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law of Inhoritanco may be expected to keep both the original and tho variety mainly true as long as they last, and nono the loss so because they have given rise to occasional varictics. The taillcas Manx cats, like the curtailed fox in the fallo, liavo not induced tho nor. mal breeds to dispenso with their tails, nor havo tho Dorkings (apparently known to Pliny) affected the permanence of the common sort of fowl.
As to the objection that tho lower forms of life ought, on Darwin's thicory, to have been long ago im. proved out of existence, and replaced by higher forms, thic objectors forget what a vacuuin that would leave. below, and what a vast field there is to which a simple organization is best adaptcıl, and where an advance... would be no improvement, but the contrary. To accumulate the greatest amount of being upon n given space, and to provide as much cnjoyment of lifc as can be under tho conditions, is what Naturc sccms to aim at; and tliis is offerted by diversification,
Finally, wo advise nobody to accept Darwin's or any other derivativo thicory as true. The time has not come for that, and perhaps never will. We also ad. • visc against a simular crcdulity on the other side, in a blind faith that species--that the manifold sorts and forms of existing animals and vegetables" have no sccondary causc.” The contrary is already not unlikely, and wo supposo will hercaster Lccomo more and moro probable. But wo are confident that, if a derivative lıypotlıcsis ever is cstablished, it will be so on a solid theistic ground.
Meanwhile an incvitable and legitimate hypothesis is on triul-on hypothesis thus far not untenable-a
trial just now very useful to scionco, and, wo concludo, not harmful to religion, unloss injudicious assailants temporarily make it so.
Ono good effect is already manifest; its onabling the advocates of the hypothesis of a inultiplicity of human species to percive the doublo insecurity of their ground. When the races of men aro nilmitted to bo of one specics, the corollary, that they are of one origin, may be expected to follow. Those who allow them to bo of one spccics must admit an actual diversitication into strongly-marked and persistent varicties, and so admit the bursis of fict upon which tho Darwinian hypothesis is built; whilo thosc, on the other lane, wlio recognize several or numerous human specics, will hardly be able to maintain that such species weru pri. mordial and supernatural in the ordinary senso of tlie woril.
The English mind is. prone to positivism and kin. crc: forms of materialistic philosophy, and wo must c.spcct the derivative theory to bo taken up in that interest. Wo havo no predilection for thint Hohool, but the contrary. If we had, wo might havo lokal come placently upon a lino of criticism which would incli. rectly, but effectively, play into the hands of positivists and materialistic atheists generally. Tho wisor and stronger ground to take is, that the derivativo hypotho. sis leaves the argument for design, and thereforo for a designer, as valid as it ever was; that to do any work by an instrument must require, and thereforo presupo pose, the exertion rather of inoro than of less power than to do it directly; that whoever would lo n consistent thcist should believe that Design in the natural world is cocxtensive with Providence, and hold as firm. Jy to the ono as ho docs to the other, in spite of the wholly similar and apparcntly insupcrablo difficulties which the mind encounters whenever it endeavors to develop the idea into a system, cither in the material and organic, or in the moral world. It is enough, in tho way of obviating olejections, to show that the phil. osophical difficulties of thic onc are tho samc, and only thic samo, as of the other.
OP::07ES AS TU VARIATION, OROORAL'INICAL DISTRIBUTION,
AND SUCCKUBION. (AMENICAN JOURNAL OF BCIKNCH AND duta, Nuy, 1898.) Etude sur l'Expèce, à l'Occasion d'uno Révision do la l'amille des Cupulitörcs, par M. All'IONNT: DE Cax. DOLLI..—This is the titlo of a paper lwy M. Alpli. Do Candolle, growing out of loin mtudy of the onkn. It Wng puwindood in the November ber of the Blib. liothique Unicornelle, 100101 Heugunerately immlic 114 nn pononte polet. Alors ironpriring 100k could lovely lo manilynedd io na botunint than the Ay'nieuntio cubointion of the yenin Qucrc'118 and its allies. The vil entorinla 114 sembled under Do (undullo's lunes, whilo dinlenrt. ening for their bulk, offered small hope of novelty. The subject was both extremely trito and cxtremely difficult. Tlappily it occurred to. Dc Consullo that on interest miglit be imported to in onerons undertakings, and a work of accommity lo dulrnced 10 good account for frience, loy studying the onlin in view of the queremos of specics.
What this term spccics means, or wonlel menni, in pintuirul dintory, whint the limits of Mercion, inter no or chronologically, or in progenpilloul dintribution, their modifications, notun or probudilo, their origin, und . their destiny - theso aro questions which surgo. ap froin tino to tiino; and now and then in the progress of scienco tlicy coino to assumo a new and hopeful in. tercst. Botany and zoölogy; gcology, and what our author, fooling tho want of a new term, proposes to namo cpionlology,' all lead up to and convcrgo into thin Cling of guctions, whilo recent theories shapo and point thio dimillioll. So wo look with cager interest 10 nCo wlont light lliu study of onks by a very careful, usporioncoil, and conservativo botanint, particularly Convórnant with tho geographical relations of plants, mny throw upon tho subject.
The courso of investigation in this instanco does not differ from that ordinarily pursucd by working buliminen; nor, inlool, nru the theoretical conclusions other than thoro to which a similur Mindy of other or. clor's niglie riot invo oqually lol. Tho oaks afford a vory proud occanion for the dircussion of questions whiladi piroma ni pon our attention, and perlinpa thioy offor pucculiarly kould materials on account of the number of foxwil prerior.
Preconceived notions about species being laid asiile, tlıc picciinens in hand were distributed, accord.
"A naino whileli, at the clume of his article, De Candlelle proposes for the aluily of thor atıcır naion ng organized bringa, to compribiend, therefore, pralomonimlogy and all loowood under whint in called geographical bolany and voulogs-tho wholo forming a wodenco parallel to goology—the lak tor. dovuted to the lilmtory of unorganized bodies, the foriner, to that of organized beinga, as respects origin, distribution, and succession. Wo. uro nuk muliabled with the word, notwithstanding tho precedent of pala. ontolowo nlnco ontology, tho maternico of being, has an entablished moan. Inge au referring to unicuitul oximionco-1. o., In a nynonym or A departmone uf welmpilayalen.