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spond with the description, and if the contract or sale be by sample, as well as by description, it is not sufficient that the bulk of the goods corresponds with the sample if the goods do not also correspond with the description.
SEC. 15. Implied Warranties of Quality. Subject to the provisions of this act and of any statute in that behalf, there is no implied warranty or condition as to the quality or fitness for any particular purpose of goods supplied under a contract to sell or a sale, except as follows: (1) Where the buyer, expressly or by implication, makes known to the seller the particular purpose for which the goods are required, and it appears that the buyer relies on the seller's skill or judgment, whether he be the grower or manufacturer or not, there is an implied warranty that the goods shall be reasonably fit for such purpose; (2) where the goods are bought by description from a seller who deals in goods of that description, whether he be the grower or manufacturer or not, there is an implied warranty that the goods shall be of merchantable quality; (3) if the buyer has examined the goods, there is no implied warranty as regards defects which such examination ought to have revealed; (4) in the case of a contract to sell or a sale of a specified article under its patent or other trade name, there is no implied warranty as to its fitness for any particular purpose; (5) an implied warranty or condition as to quality or fitness for a particular purpose may be annexed by the usage of trade; (6) an express warranty or condition does not negative a warranty or condition implied under this act unless inconsistent therewith.
Sec. 16. Implied Warranties in Sale by Sample. In the case of a contract to sell or a sale by sample (a) there is an implied warranty that the bulk shall correspond with the sample in quality, (b) there is an implied warranty that the buyer shall have a reasonable opportunity of comparing the bulk with the sample, except so far as otherwise provided in section fortyseven of this act, (c) if the seller is a dealer in goods of that kind, there is an implied warranty that the goods shall be free from any defect, rendering them unmerchantable, which would not be apparent on reasonable examination of the sample.
TRANSFER OF PROPERTY AS BETWEEN SELLER AND BUYER.
SEC. 17. No Property Passes until Goods are Ascertained. Where there is a contract to sell unascertained goods, no property in the goods is transferred to the buyer unless and until the goods are ascertained, but property in an undivided share
of ascertained goods may be transferred as provided in section six.
SEC. 18. Property in Specific Goods Passes when Parties so Intend. Where there is a contract to sell specific or ascertained goods, the property in them is transferred to the buyer at such time as the parties to the contract intend it to be transferred. For the purpose of ascertaining the intention of the parties, regard shall be had to the terms of the contract, the conduct of the parties, usages of trade, and the circumstances of the case.
SEC. 19. Rules for Ascertaining Intention. Unless a different intention appears, the following are rules for ascertaining the intention of the parties as to the time at which the property in the goods is to pass to the buyer: Rule 1. Where there is an unconditional contract to sell specific goods, in a deliverable state, the property in the goods passes to the buyer when the contract is made, and it is immaterial whether the time of payment, or the time of delivery, or both, be postponed. Rule 2. Where there is a contract to sell specific goods and the seller is bound to do something to the goods, for the purpose of putting them into a deliverable state, the property does not pass until such thing be done. Rule 3. When goods are delivered to the buyer on sale or return," or on other terms indicating an intention to make a present sale, but to give the buyer an option to return the goods instead of paying the price, the property passes to the buyer on delivery, but he may revest the property in the seller by returning or tendering the goods within the time fixed in the contract, or, if no time has been fixed, within a reasonable time. When goods are delivered to the buyer on approval, or on trial, or on satisfaction, or other similar terms, the property therein passes to the buyer: (a) when he signifies his approval or acceptance to the seller or does any other act adopting the transaction, (b) if he does not signify his approval or acceptance to the seller, but retains the goods without giving notice of rejection, then, if a time has been fixed for the return of the goods, on the expiration of such time, and, if no time has been fixed, on the expiration of a reasonable time. What is a reasonable time is a question of fact. Rule 4. Where there is a contract to sell unascertained or future goods by description, and goods of that description and in a deliverable state are unconditionally appropriated to the contract, either by the seller with the assent of the buyer, or by the buyer with the assent of the seller, the property in the goods thereupon passes to the buyer. Such assent may be expressed or implied, and may be given either before or after the appropriation is made. Where, in pursuance of a contract to sell, the
seller delivers the goods to the buyer, or to a carrier or other bailee, whether named by the buyer or not, for the purpose of transmission to or holding for the buyer, he is presumed to have unconditionally appropriated the goods to the contract, except in the cases provided for in rule five and in section twenty. This presumption is applicable, although, by the terms of the contract, the buyer is to pay the price before receiving delivery of the goods, and the goods are marked with the words “ Collect on Delivery” or their equivalents. Rule 5. If a contract to sell requires the seller to deliver the goods to the buyer, or at a particular place, or to pay the freight or cost of transportation to the buyer, or to a particular place, the property does not pass until the goods have been delivered to the buyer or have reached the place agreed upon.
