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his books have not reached there is an unfortunate blankness and vagueness in their ideas of the “Early Persecutions."

Dr. Steere's little book will do something, we hope a good deal, towards remedying this evil, and bringing the minds of English churchpeople into real, vivid contact with the old struggles between the Sunclad Woman and the Dragon. It is a book of unpretending character, simple and homely in its style, and better adapted for the purpose we refer to than a book of more scholarly aspect would be. In fact, there are a few inaccuracies which might as well have been corrected, a few omissions which might as well have been supplied. For instance, it is a pity that “Elia" should be written “Helia,” and that the day of S. Polycarp's death should be called the 23rd of February, whereas we are expressly told in the Epistle of the Smyrnæans that it was on Holy Saturday, “the great Sabbath,” the 26th of April. And the reader would have been benefited by a succinct view of the legal ground which the various imperial persecutors took, and by a more prominent exhibition of the memorable edict of Gallienus, which for the first time made Christianity a Religio Licita. Dr. Steere gives the story of the Theban Legion as a fact, but says next to nothing of S. Alban or S. Agnes, and ignores the glorious boy-martyr S. Pancras, while mentioning the child S. Cyr. He gives none of the beautiful traditions respecting the Princeps Apostolorum, and has "nothing to add to the account given" in the Acts respecting S. James the Greater, forgetting the touching story quoted by Eusebius from Clement of Alexandria, about his forgiveness granted to the man who caused his death. But he does give us some narratives which ordinary ecclesiastical histories too often pass over, as to the martyrdoms of S. Fructuosus, S. Saturninus and his companions, the Forty Martyrs, S. Felicitas and her children, and that awful story of the fall of the unforgiving Sapritius, which Dean Trench and Dr. Pusey have brought home to many hearts.

In recommending this little work, we cordially agree with the author's wish to see “a carefully prepared edition, with an English translation, and a few judicious notes, of all the really authentic Acts of the Early Martyrs." A good compilation from Ruinart would indeed be a blessing to the Church.

Bernard Leslie. Second Part. By the Rev. W. GRESLEY, M.A.

London : Masters. A CALM, sober, and withal most reverent discussion of the religious questions of the day, from the hand of one who has proved himself alike in good report and evil report a faithful Priest and loyal servant of the Church, cannot fail to be read with deep interest by all. And this, the second part of “ Bernard Leslie,” will have an additional value to those who remember the times, fifteen years ago, when the original volume appeared, for we find the same opinions which were then expressed reiterated now, when they have been matured and confirmed by the test of practical experience. We are convinced that this work will be extremely useful in many ways, but especially in clearing us from the charge of enthusiasm and unreality, so often brought against those who desire to be faithful members of the Church.

All those points, whether doctrinal or practical, which have served of late years to feed the flame of controversy, are here weighed by the author in the equable balance of his own mind, and stated in all their bearings with a quiet good sense which can hardly fail to carry conviction. The first few chapters are devoted to a summary of the progress of the Church, mainly in matters of ritual and the restoration of holy worship. Then he passes to the vexed question of Confession, which he treats in so exceedingly sober and unpoetical a manner, as to remove anything like romance or mystery from the “ dark chamber” of Protestant imaginations. Thence to Sisterhoods, in which he has some most admirable remarks on the fallacy of supposing that a mission from the Bishop is in any respect necessary for their institution, and the evils likely to result in the Homes themselves if this idea were to gain ground. In some matters of internal discipline in Sisterhoods, we do not, however, entirely agree with him : though in the general we earnestly hope his views may be widely spread.

The concluding portion of the volume is almost entirely filled with a “ Vision of the Future," a vision, that is, of the restored unity of the Church, in which Mr. Gresley rises to an eloquence and fervour that are very inspiriting. Assuredly it will not be the fault of that gentle and true-hearted man if the realization of such a glorious vision is not substantially promoted.

Mr. Flower has kindly occupied himself for the amusement of little children, by the translation from the German of Tales for Leisure Hours. They are best characterized as “pretty stories,” with an obvious moral, but without any special religious teaching to render them noticeable: and such tales are needed.

