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55. When both hands are employed in extended action, either a general idea is expressed, or a greater degree of vehemence is implied.

56. In vehement action, the hands are either clinched, or thrown backward from the wrist as much as possible.

57. The positions of the hand on certain portions of the Face and Body are highly expressive of emotion:

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The Hand placed on the Breast (B, diagram 35), appeals to conscience, or intimates desire; on the Eyes (E, diagram 36), shame or affliction; on the Lips (L, diagram 37), injunction of silence; on the Forehead (F, diagram 38), pain, distress, or anguish ; on the chin (C, diagram 39), irresolution or meditation.

THE TRUNK AND SHOULDERS. 58. The Trunk should obey the excellent precept of Cicero, * "Let the orator's action proceed from the motions of his whole body, and a manly flexibility of his sides.” A perfectly upright position is prejudicial to beauty in attitude, and grace in motion: the sides should have a uniformity of action with the limbs; not unsteady or crooked, but presenting that gentle and ever-varying wave wherein true beauty consists. The Trunk must be balanced evenly on the supporting limb, except in those attitudes which require its inclination—as veneration, supplication, &c. The breast should, in general, be so presented, that a line drawn from the eye of the person addressed, may be rectangular to a line drawn across the speaker's shoulder. In every change of attitude, the equilibrium, and at the same time, the grace of the body, are maintained by so extending the limbs in contrary directions, as to bring the centre of gravity and the line of direction over the supporting limb.

59. The SHOULDERS should partake of the motions of the trunk, but in a very moderate degree. Unless in imitation, shrugging or tossing them up must be avoided.

THE HEAD AND COUNTENANCE. 60. The Neck has very considerable power of expression; it varies its position with that of the other members of the body. Like every other part of the frame, it should possess a certain degree of flexibility; and, during speech, be kept erect; neither stiff nor thrown back, but easily upright. If the chin is allowed to lean too far forward, not only is the position ungraceful, but the countenance loses much power of expression, and the voice becomes depraved in sound.

61. The HEAD, “the dome of thought, the palace of the soul,” must receive that accordance of expression which beauty and uniformity require. Quintilian directs that it should be held erect, and in a natural position; for, when downcast, it denotes meanness; when drawn back, arrogance; when inclined on one side, indolence; when stiff or rigid, something of a savage disposition. Its movements should accord with the actions of the hands, and the motions of the body. The head grants—refuses—affirms-hangs down in bashfulness_moves gently from side to side in doubt—is expressive of admiration and indignation. The head should always move with the body, and never by itself; for nothing is more prejudicial to grace, than gesticulation with the head alone.

62. The COUNTENANCE is the principal seat of expression, and true index of the mind, varying with every emotion of the soul. four phases of gesture, Motion and Exertion, Sentiment and Passion, are here fully exhibited. The forehead is the expressive seat of serenity-joy-discontent-gloom—anguish-stupidity_ignorancemalignity. The eye-brows possess a complete control over the forehead; they are knitted in sorrow_drawn back in mirth_downcast in shame_raised or lowered by the manner of granting or refusing-drawn up in astonishment. When the eye-brows are motionless, the face has a vacuity of expression, equally disagreeable

* De Orat., p. 59.

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as ungraceful; and their effect is completely destroyed when their motion is too frequently repeated.

63. The Eye expresses internal emotion with the greatest fidelity and variety. The vacant stare of idiotcy, the restless gaze of troubled thought, the glistening of mirth, the inflaming of rage, the clouding of sadness, and the sorrow subdued even to tears, are all faithfully expressed by “this most pure spirit of sense.” The eyes represent, with unequalled fidelity, the most varied emotions ;-humility and pride_cruelty and compassion-reflection and dissipation-kindness and resentment—love and hate-praise and ridicule; they askpromise—swim in joy or grief_twinkle with pleasure-flash fire in hate-express languor or resolution—and portray whatever is mild or stern, haughty or terrible. There is not a motion of the body, a sentiment or a passion of the mind, to which the eyes may not add significancy.

64. The action of the NOSE AND LIPS is only allowable in expressing derision, contempt, loathing, or horror. The lips should not be stretched out—made to gape-screwed together-drawn back to leave the teeth naked_drawn sideways—folded over each othermade to hang—or opened so as to allow the voice only to escape on one side. Nothing is more disgusting to the eye than the very common practice of moistening the lips, when parched, by thrusting the tongue between them; this madefaction is only necessary when custom has made it so. But it ought to be carefully avoided. Biting the lips is equally unbecoming. The motion of the lips should be moderate; and the pupil should strive to speak more with the entire mouth, than with these or any other of its parts.

