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father, villă, sofă, heart, hearth, guard, clerk, sergeant, daunt, haunt, gauntlet, jaundice, almond, path, bath, lath, half, palm, balm, psalm, aunt.
34. a as in blast, mast, fast, staff, vast, castle, basket, master, command, demand, crafty, plant, grant, fantastic.
35. a as in care, snare, share, there, pear, wear, affair, heir, heiress, bare, dare, ne'er, fair, spare, soe'er, bear.
36. a as in hat, bad, mat, gas, can, sand, back, cannon, fancy, shall, marry, plaid, raillery, bade, have, charity, paradise, abandon, inhabit.
37. e as in met, dell, debt, bread, engine, elegant, benefit, melody, tepid, said, says, saith, friend, leopard, special, preface, wainscot, breakfast, heifer, again, against.
38. i as in sir, fir (not fur), myrtle, birth, mirth, virtue, girl, irksome, prefer, mercy, servant, term, pert, earl, pearl, merchant, early, learning.
39. at as in fate, fame, blame, ague, range, gauge, chasten, gaol, break, vain, cambric, Asia, nature, ancient, chamber, neighbour, aorist, placable, dictator, occasion, obeisance.
40. as in pin, sin, din, ring, lyric, city, servile, agile, captain, mountain, forfeit, pretty, busy, business, clef, sieve, cygnet, spirit, lyric, dynasty, tyranny.
41. e as in me, she, cedar, deity, scheme, scene, pique, imagine, direct, divide, simile, key, quay, fiend, chief, grieve, treaty, Caesar, demesne, impregn, critique, breviary.
42. o as in nor, form, short, bond, lodge, cloth, tonic, novel, prologue, cough, knowledge, balk, salt, ought, nought, water, augur, nauseate, important, jocund, monologue, quality, quantity.
43. u as in just, must, trust, brother, dumb, among, dove dost, does, sermon, acre, theatre, precious, chough, fulsome combat, cover, hover, colour, journey.
44. o as in home, dome, glory, vocal, more, gore, only, both loaf, explode, historian, poet, folk, foe, dough, glow, soldier, yeoman, bureau.
* The eleventh sound must be carefully distinguished from this.
45. oo as in prove, move, lose, druid, ruin, brew, true, canoe, group, through, route, rue, bruise, tomb, ooze, behove, galleon, Famboge, pull, bull, would, could, pulpit, butcher, cushion,
EXERCISES ON DIPHTHONGS.
46. a-e as in sail, bail, gain, hail, pain, rail, wait, waive, campaign, obey, survey, vein, veil, deign, stray.
47. u-e approaching to a-e, as in smile, mild, child, fly, height, climb, pint, signify, eye, Bible, time, type, isle, viscount, defy, crier, die, buy, oblige, satiety.
48. e-ooyoo as in tube, tune, duty, curate, cubic, confusion, dupe, duke, lure, education, music, feud, Tuesday, pursuit, lute, lucid.
49. a-oo as in pound, loud, proud, brown, vow, endow, down, noun, town, doubt, devout, plough, slough, trout, ground, shout, vowel, dowry, astound, renown.
50. o-e as in boil, toil, joy, toy, employ, spoil, voice, ointment, decoy, destroy, noise, poise, broil, appoint, avoid, alloy, aroynt.
51. In the following words a slight diphthongal sound, approaching to y, is introduced:
Card, regard, sky, garden, guardian, kind, guile, guide, beguile, guise, guest.
EXERCISES ON TRIPHTHONGS.
52. a-oo-u as in our, power, flower, shower, giaour, devour, hour, scour.
53. oo-o-e as in buoy, buoyance, &c.
54. Articulation is the correct formation, by the organs of speech, of certain approaches or contacts which add to vocality literal and verbal utterance. In all branches of oral delivery, distinct articulation depends on the clear enunciation of certain elements called, generally, consonants. The articulative elements may be uttered either separately, or connectively as in words. In the English language there are four modes of organic contact or approach, and by these are produced all the varieties of articulations. In the following exercises these articulations are divided into two classes: first, those which are produced with breath alone, without voice, named BREATH
* See note (+) page 23.
CONSONANTS; and secondly, those in which voice is superadded, named VOICE-CONSONANTS.
55. In practising these it must be remembered that consonants have, in general, no sound of themselves, but that they depend for audibility on the cessation of contact leaving the passage free for the emission of a vowel or of the breath. Distinctness and sharpness of utterance, with lightness and rapidity of action, are requisite for their easy and effective pronunciation.-Sections 18, 57.
56. It will be observed that many of the breath and voice consonants correspond in formation, and that several of the voice-articulations may be either oral or nasal.
labial (like B) and nasal,
4, 5 F.. V dento-labial,
8, 9 T
N lingua-palatal (like D) & nasal,
11, 12 S.. Z lingua-palatal (sibilant),
R lingua-palatal (vibratory),
15, 16 Sh. .Zh lingua-palatal (semi-sibilant),
Ng guttural (like G) and nasal,
57. Distinct and graceful utterance requires that the various groups of articulations which form words should be preceded by a FREE, DOWNWARD ACTION OF THE LOWER JAW. The organic approach or contact necessary for articulation must be made as rapidly and lightly as possible (sec. 55); and, after any utterance, the parts in approach or contact should be quickly, yet easily separated, to allow free repetition of action.
58. The voice-consonants must be carefully and audibly distinguished from the breath-consonants. The breath, in articulations, must be forcibly ejected, but only from the pharynx and mouth (the closure of the glottal valve preventing any undue loss of breathsecs. 6, 18) on those articulations which depend for audibility on the termination of organic contact. The terminating sounds of words should be distinctly separated from the initial formations of following words.