We are much pleased to see in the Legend of S. Christopher an at. tempt to draw from one of those beautiful old traditions the Divine meaning which underlies them all. There is a very treasury of heavenly teaching in these saintly legends which only requires to be brought out by a hand as skilful as that of the present writer.

Mr. Parker continues his useful Series of Historical Tales, and the last number, The Black Danes, in no respect falls behind its predecessors in interest and vigour. We cannot but think, however, that this praiseworthy undertaking would have been more entirely successful had he engaged the services of a greater variety of authors.

The Forgiveness of Sins, (G. J. Palmer) is a Tract that will be useful. It deals with a question that has perplexed some—the transition, viz. from Public to Private Confession. The former, in fact, we imagine, always implied the existence of the latter, and was itself merely the execution of the Penance, first imposed by the priest in private. The Tract, we are glad to see, is much better printed than its predecessors.

Mr. Rowsell's Three Sermons, The Universities and the Poor, (Macmillan and Co.) must, we feel sure, have touched the heart of many, a Cambridge Undergraduate, and are deserving of a wide, general circulation. It is seldom that one meets with so much zeal combined with so much sobriety. In dwelling, as no one is better able, from personal experience, on the lamentable condition of our poor, Mr. Rowsell does not omit to say, that other classes also need their special appeals; and while he exhorts the Universities to assist in remedying present evils, he is content not to advocate the introduction of any new machinery.

Mr. Masters has availed himself of the steady demand which continues to be made for The Divine Master, and has published a cheap shilling edition, (the fifth,) which we are sure will be accepted as a great boon by many of our readers.

CORRESPONDENCE.

Dundee, Dec. 5, 1859. DEAR MR. EDITOR,

I thank you much for the kind and friendly spirit in which you have reviewed my pastoral. I cannot however allow that review to pass without reclaiming against some of its contents.

First of all, I must declare that I have no regard to the praise for my work here. I could have done nothing without the able assistance of my coadjutors, and if some work has been done, much more has been left undone. It is quite a question whether even here our efforts have kept pace with the population.

Next, I cannot allow the remark to pass that Dundee with Perth and Cumbrae are the only bright spots in the Scottish Church. I believe that all over the Church there is a steady increase, and that so soon as peace is restored the effects of the work will be seen. Even now I could mention many places, e.g., Leith, Hawick, S. John's, Edinburgh, Tillymorgan, New Pitsligo, and many others, where a visible inroad is being made on the irreligion around theni.

Lastly, I must express my regret at what you have said about the Bishop of S. Andrew's. I very much deplore the line he has taken, but this does not blind me to the many high qualities and gifts he possesses. I cannot fail to bear in mind his munificent offerings to Trinity College, (offerings which cast into the shade those of every other individual in Scotland, except the Duke of Buccleugh and Mr. Boyle,) nor can I withhold from him my tribute of admiration for the Christian heroism which he exhibited on the occasion of the administration of that college passing into other hands.1 It is one of the evils of controversy that we become inclined to undervalue the good in those to whom for the moment we are opposed, but with whom one day we hope to be in perfect agreement in the sight of God.

Believe me your obedient servant,

A. P. FORBES, D.C.L.,

Bishop of Brechin. [We had thought that a subscription had been made by Bishop Wordsworth's friends to reimburse him these sums when he gave up the College. -Ed.]

THEOLOGY OF THE KIRK OF SCOTLAND.

1. The Ancient Church ; its History, Doctrine, Worship, and Con

stitution, traced for the first three hundred years. By W. D.

KILLEN, D.D. London: Nisbet. 1859. 2. Zion's King : the Scriptural View of the Lord Jesus Christ as

Head over all things to the Church." By the Rev. W. BRANKS, Minister of Torphichen. Edinburgh: Nimmo. London: Hamilton and Adams.

