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and then to follow the dictates of an impartial judgment. That I might stand the more erect, and behold both opponents with equal angles, resolved I was also to move some prejudice I had conceived against some persons disaffected to our ceremonies, in regard by former subscriptions they had allowed what was since of so hard concoction to them; this I considered was argumentative only ad homines, not ad rem ; for if any did comply in order to their temporal interest, their failings must not be urged to the disadvantage of the

Personal reflections therefore set aside, I fixed my mind only upon a disquisition of the truth. All in effect that at that time had been, or since hath been, said on the complainants' behalf, was drawn up into one body by Mr. Cartwright, the magazine that stores all that party with a panoply, complete armour for these polemics : and all that Mr. Cartwright did urge was faithfully summed up by Dr. Whitgift and Mr. Hooker, who replied upon him. So that my study was reduced to a narrow scantling, viz. a perusal only of those learned authors. This I did, from point to point, with all possible diligence, and that more than once: having seriously weighed the arguments on both sides, I sincerely profess, my judgment did clearly acquiesce in this, That our liturgy and ceremonies were no way guilty of that foul charge of unlawful : and if so, I had enough whereon to establish

my obedience.

Necessity and consideration of my eternal state having brought me thus far, curiosity had a further journey : for whereas one part cried down our service and ceremonies as a popish, and the other cried them up as a primitive model, and both with equal confidence; I had a mind to bestow some labour in the research of this truth also, and to consult the very fountains themselves, I mean those precious records of the first six centuries. With Clemens Romanus, Ignatius,

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Polycarpus, apostolical men, I began; then descended to
Justin Martyr, Clemens Alexandrinus, Irenæus, Tertullian,
Cyprian, &c., so gradually downward unto the age of Gregory
the Great. Whatsoever in passage occurred to my observa-
tion, as evidence of the practice primitive, I noted, at first
confusedly, and after disposed into more serviceable order,
assigning every note its proper station as it did parallelly re-
late to any respective part of our liturgy. By the help of
these notes, able was I to discern that our liturgy in the
most, and those the most noble parts, (those of sacred extrac-
tion excepted,) was extant in the usage of the primitive
Church long before the popish mass was ever dreamt of.
Nay, more than so; able was I to discern an admirable har-
mony, even in external rites, between the Church of England
and those ancient fathers. These notes having had so potent
an influence upon myself, that, whereas I at first conformed
only as education and custom had prepossessed me, under
the conduct of that light they afforded me, I became a
true son of the Church of England, both in judgment and
affection : I inclined to think, that meeting with minds of
the same complexion with mine, that is, studious of truth,
not biassed by passion, nor addicted to any faction, they would
have the same operation. Upon this supposition I began to
fit them for the public; and I can only say I began ; for, in
my entrance upon that work, the torrent of our civil dissen.
sions, plunder, and eight years' sequestration overtake me,
as an adherent to the worsted, I say not to the worst, side.
Reduced to this condition, how to live became my only study,
these useless collections I laid to rest, where probably they
had slept their last, had not an unexpected occasion awakened
them. That occasion, this :
In July, 1656a, came forth a book entitled Extraneus

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* [Dated from Lacies Court, Abingdon, June 7, 1656.]

Vapulans, in English, 'L'Estrange is beaten,' the author Dr. Heylin, by ordination a presbyter, who of all men should be no striker, so the Apostle's canon, 1 Tim. iii. 3, and so the canon of the Apostles, πρεσβύτερον τύπτοντα πιστούς αμαρτάνοντας καθαιρείσθαι προστάττομεν», « that presbyter who smiteth believers when they offend, we decree that he be deposed.” It is not my desire, were I able, to lay this law upon him. No, that he may see that he hath wrought a reformation upon me, that I am the better for the beating, I solemnly profess all injuries he hath done me have with me had long since Christian burial, burial by the Book of Common Prayer, in that excellent form, “If any of you be in malice, come not to this holy table.” I thank God I have not the least swelling thought against him; yet I ingenuously confess, that when I first read in the preface of that book, myself (amongst other not very lovely attributes") blazoned for a non-conformist, I beheld it as a provocation most piquant and pungent to turn again, had I not seriously resolved never more to enter the lists of unchristian strife with him or any other. But though I resolved totally to acquiesce from such contests, yet did I as firmly from that very moment resolve, if God blessed me with a few days, not to suffer that great blot of ink to dry upon mine honour, and the rather because I was persuaded I could take it out, not with juice of lemon, sharp recriminations, but with milk and milder lenitives. In order to it, I presently re-assumed my long-neglected papers. Having reviewed them, my second thoughts suggested to me a design of a new model. For whereas I at first intended only a confinement of my notes to the established liturgy of our Church, my last meditations resolved

