenter upon the study of his favourite sub- nections to all branches. After due inject full of hope and zeal. To ensure quiry tliey place on their books the names sound

progress and to prepare for respon- of ladies and gentlemen who wish to find sibility which is near at hand, the teacher, situations as assistants in schools, or as while he still carefully guides, should pro- visiting tutors to private families, or as vide less assistance and require greater travelling tutors; who wish as principals to independent exertion and original effort engage assistants, who wish to enter into on the part of the pupil.

partnership or to receive a partner, who Legislation in reference to age and wish to sell or to purchase a school. They education varies in different countries, also recommend to parents and guardians and even in different parts of the same satisfactory schools in which to place their country. In England, school boards and children, according to the individual reschool attendance committees may com quirements, both at home and abroad. pel attendance at school under the Ele- The commission charged is very reasonmentary Education Act from five to four- able at all respectable agencies-gene

of

age. Between these limits rally 5 per cent. on engagements at home, the years of school attendance required and 10 per cent. on engagements abroad, by the bye-laws of different school boards and for partnerships and transfers 5 per and committees vary considerably. As cent. on the money (or money value) that a rule the period of attendance is shorter passes. In spite of the abuse of their in agricultural districts than in towns, position by some agents, and the delibenumbers of children in rural parishes being rate swindling of impostors describing allowed to leave school at ten years of themselves as agents, the system is unage, provided they have passed the fourth doubtedly of great assistance to both parstandard.

ties to each transaction, particularly when The School Board for London compels the agent has a good connection and is attendance from five years of age until competent to judge of the qualifications either (1) the sixth standard is passed ; or and needs of the applicants. It is strange (2) the child is thirteen years of age and that so few agents seem to have had perhas passed the fourth standard ; or (3) the sonal experience in teaching, or to be of child is fourteen years of age.

In the such academical standing as to justify reUnited States the legal school age is from liance on their judgment in the cases that five to fifteen ; in France from seven to come before them. The fact that one twelve ; in Germany from six to fourteen. London agency is personally conducted In Switzerland each canton legislates for by two graduates of high academical as itself. In Lucerne attendance at day school well as educational standing is sufficiently is compulsory from seven to fourteen years, noteworthy; it is especially creditable to followed by two years at an evening the system, and affords exceptional assurschool. In Zurich the age is from six to ance of intelligent guidance. twelve at day school, and three years at Agricola, Rodolph, b. near Groningen, An evening school.

in Friesland, in 1443. His first master is Agents - Scholastic, Medical, and said to have been Thomas a Kempis. He Clerical. — There are numernus agencies distinguished himself at school, and then in London and also in the provinces for proceeded to Louvain, where he graduated. bringing together parties whowe educa- He subsequently studied Greek under tional wants are complementary. Some Theodore Gaza at Ferrara. Here he also restrict themselves to one particular lectured on the Roman language and litebranch of educational business – for ex- rature. He returned to Holland, and was ample, there are governess agencies, professor for a short time in Groningen. which bring into communication gover. In 1482 he removed to Heidelberg, upon nesses and persons that wish to engage the invitation of the Bishop of Worms, governesses ; ‘medical agencies,' which and there he was appointed professor. He limnit themselves to the satisfaction of the studied Hebrew with great success, and needs of medical gentlemen that wish to gave lectures on ancient history; but is find situations, and medical gentlemen sudden illness put an end to his career at that wish to be provided with assistants, the early age of forty-two. Agricola's partners, or new siekls of work, and so classical attainments were of the highest

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