"It is singular how the whole outside world is fretted and worried with the family affairs of the Episcopal Church. The General Assembly of the Presbyterians may dispute, divide, go into secular courts, fly into a hundred sects and schisms, and the Episcopalian not even know it. Baptists may hatch their brood of fifteen different communions, and the Episcopalian will be still as calm and serene as a sunny day in June. All Germany may become infidel, or Scotland Arminian, or Ireland Arian, or Geneva Socinian, so far as regards the Presbyterian population; and the Episcopalian will scarcely chronicle the fact. Fifty thousand sectaries may follow Joe Smith into the wilderness, or thousands of Presbyterian Protestants in Europe, terrified at the results of their experiment, may revert to Popery, and Episcopalians not notice it. But let there be an apostate to Popery from the ancient Church of God, east or west, north or south, in England or America, and all the sects are thrown into dismay, and the curtains of the land do tremble. Newspapers, magazines, mobs, platforms, parliaments echo the wild dismay. Is not this the leaven heaving the bosom of nations ? Is not this the Bride, startling the earth by the slightest imputation on her fair fame? Is not this the Church of God—the city that cannot be hid ?

Thus writes an American, who, having been brought up in the bosom of Dissent, found no rest for the sole of his foot amid that wild waste of rolling and surging confusion of conflicting doctrines and endless divisions, until he entered the ark of the Episcopal Church of America. The fact of the ignorance of English Churchmen respecting the Presbyterian Kirks in Scotland is certainly remarkable. Here are the inhabitants of one part of our island, speaking the same language, (we are not speaking of the Highlands,) constantly visited by them, in which multitudes of English live, possessing a common commerce, receiving the same Bible, but of whose religious peculiarities they are completely ignorant; and,

From a “ Presbyterian Clergyman looking for the Church :” an abridged edi. tion published by Lendrum, Edinburgh, 1857 : p. 191. Vol. XXII.- FEBRUARY, 1860.

H

as if to make this fact more remarkable still, there is a body in that land, small in numbers compared with the three great communities, the Established, the Free, and the United Presbyterian Kirks, whose doings are well known in England, and in whose prosperity all are interested—the Episcopal Church of Scotland. Truly, as the writer above quoted says, “This is the Church of God—the city that cannot be hid.” Had this body preserved its high position, had it been careful to manifest its Divine privileges, had it put forth its strength, it might have gathered into its bosom thousands of those whose minds were disturbed by the confusion and endless disputes and divisions of the various Presbyterian bodies that surrounded her. The success that attended the efforts in late years shows what might have been done: the immense increase of churches, the establishment of flourishing schools, the college of Glenalmond, the cathedral at Perth,--all speak with one voice to tell of a people prepared to receive the truth when offered to them. But now all is being marred and spoiled by internal dissension ; money, powers, zeal, are all wasted in pulling down what they ought to have been building up. Worse than all, the heads are trying to drive out of her the very men who have done most for her benefit.

It is not, however, the Scottish Church that we intend to speak of now, but of one of those bodies of which we believe our readers generally are profoundly ignorant—the Established Kirk. There is certainly great excuse for those living in England to be ignorant of Scottish Presbyterianism, because excepting the disruptionthere is nothing to make it known. Her ministers write no theological books,--her university professors are unknown in the literary world, (of course we except her one man, Dr. Chalmers) : while Protestant Germany sends forth to us continually contributions to the critical exegesis of the Scriptures, Scotland sends nothing; when Protestant America gives original ideas, Scotland is content with the merest commonplace. It is not that Scottish religious life is asleep, for no one can stay long in that country without finding it very active indeed; it is deep thought and real learning that seem to be wanting.1

there is mothes, Sher univeret except her

i When Messrs. Clark brought out a translation of“ Bengel's Gnomon,” they sent to England for translators and editors; and certainly very properly, for Scotchmen make strange blunders. In one of Messrs. Clark's series, Ullman's “ Reformers before the Reformation, translated and edited by the Rev. Robert Menzies, Edinburgh, we have a series of blunders that damage materially the credit of the whole work. In one place (p. 18) the editor appends a note trying to explain the use of the plural word schools (scholis) when applied to a university, utterly ignorant of what the university schools were in the middle ages, or what they are now at Oxford. He talks of " nominal opinions,” (p. 231, meaning the opinions of the nominalists. We have repeatedly “Gregory of Nazianzen." S. Augustine is classed among the schoolmen (II. 240). We are told of the heretic Manichæus," p. 62. The orders of the ministry are a sad puzzle to Mr. Menzies; he cannot make them out at all. In one place, a note of his own, he tells us that “ Luther holds that a chap

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