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long to the climates of the North, and all embrace with transport, the hope that the result of the struggle will be the re-establishment of their liberty. The peasants of the Grand Duchy have gained by their liberty, not that they are richer, but that the proprietors are obliged to be moderate, just, and humane; because otherwise the peasants would quit their lands in order to seek better proprietors. Thus the noble loses nothing; he is only obliged to be just, and the peasant gains much. It must be an agreeable gratification for the heart of the Emperor, to witness, in crossing the Grand Duchy, the transports of joy and gratitude which the blessing of liberty, granted to four millions of men, has excited. Six regiments of infantry are just ordered to be raised by a new levy in Lithuania, and four regiments of cavalry have been offered by the nobility.

Acis relative to the Organization of Lithuania.

ORDER of the DAY.-Article I. There shall be a Provisional Government of Lithuania, composed of seven Members and a Secretary General.—II. The Commission of the Provisional Government of Lithuania shall be charged with the administration of the finances, with the care of the means of subsistence, with the organization of the troops of the country, with the formation of the national guards, and of the gensd'armie.—III. There shall be an Imperial Commissioner with the Commissioner of the Provisional Government of Lithuania. —IV. Each of the Governments of Wilna, Grodno, Minsk, and Bialistock shall be administered by a Commission of three Members, with an Intendant presiding.—V. These Administrative Commissions shall be under the orders of the Provisional Commission of the Government of Lithuania.— VI. The Administration of each District

shall be confided to a Sub-Prefect.—VII. There shall be in the city of Wilna a Mayor, four Assistants, and a Municipal Council, composed of twelve Members. This Administration shall be charged with the management of the property of the city, with the superintendence of the Charitable Establishments, and with the Municipal Police.—VIII. A national guard, consisting of two battalions, shall be formed at Wilna. Each battalion shall have six companies. This national guard shall be organized in the following manner:—ETATMAJoR. One Commandant, two Chiefs a Battalion, two Adjutant-Majors, one Quarter-Master, two Adjutant Sub-Officers, one Drum-Major, three Master Artificers, one Surgeon-Major, one Assistant Surgeon, eight Musicians (22).-Companies. One Captain, one Lieutenant, one Sub-Lieutenant, one Sergeant-Major, four Sergeants, one Corporal Quarter-master, four Corporals, two Drummers, and 100 soldiers, making, in each Company, 119. The strength of the two battalions 1450.-IX. There shall be in each of the Governments of Wilna, Grodno, Minsk, and Bialistock, a corps of gendarmerie, commanded by a Colonel, having under his orders, those of the Governments of Wilna and Minsk, two Chiefs of squadrons; those of the Governments of Grodno and Bialistock, one Chief of a squadron. There shall be a company of gendarmerie in each district. Each Company shall be composed of one Captain Commandant, one Second Captain, one First Lieutenant, two Second Lieutenants, one principal Quarter-master, four Quartermasters, sixteen Brigadiers, eighty volunteer gens d'armes, and one trumpeter, tota

107.-X. The Colonel of gendarmerie shall reside at the chief seat of the Government. The residence of the officers, and the stationing of the brigades, shall be determined by the Provisional Commission of the Government of Lithuania.-XI. The officers, sub-officers, and volunteers of the gendarmerie shall be taken from the gentlemen proprietors of the district: no one can be exempted. They shall be appointed, viz. the officers by the Provisional Commission of the Government of Lithuania: the sub-officers and volunteers by the Administrative Commission of the Governments of Wilna, Grodno, Minsk, and Bialistock. —XII. The Polish uniform shall be that of the gendarmerie.—XIII. The gendarmerie shall perform the service of the police; it shall support the public authority; and shall arrest traitors, marauders,

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Head-quarters, Baygodo, July 6.

Soldiers'—In communicating to you the Proclamation of his Majesty the Emperor of the French, I am convinced of the sentiments with which you will reply to his appeal, and that you will readily perceive that a new field is opening to you, in which you will cover yourselves with glory. Already in two wars you have had an opportunity of recognizing the restorer of your country, and of laying the foundation of the glory of the Polish army. I have no doubt that, forming as you do in the present war, in the grand army, a corps, which this powerful Protector has himself denominated the Army of Poland, and which is to decide the fate of many millions of Poles, your countrymen, you will then prove yourselves worthy of the French, in conjunction with whom we fight, as well as of those projectors which have, during so long a period, formed the object of our wishes, and which now begin to be put in execution for us. We ought, then, to redouble our efforts. Let no fatigues, no privations, enfeeble the warlike spirit which we have inherited. We shall once more prove to the whole world that the sacred name of country renders its real children invincible.

