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such a severe undulation, that many could scarcely keep their feet; the direction of the waves was invariably from the south-east, to north-west; sea shocks were not felt.
From midnight to 6 A.M. of the 17th, nothing was felt, save a light trembling, but on the 17th, at 6 o'clock, the shocks began again with renewed force, and between that hour and 10 in the forenoon, nine shocks had taken place, of which one lasted thirty-one seconds.
Some details of the loss follow:-At the capital of Cheribon, all the Government buildings, (with the exception of the store houses) and more than 200 private stone dwellings were severely damaged, and mostly rendered uninbabitable, in consequence of which no one durst remain within doors during the night, and all passed the night on the plains in the town, or in the gardens. A Chinese dwelling in the city fell down. One person was killed and six others hurt.
At Palimanang the Commandant's house and other stone buildings in the fort were severely damaged, and some personal injuries inflicted; the wooden dwellings suffering no injury of any consequence.
At two neighbouring sugar factories great havoc was done, the buildings of all sorts being thrown down, and several lives lost.
At Dana Radja, Radja Galu, and Pamankiran, many buildings were destroyed.
Almost all the post stations are severely damaged ; many stone watchhouses along the roads were throwa down; and even the milestones along the great road fell over.
At Indramayu the first shocks caused severe damage to the Assistant-Resident's house, the Commandant's dwelling and the fort, and the stone houses of the European inhabitants, rendering them uninhabitable. Forty stone houses belonging to Chinese, were partly or wholly overturned. At different places the ground was torn open from one to two feet in width, and from the openings large quantities of sand and muddy water boiled up; by the falling of one of the houses a woman was killed, and her two children wounded.
The Government store-houses, both at Cheribon and Indramayu, which were of wood, did not suffer.
At Kuningang, the regency house only suffered a little. The western part of the regency Madja Lengka appears to have suffered very little.
In the regency of Galu, and in the eastern part of the regency of Cheribon no damage of consequence was done.
Although the earthquake was felt throughout the whole residency of Cheribon, its devastation was confined to the northern and western parts of the regency of Chiberon, the eastern and northern parts of the regency of Madja Lengka, and the division of Indramayu.
Light shocks continued to be felt until the 20th of November, which however, occasioned no damage. It has been ascertained, on investigation, that the shocks made themselves most heavily felt on the north-east and northwest slope of the mountain Tjermaê. There the ground was split in more than forty places, and rents are found of more than fifty roods long, and three to four feet broad. In some places the roads to the coffee gardens are rent, so that the approach to the same for the present is impossible. The coffee gardens themselves, however, have not suffered ; nor even the dessas lying on the mountains, with the exception of the small dessa Tjibluu, where the ground is torn. The inhabitants of this dessa, consisting of twenty-nine families, bad time to take flight.
A private letter states further particulars of the earthquake in the residency of Cheribon:
The first shocks were felt between half past 10 and 11 o'clock, the exact time can be ascertained with difficulty, because the clocks and watches in the interior differ. The first shock lasted fully thirty seconds; the direction in the first alarm was not observed; however, it was not a proper undulation, but more a thrilling with short shocks. Some seconds thereafter, the second shock began, which lasted about twenty or thirty seconds, and was still heavier. From the very short intermission between the first and second shocks, the two might be taken for one. Ten to twelve minutes later, the third shock came, as heavy as the two previous. It then appeared that the direction was from S.W. to N.E. All these shocks were accompanied by a dull vibratory noise, exactly like that which the iron cable makes at the bow of a ship, when the anchor is falling. The undulation of the buildings was plainly seen.
The writer journeying the same day on a tour of inspection to Ardjowinangon, sixteen miles from Cheribon, found all in ruins, and was obliged to pass the night in a bamboo hut. On the following morning, proceeding further on horseback, the shocks began anew, with such violence, that the horse would not proceed further.
On the 18th, he proceeded on horseback to Buntamatti, on the river Tijmanok, lying sixteen miles southward from Indramaiju. Here the shocks must also have been heavy, for all that could fall lay on the ground. In the house of an overseer, three different rents were made in the ground by the first shock, through which water, mingled with fine azure-coloured sand, spouted up to the height of three feet. Judging by the direction of fallen objects, the shocks were felt from south-west to north-east.
The atmosphere was unusually clear, so that from this place the mountains in the Preanger Regencies could be seen; from one of these, probably Gunong Guntor, a column of smoke ascended.