Can. 27. [Bev. Syn. p. 17.) c[“ Finding him to be stiffly principled in the puritan tenets, a semipresbyterian at the least in the form of government, a non-conformist in matter

of ceremony, and a rigid Sabbatarian in the point of doctrine, as ill-looking a fellow as he makes me, I could easily see that my known contrariety in opinion had raised this storm.”]

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to apply them to all our liturgies since the Reformation, to recommend the Common Prayer by all the arguments I could, to a more passable entertainment, and to take off all the con

siderable objections against it. In the progress of which enbyt terprize so many new speculations offered themselves to my

consideration, that I cannot but profess myself a great (I hope not the only) proficient by mine own labours; so true is that, διδάσκων τις, μανθάνει πλείον 1, “he who teacheth others, instructs himself.”

In the pursuit of these annotations, where I refer to IP antiquity, I rarely descend beneath six hundred years after

Christ, and as rarely do I cite any but authentic records, or such as, under false ascriptions, are the undoubted issues of those times : therefore the supposed liturgies of Peter, James, &c., I urge no further than I find them consonant with the genuine tracts of others. I bear no implicit faith to the dictates of any whatsoever: whence it is that I assume a liberty inoffensively to dissent from persons eminent, and whom I mention always with terms of respect. As little do I expect or desire to inthral any man to my private fancy ; in matters of so minute consideration, I hold it as absurd to quarrel with any man for not being of my opinion, as for not being of my diet. If in any thing I have erred, as it is an even-lay I have, more than once, he who shall friendly remonstrate it to me, will exceedingly oblige me. As for such keno-critics, or rather cyno-critics, as snarl and bite where no offence is given, free liberty have they to say their pleasure, όπέρ είμι τούτο μένω, και δυσφημούμενος και θαυμαζόμενος, “ whether they praise or dispraise me, to me it signifieth the same thing, that is, nothing."

Having thus presented to the world an account why I published these annotations, it will be proper to premise some

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what by way of illustration, in reference to the text itself. Know then, that whatsoever is exhibited in the English letter (where the printer hath not erred) is the established Common Prayer, distinct from its rubric, (which is in a roman character.) Parallel to this, sometimes in a roman, sometimes in an italic letter, stand the several variations between it and former liturgies, and where such literal ascriptions occur not, and no marginal directions to the contrary, you may there be confident the liturgies agree to a syllable. The liturgies I here refer to are, the first and second of Edward VI., and that of Queen Elizabeth, which doth as much differ from our present Common Prayer, as the second of Edward VI. doth from hers. Over and besides these, you have also the variations of the Scotch liturgy, and (in the margin) such places noted wherein Bucer's Latin translation disagreeth with the original English ; you have also in the Annotations the diversity observed between the Latin translation 2 Elizabeth, and her own liturgy, and at the end of all, The Order of the Communion, in priority of time before them all. By this means you are furnished with all our liturgies since the Reformation, some whereof are rare, very rare to be had, (and which doth double the rarity) these complete ; and this so frugally contrived, that the utmost price of all, with my

inconsiderable Annotations into the bargain, will scarce amount to the moiety of what I was lately demanded for one, and that imperfect too. Nor have you only the books themselves, but those also disposed into such order, that without turning over leaves, or making a tedious hunt from one to another, you may view them in one scheme, and compare them together at once, as they stand impaled.

Before I end, I desire all readers may know, what many sufficiently do, viz. that my country employment, in relation to mine own, and divers others' affairs, hath been so very

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