Posen, july 11.—Different corps of troops are continually passing through our city on their way to the Grand Army. Yesterday the Saxon regiment of “low” infantry arrived here; one part of it was quartered in the city, and the rest in the villages in the environs. Within the last three months, from the 1st of April to the

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Citizens—For the space of twenty years a foreign Government has communicated its orders to us in language with which we are unacquainted. Listen now to the voice of your brothers; listen to the voice of Poles addressing you in the Polish language. Return thanks to Providence, which evidently manifests its beneficent designs towards you, through Napoleon the Great. His coming, like that of the Sun, before which the ice dissolves, has dissipated every obstacle, and his benign accents, while they awake the joy of hope in our bosoms, fill us with sentiments of the most ardent gratitude.—By the Order of the Day of the 4th of July, by which a Provisional Government has been constituted, we are enabled to call upon you to partake our sentiments. Can there be any more reasonable ground for exultation than the hope of seeing our country once more take her rank amongst the nations?—You shall be witnesses of our solicitude to assuage your evils, and lessen, as much as possible, the calamities of war. The sacrifices we shall call on you to make will be but slight, when put in comparison with the benefits we shall procure you. Having promised thus much, we declare that we have been installed as a Provisional Government, and we invite all our fellowcitizens to enter upon the necessary relations with us.

Signed by the Members of the Commission.

The Provisional Commissioners of the Government of the Duchy of Lithuania to the Clergy of the Diocese of Wilna. The principles of the religion of the Li

thuanian people are well known. They

have been well inculcated by a wise and enlightened clergy. — The Provisional Government cannot better announce to the people the benignity of the Great Napoleon, who has been led by Providence into Lithuania, nor choose a better channel to make them acquainted with the amelioration of their lot, than by confiding this great interest to the Clergy.—We therefore order the people to assemble for the purpose of returning thanks to God, who has been graciously pleased to send us this saviour of Poland, and to pray that he will further the successes of his arms.-The Clergy will afterwards endeavour to cherish proper sentiments in the people, so that, supported by their religion, they may continue with their agricultural labours.--The peasantry must not be remiss in the performance of their duty. Their safety and happiness depend thereon.—They may discover in the abundant harvest before them, the evident assistance afforded by Providence to Napoleon the Great.—Let them peaceably gather in their crops, as in ordinary times. Circumstances even require an increase of zeal, and it cannot be doubted, that with the feelings by which they appear to be now actuated, but that they will be eager to shew the utmost.—Done the 7th July, 1812. SiGNED BY THE Com Mission ERs.

July 15.—We still enjoy the presence of His Majesty, who rides out every day, attended by a very few persons.—The day before yesterday His Majesty gave audience to the Polish Deputies, the Senators Warvedon, Wibiski, Wladislaus, Count Jarousky, &c. They have been commissioned by the General Confederation of Poland to bear their homage to His Majesty. They were presented by His Excellency the Duke of Bassano, Minister of Foreign Affairs. The President of the Deputation, the Senator Warvedon Wybiski was spokesman. —The answer of His Majesty was couched in the most gracious terms.--The same day, the 11th, some inhabitants of the • Duchy of Samogitia, M. M. Bilwuz, Bralosewo, Jellemshy, and other Officers, having at their head, the old Marshal of the Court of Zietgus, had the honour of being admitted to His Majesty's presence, they assured him how much the Samogitians wish to partake in the honour enjoyed by their brethren at Wilna.—His Majesty conversed with them on all matters, relating to the interests of their country.Our city was never so brilliant as it has been for the last 15 days. The greatest of