The corresponding formations of all the breath, voice, and nasal consonants should be practised as initial and final elements of words, thus:-pa-ba-ma; pe-be-me; pi-bi-mi; ap-ab-am; ep-eb-em; and so with all the vowels and consonants. It is thought unnecessary to insert a list of the various faults of articulation, as the exact formation of every sound is given.
TABLE OF ARTICULATE FORMATIONS,* WITH EXERCISES.
LABIALS AND DENTO-LABIALS.
59. P is a breath-consonant, formed by the meeting of the lips and consequent STOPPAGE of the current of air from the lungs. This formation depends for audibility on the abrupt separation of the lips and explosion of the breath.
Peer, pin, pool, pound, nip, happy,† rapid, tropic, pope, monophthong, diphthong, triphthong, naphtha, shepherd, ophthalmic, span, spoil, scalp, help, carp, damp, pipe, populous, рарасу.
60. B is the voice-consonant of the previous formation. It adds to it the initial part of a vocal sound, ‡ directed into the pharynx, which, distended with the vocalized breath, contracts by its own elasticity, and at the same time the lips abruptly separate; thus giving explosive emission to the sound.
Bought, beast, beg, inhabit, bound, stab, ebb, subtile, babbler, glebe, cupboard, bulb, superb, verb, proverb, tube, barb, baboon, barbarous, barbican.
61. M is a voice-consonant, formed by the meeting of the lips closing the passage of the mouth: the incipient vowel sound is directed, with a head-murmur, § into the pharynx, and, the velum at the same time opening the nasal passages, the vocalized breath is directed through the nostrils.
May, man, morn, move, mound, charm, mammon, moment, blame, hymn, solemn, phlegm, drachm, chasm, realm, film, farm, worm.
62. Fis a breath-consonant, formed by slightly pressing the lower lip on the upper teeth, and directing the breath through the interstices.
Fame, feud, fanciful, proffer, crafty, chafe, life, enough, chough, rough, cough, trough, laughter, draught, phial, phlegm, phrase, seraph, nymph, shelf, wolf, turf, dwarf, sphinx, febrifuge.
63. V is the voice-consonant of the previous formation. The initial part of a vowel sound is prefixed, and the vocalized air directed, with a guttural§ murmur, into the pharynx, whence it flows into the mouth in a manner similar to f.
Vane, veer, vine, vivid, vote, pave, weave, halve, livid, sever votive, move, prove, nephew, lieutenant, twelve, revolve, nerve,
The actual sounds of the consonants are here meant, not the alphabetic
When, in syllabic combinations, consonants are doubled, one of the constituents (usually the first in whisper, and the second in voice) is omitted, as in happy, manner, otter, adding, sluggard, &c.
The vowel-sound heard before any articulation, has no place in our alphabet. The author supposes this natural vowel to be a sound of u, between that in the French word feu and the English word fur.
§ There are two kinds of murmur observable in the voice-consonants: the one is called guttural, being confined to the throat; the other head, because, by the opening of the nasal passages, it ascends into the cavities of the skull.
serve, Stephen, of (but in the compounds, whereof, &c., they is not changed into v).
LINGUALS AND LINGUA-PALATALS.
64. Th (as in think) is a breath-consonant, formed by placing the tip of the tongue on and behind the upper incisor teeth.* The breath is then directed through the lateral openings between the tongue and the upper teeth.
Thank, thaw, theatre, thought, bath, path, lath, oath, mouth, tooth, faith, breath, panther, orthoepy, apathy, ether, rhythm, ethics, atheist, length, strength, width, twelfth, stealth, warmth, breadth, thousandth.
65. Th-dh (as in that) is the voice-consonant of the previous formation: it superadds the initial part of a vowel sound, which is directed, with a guttural murmur, into the pharynx.
This, thee, there, thine, thither, though, beneath, booth, tithe, with, wreathe, brethren, farthing, father, heathen, weather, breathe, sheathe, blithe, clothe: also in these plurals-baths, paths, laths, oaths, mouths (all other terminations in ths have the breath sound).
66. Tis a breath-consonant, formed by the tip of the tongue pressing on the palate above the gum of the upper teeth, and stopping the current of breath. This element depends for audibility on the explosive cessation of contact.
Tell, tune, toil, met, butt, matter, critic, satiety, debt, tempt, Thames, Thomas, asthma, Ptolemy, receipt, yacht, debt, subtle, indict, tempt, stuffed, faced, rushed, laced, danced, laughed, titter, brittle, phthisic.
67. D is the voice-consonant of the above formation. It is preceded by the initial part of a vowel sound, which (while the pressure of the tongue on the palate prevents its immediate escape through the mouth) is directed into the pharynx. After distension the pharynx is suddenly collapsed, and the articulation should be exploded by the tongue at the same instant.
Date, debt, mad, rid, modest, body, rode, bade, would, should, twanged, round, wronged, harangued, buzzed, caged, lodged, avenged, heaved, bathed, wreathed, beheld, bard, suggest, exaggerate.
68. Many readers sound the terminational ed in the language of prayer and in the Scriptures; but it may be doubted whether euphony, dignity, or devotion is attained by the irregularity. The PRINCIPLE is, that ed may be sounded as a separate syllable when immediately preceded by a consonant; but, after a vowel, the sound of e should be suppressed, thus: err-ed and stray'd, &c. The measure of poetry frequently requires the syllabic distinction of ed.
69. N is a voice-consonant, formed by pressing the tip of the tongue
*This improperly formed by putting the tip of the tongue between the teeth.