65. The UPPER LIP principally develops traits of sensuality. Pride and anger bend it; cunning gives it sharpness: goodness rounds it, and intemperance enervates and debases it. The under lip supports the upper in all its expressions.fi

66. The Blood presents many different appearances, and is even expressive of many emotions; but simulation in these requires & perfection of practice which is very rarely attained. In violent passions, the blood suffuses the face and forehead, and makes the veins dark and turgid ; it expands in blushes, flies back in fear and many other emotions. The cause of these changes has been most intelligibly explained by Sir Charles Bell1_“The nervous filaments are extended to the heart, and wind about the vessels in their course through the body. And thus, on the one hand, the passions of the mind agitate the heart, and often the feelings seem to centre there with palpitation and a sense of sinking; while, on the other, the nerves, when affected by emotion, influence in no less degree, the minute ramifications of the vessels which go to the surface, and produce a visible effect, as in blushing, or in the paleness, coldness, and shrinking of the skin in fear.” And again, “To this greater susceptibility of the head, as well as of the face, is to be attributed the rising of the hair in almost every violent passion."

67. To the general student, the following synoptical abridgment of the principal significant Positions and Actions, and of the Notation of Attitude and Motion, may be of service.

* In all gestures that denote general locality, or that refer to any particular object, the eye should first be directed to the place, before the hand is moved.

of See Lavater's Physiognomy. Anatomy of Expression.





THE FEET AND LOWER LIMBS. Their firm position signifies courage or obstinacy. Bended knees -timidity or weakness. Frequent change-disturbed thought. In desire or courage_advance. In aversion or fear-retire. In terrorstart. In authority or anger-stamp. In submission and prayerkneel.

THE BODY. The body held erect, indicates steadiness and courage. Thrown back-pride. Stooping forward_condescension or compassion. Bending-reverence or respect. Prostration—the utmost humility or abasement.

THE ARMS. The arm is projected forward in authority. Both arms are extended in admiration. Held forward_imploring help. Fall suddenly-disappointment.

THE HANDS. The hand on the head, indicates pain or distress. On the eyesshame. On the lips-injunction of silence. On the breast-appeals to conscience, or intimates desire or affection. The hand waves or flourishes, in joy. Is projected forward, in contempt. Both hands are held supine, applied, or clasped, in prayer. Both descend prone, in blessing. They are clasped or wrung, in affliction. They are held forward and received, in friendship.

THE EYES. They are raised, in prayer. They weep, in sorrow. They are cast on vacancy, in thought. They look downwards, in shame. They are turned in different directions, in doubt and anxiety.

THE HEAD AND FACE. The hanging down of the head denotes shame or grief. The holding it up, pride or courage. To nod forward implies assent. To toss the head back, dissent. The inclination of the head implies bashfulness or languor. The head is averted, in dislike or horror. It leans forward, in attention.




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THE FEET AND TRUNK. R. I C., R. 2 c., R. 3 C., L. I C., L. 2 C., L. 3 C. The same, intermediate (1) and extended (r). Advancing (a), retiring (r), starting (st), stamping (stp), kneeling (kn), traversing (tr.) The notation of the Feet always marked below the line.

DIRECTION AND ELEVATION OF THE ARM. The right arm generally understood. The left arm expressed by a dash

before the notation. Rest, R. Across,

Preparation, Downwards, d. Forwards, f. Continuation, Horizontal,




Z. Backwards, b. Both arms,


A-kimbo, k. Descending, d. Inwards,

Reposed, .rp. Revolving, Waving,

Overcurve, Striking, st.


.gr. Undercurve, Flourishing, A. Rejecting, rj. Serpentine, Trembling, tr. Encumbered, .en. Both hands, . B. The arms generally to describe diagonal returning curves, (page 86).

The NINETEEN special motions as illustrated by the Diagrams, (pages 87–92.)


addressing, declaring. Supine,

appealing, exhorting, entreating. Prone,

p. forbidding, rejecting, commanding. Clinched,

strong passion or violent agitation. Indexing,


pointing, reproving, warning. Applied,

ар. prayer, supplication, entreaty. Clasped,

cl. an energetic form of the preceding. Wringing,

anguish, remorse, distraction. Crossed,

cr. resignation, meekness. Enumerating, en. analytical parts of discourse.

PARTS OF THE BODY ON WHICH THE HAND MAY BE PLACED. Breast, B. | Eyes, E. | Lips, L. | Forehead, F. | Chin, C.


Marked on the margin of the page. Erect,

E. Shaking, Sh. Assenting, . As. Inclined,

S. Denying, . Dn. LOOKS OF THE EYES.–Marked in the margin. Forwards, F. Downwards, . D. Around, R. Averted, A. Upwards, U.


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