Sovereigns is resident within its walls, within which also are assembled the principal citizens of our country. A youthful and impetuous race have arranged themselves under the Polish Eagles; it is here proper to mention the names of those zealous children of Lithuania who were the first to take arms and equip themselves at their own expense. In the guard of honour we find Prince Oginski, its chief; Count Plater, M. M. Pilgudski, Briot Bemco, Romer, Chlewiski—(here follows several other Polish names).-In the Lithuanian Guard, commanded by Brigadier Konophill, we find M. M. Magelonki, Narbut, and Michalowisk, completely equipped. A great number of young persons are busily employed equipping themselves. We have no doubt but that the Lithuanians will seek the opportunities to distinguish themselves as the gallant fellows of the regiment, commanded by Count Knadinski, did at Som, Sierra, and Benevente.-The Bishop of Korakowski has had the honour of being twice brought to Court to say mass in the Imperial Chapel. He received a diamond ring as a present. The Priests who accompanied him had also presents.— The grand national festival was celebrated here yesterday with universal enthusiasm. —At eleven o'clock all the Clergy were assembled in the porticos of the Church, to receive the Constituted Authorities.—At noon a numerous procession, consisting of the Members of the Provisional Commission, the Deputies of the Grand Confederation, the Commission of Administration, the Members of the Tribunals, the SubPresect, the Mayor, the Municipality, the Guard of Honour, the Officers of the Gendarmerie of the City, finally, of all the Public Functionaries, arrived at the Cathedral, where they were introduced by the Clergy.—Bishop Korakowski officiated; when Te Deum was sung, the President of the Provisional Commission delivered a very eloquent discourse, and published the ` Act of Confederation of Poland. When the reading of the Act was over, cries of “Long live the Emperor Napoleon the Great,” a thousand times repeated, filled the spacious arches of the church.-Salvum fac imperatorem Napoleonem,--was then sung; after this ceremony all the authorities proceeded to the residence of His Excellency the Duke of Bassano, to present to him the Act of Confederation, and beg that he would submit it to His Majesty.— It was announced the same day that the (To be continued./

As illustrated in the Prosecution and Punishment of


sy 351] In order that my countrymen and that the world may not be deceived, duped, and cheated upon this subject, I, WILLIAM COBBETT, of Botley, in Hampshire, put mpbn record the following facts; to wit: That, on the 24th June, 1809, the following article was, published in a London news-paper, called the Courter:—“The Mutiny amongst the LO“CAL MILITIA, which broke out at Ely, was “fortunately suppressed on Yo: y the “ arrival of four squadrons of the GERMAN “LEGION CAVALRY from Hury, under the “command of General Auckland. fiv. of the “ringleaders were tried by a Court-Martial, and “sentenced to receive 500 lashes each, part of which “punishment they received on Wednesday, and “a part was remitted. A stoppage for their knap“sacks was the ground of the complaint that ex“cited this mutinous spirit, which occasioned “the men to surround their officers, and demand “what they deemed their arrears. The first “division of the German Legion halted yesterday “at Newmarket on their return to Bury.” That, on the 1st July, 1809, 'I published, in the Political Register, an article censuring, in the strongest terms, these proceedings; that, for so doing, the Attorney General prosecuted, as seditions libellers, and by Ex-Officio Information, me, and also my printer, my publisher, and one of the principal retailers of the Political Register; that I was brought to trial on the 15th June, 1810, and was, by a Special Jury, that is to say, by 12 men out of 48 appointed by the Master of the Crown Office, found guilty; that, on the 20th of the same month, I was compelled to give bail for my appearance to receive judgment; and that, as I came up from Botley (to which place I had returned to my family and my farm on the evening of the 15th), a Tipstaff went down from London in order to seize me, personally ; that, on the 9th of July, 1810, I, together with my printer, publisher, and the newsman, were brought into the Court of King's Bench to receive judgment; that the three former were sentenced to be imprisoned for some months in the King's Bench prison; that I was sentenced to be imprisoned for two years in Newgate, the great receptacle for malefactors, and the front of which is the scene of numerous hangings in the course of every year; that the part of the prison in which I was sentenced to be confined is sometimes inhabited by felons, that felons were actually in it at the time I entered it; that one man was taken out of it to be transported in about 48 hours after I was put into the same yard with him; and that it is the place of confinement for men guilty of unnatural crimes, of whom there are four in it at this time; that, besides this imprisonment, I was sentenced to pay a thousand pounds TO THE KING, and to give security for my good behaviour for seven years, myself in the sum of 3,000 pounds, and