SEC. 20. Reservation of Right of Possession or Property when Goods are Shipped. Where there is a contract to sell specific goods, or where goods are subsequently appropriated to the contract, the seller may, by the terms of the contract or appropriation, reserve the right of possession or property in the goods until certain conditions have been fulfilled. The right of possession or property may be thus reserved notwithstanding the delivery of the goods to the buyer, or to a carrier or other bailee for the purpose of transmission to the buyer. Where goods are shipped, and by the bill of lading the goods are deliverable to the seller or his agent, or to the order of the seller or of his agent, the seller thereby reserves the property in the goods. But if, except for the form of the bill of lading, the property would have passed to the buyer on shipment of the goods, the seller's property in the goods shall be deemed to be only for the purpose of securing performance by the buyer of his obligations under the contract. Where goods are shipped, and by the bill of lading the goods are deliverable to the order of the buyer or of his agent, but possession of the bill of lading is retained by the seller or his agent, the seller thereby reserves a right to the possession of the goods, as against the buyer. Where the seller of goods draws on the buver for the price and transmits the bill of exchange and bill of lading together to the buyer to secure acceptance or payment of the bill of exchange, the buyer is bound to return the bill of lading if he does not honor the bill of exchange, and if he wrongfully retains the bill of lading he acquires no added right thereby. If, however, the bill of lading provides that the goods are deliverable to the buyer, or to the order of the buyer, or is indorsed in blank, or to the buver by the consignee named therein, one who purchases in good faith, for value, the bill of lading or goods from the buyer will obtain the property in the goods,
although the bill of exchange has not been honored; provided, that such purchaser has received delivery of the bill of lading indorsed by the consignee named therein, or of the goods, without notice of the facts making the transfer wrongful.
SEC. 21. Sale by Auction. In the case of a sale by auction where goods are put up for sale by auction in lots, each lot is the subject of a separate contract of sale.
A sale by auction is complete when the auctioneer announces its completion by the fall of the hammer, or in other customary man
Until such announcement is made any bidder may retract his bid; and the auctioneer may withdraw the goods from sale unless the auction has been announced to be without reserve. A right to bid may be reserved expressly by or on behalf of the seller. Where notice has not been given that a sale by auction is subject to a right to bid on behalf of the seller, it shall not be lawful for the seller to bid himself, or to employ or induce any person to bid at such sale on his behalf, or for the auctioneer to employ or induce any person to bid at such sale on behalf of the seller, or knowingly to take any bid from the seller or any person employed by him; any sale contravening this rule may be treated as fraudulent by the buyer.
SEC. 22. Risk of Loss. Unless otherwise agreed, the goods remain at the seller's risk until the property therein is transferred to the buyer, but when the property therein is transferred to the buyer the goods are at the buyer's risk whether delivery has been made or not, except that (a) where delivery of the goods has been made to the buyer, or to a bailee for the buyer, in pursuance of the contract, and the property in the goods has been retained by the seller merely to secure performance by the buyer of his obligations under the contract, the goods are at the buyer's risk from the time of such delivery, (b) where delivery has been delayed through the fault of either buyer or seller the goods are at the risk of the party in fault as regards any loss which might not have occurred but for such fault.
SEC. 23. Sale by a Person not the Owner. Subject to the provisions of this act, where goods are sold by a person who is not the owner thereof and who does not sell them under the authority or with the consent of the owner, the buyer acquires no better title to the goods than the seller had, unless the owner of the goods is by his conduct precluded from denying the seller's authority to sell. Nothing in this act, however, shall affect the provisions of any factor's acts, recording acts, or any enactment enabling the apparent owner of goods to dispose of them as if he were the true owner thereof, or the validity of any contract to sell or sale under any special common law or statutory power of sale or under the order of a court of competent jurisdiction.
SEO. 24. Sale by One having a Voidable Title. Where the seller of goods has a voidable title thereto but his title has not been avoided at the time of the sale, the buyer acquires a good title to the goods, provided he buys them in good faith, for value, and without notice of the seller's defect of title.
Sec. 25. Sale by Seller in Possession of Goods already Sold. Where a person having sold goods continues in possession of the goods, or of negotiable documents of title to the goods, the delivery or transfer by such person, or by an agent acting for him, of the goods or documents of title under any sale, pledge, or other disposition thereof, to any person receiving and paying value for the same in good faith and without notice of the previous sale, shall have the same effect as if the person making said delivery or transfer were expressly authorized by the owner of the goods to make the same.
Sec. 26. Creditors' Rights against Sold Goods in Seller's Possession. Where a person having sold goods continues in possession of the goods, or of negotiable documents of title to the goods, and such retention of possession is fraudulent in fact, or is deemed fraudulent under any rule of law, a creditor or creditors of the seller may treat the sale as void.
SEC. 27. Definition of Negotiable Document of Title. A document of title in which it is stated that the goods referred to therein will be delivered to the bearer, or to the order of any person named in such document, is a negotiable document of title.
SEC. 28. Negotiation of Negotiable Documents by Delivery. A negotiable document of title may be negotiated by delivery (a) where, by the terms of the document, the carrier, warehouseman, or other bailee issuing the same undertakes to deliver the goods to the bearer, or (b) where, by the terms of the document, the carrier, warehouseman, or other bailee issuing the same undertakes to deliver the goods to the order of a specified person and such person or a subsequent indorsee of the document has indorsed it in blank or to bearer. Where by the terms of a negotiable document of title the goods are deliverable to bearer or where a negotiable document of title has been indorsed in blank or to bearer, any holder may indorse the same to himself or to any other specified person, and in such case the document shall thereafter be negotiated only by the indorsement of such indorsee.
SEC. 29. Negotiation of Negotiable Documents by Indorsement. A negotiable document of title may be negotiated by the indorsement of the person to whose order the goods are