[352 two sureties in the sum of 1,000 pounds each; that the whole of this sentence has been executed upon me, that I have been imprisoned the two years, have paid the thousand pounds TO THE KING, and have given the bail, Timothy Brown and Peter Walker, Esqrs. being my sureties; that the Attorney General was Sir Vicary Gibbs, the Judge who sat at the trial Lord Ellenborough, the four Judges who sat at passing sentence Ellenborough, Grose, Le Blanc, and Bailey; and that the jurors were, Thomas Rhodes of Hampstead Road, John Davis of Southampton Place, James Ellis of Tottenham Court Road, John Richards of Bayswater, Thomas Marsham of Baker Street, Robert Heathcote of High Street Marylebone, John Maud of York Place Marylebone, George Bagster of Church Terrace_Pancras, Thomas Taylor of Red Lion Square, David Deane of St. John Street, William Palmer of Upper Street Islington, Henry Favre of Pall Mall; that the Prime Ministers during the time were Spencer Perceval, until he was shot by John Bellingham, and after that Robert B. Jenkinson, Earl of Liverpool; that the prosecution and sentence took place in the reign of King George the Third, and that, he having become insane during my imprisonment, the 1,000 pounds was paid to his son, the Prince Regent, in his behalf; that, during my imprisonment, I wrote and published 364 Essays and Letters upon political subjects; that, during the same time, I was visited by persons from 197 cities and towns, many of them as a sort of deputies from Societies or Clubs; that, at the expiration of my imprisonment, on the 9th of July, 1812, a great dinner was given in London for the purpose of receiving me, at which dinuer upwards of 600 persons were present, and at which Sir Francis Burdett presided; that dinners and other parties were held on the same occasion in many other places in England; that, on my way home, I was received at Alton, the first town in Hampshire, with the ringing of the Church bells; that a respectable company met me and gave me a dinner at Winchester; that I was drawn from more than the distance of a mile into Botley by the people; that, upon my arrival in the village, I found all the j." assembled to receive me; that I concluded the day by explaining to them the cause of my imprisonment, and by giving them clear notions respecting the flogging of the Local Militia-men at Ely, and respecting the employment of German Troops; and, finally, which is more than a compensation for my losses and all my sufferings, I am in perfect health and strength, and, though I must, for the sake of six children, feel the diminution that has been made in my property (thinking it right in me to decline the offer of a subscription), I have the consolation to see growing up three sons, upon whose hearts, I trust, all these facts will be engraven.


Botley, July 23, 1812.

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“If I were asked what ought to be done to prevent war with America, I should say: first repeal “ the Orders in Council; but, I am far from supposing, that that measure alone wond be suffi“cient. Indeed, it seems to me, that the impressment of American seamen must be abandoned." —Pol. Register, Vol. XXI. page 200. Feb. 15, 1812.

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Letter VIII. Sir, - ' ' ', - - - During the time that I was imprisoned for two years in Newgate for writing about the flogging of the Local Militia, in the town of Ely, and about the employment of German Troops upon that occasion, I addressed to your Royal Highness several Letters, the object of which was to prevent this country from being plunged into war with America. I took great pleasure in offering to you advice, which I thought would be beneficial to my country; and, of course, I have experienced great sorrow at seeing that that advice has not been followed, and that, in consequence of its rejection, we are now actually in a state of war with our brethren across the Atlantic. Those corrupters and blinders of the people, the hired writers, do yet attempt to make their readers believe, that we are not at war with the Republic of America. They it is, who have hastened, if not actually produced this war; for, they it was, who reviled the American President, and who caused it to be believed here, that he and the Congress dared not go to war. What pains, alas ! have I taken to convince your Royal Highness of the folly and falsehood of these opinions ! Though my mind was busied with the means of raising the thousand pounds fine to pay TO THE KING (and which you have received from me in his behalf), I let slip no occasion to caution you against o these representations. I told you (and you might as well have believed me), that the American eople were something; that they had a say in the measures of government; that they would not suffer themselves to be plunged into war for the gain of a set of lazy and rapacious fellows; but that, if their country's good demanded it, they would go to

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war; and that such war would, in all probability, be very calamitous to England. While I was telling you this, your late minister, Perceval, was laughing at the idea of America going to war; and his opinion was upheld by all the venal scribes in the kingdom; that is to say, by nineteen twentieths, perhaps, of all those who write in news-papers, and other political works. That we really are at war with America, however, the following document clearly proves. The American Congress declared war in due form; they passed an Act making war against your Royal Sire and his people; their government issued Letters of Marque and Reprisals; but, still our hirelings said that there was no war. The following proclamation, however, issued by an American General from his head-quarters in Canada, which province he has invaded, puts the fact of war beyond all doubt.

“By William Hull, Brigadier-General and * Commander in Chief of the North West“ern Army of the United States.


“Inhabitants of Canada!—After thirty “years of peace and prosperity, the United “States have been driven to arms. The “ injuries and aggressions, the insults and “indignities of Great Britain, have once “more left them no alternative but manly “resistance or unconditional submission.— “The army under my command has invad“ed your country, and the standard of “ Union now waves over the territory of “Canada. To the peaceable, unoffending “inhabitants, it brings neither danger nor “difficulty. I come to find enemies, not “to make them. I come to protect, not to “ injure them. Separated by an im“mense ocean and an extensive wilderness “from Great Britain, you have no partici“ pation in her councils, no interests in her “conduct; you have felt her tyranny, you “ have seen her injustice; but I do not ask “you to avenge the one or redress the


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