The following day at Dana Radja, where all the stone buildings had been overturned, the ground was found to be rent in more than fifty places. From most of the fissures, water spouted up, mingled with fine blueish sand, like the sea sand on the beach at Chiberon. The overseer declared that the water was warm, and that it had a disagreeable smell. The direction of the shocks must here have been from south-west to north-east, as appears from the direction in which some stones, which stood on their sides to dry, had fallen.
In a small dessa named Genting, five miles to the north ward of Dana Radja, and in another dessa, named Persona, eight miles to the northward, the quantity of water and sand spouted from the ground was so great that, according to the natives, it occasioned an actual inundation. On the same day also, the mountain in the Preanger Regencies above spoken of, was seen to smoke strongly.
The mountain Tjermae in Cheribon, was, during all the time in question, uncommonly clear and cloudless, and nothing peculiar could be observed on it.
According to the view of the writer, the shocks which were felt in the above-named place came from the direction of the Preanger Regencies, and the undulation of the ground was checked, by the trachite pillar, of which the Palimangang mountains consist. It then went northwards, and, after having passed Ardjowinangon, proceeded again in the direction of west to east; whence also it can be explained why the shocks were felt much heavier in the immediate neighbourhood of the Palimanang mountain than elsewhere. On all places which lie in the volcanic district of the Tjermae, the shocks were felt little or not at all, but heavily in the alluvial and tertiary district, between Cheribon and the river Tijmanok.
ACCOUNT OF NAVAL RECEIPT AND EXPENDITURE.
For the Year ended 31st March, 1847. The excess of £185,280. 6s. 9d., shown on the Account of Naval Receipt and Expenditure for the Financial Year ended the 31st March, 1846, has been voted by Parliament, as per printed Paper, 24th February, 1847, No. 103, agreeably with the Authority of the Lords of the Treasury, as signified by Mr. Trevelyan's Letter of 26th February, 1847.
JOHN T. BRIGGS,
Accountant-General of the Navy. Notes Referred to in the preceding Account.
Vote No. 1.- This excess arises chiefly on the Vote for Sea Pay, owing to a larger number of men having been borne throughout the year than were provided for; also on account of the supplies of slop clothing for stock on hand exceeding the value of the quantities taken up by the men; the value of which, when issued, is abated from their pay.
Vote No. 2.-This excess arises from increased prices of provisions, and from the extensive supplies which have been provided for Her Majesty's Fleets employed at home and abroad.
Vote No. 3.- The excess under this head arises from the transfer to the Admiralty of the clerical duties connected with the Greenwich Out-pension business; from more having been paid for postage, owing to the increased correspondence arising out of the extension of the Fleet; from the alterations of offices, rendered necessary on account of the enlargement of the department of the Director of Works, and the transfer of the Steam Department to Somerset House; for attendance of clerks at night in preparing Parliamentary Accounts, and on other duties, owing to the inadequacy of the establishment to meet the increase of business; and for law charges connected with the purchase of land for the extension of Portsmouth Yard.
Vote No. 5.-Tbis excess has been caused by an unusual demand for charts, maps, chronometers, compasses, marine barometers, and magnetic and other instruments; by the expenses of the surveys of the River St. Lawrence and the Bay of Fundy, and hire of vessels, having been much under estimated; by lodging-money, on shore, of officers taken from surveying vessels, while sud vessels were employed on the Irish Relief Service; by increased surveying pay to officers promoted; and continuance of surveying pay to officers returned from China and the Falkland Islands, while completing the drawings.
Vote No. 6.—This excess arises from the establishment of the Steam Factory at Portsmouth Yard, and of the Supervisor of Metals for the several dockyards, for which no provision had been made; and from increased expenditure on account of the travelling charges and subsistence of shipwright officers detached from their respective yards to superintend the building of vessels under contract.
Vote No. 7.-This excess is caused by the increased superintendence required in connexion with the extensive repairs of steam-vessels at Malta; by arrear accounts of expenditure at Hong Kong of the preceding year being charged to this year; by the appointment of a shipwright officer to superintend the building of vessels in Canada; and by the extension of the Medical Establishment at Bermuda to secure greater efficiency in that establishment, for which no provision had been made.
Vote No. 8.—The excess under this head arises from its having been found necessary to employ an increased number of workmen in the Dockyards, to proceed with dispatch in the building and repairs of ships and steamers, and in the outfit of the Fleet.
Vote No. 9.—This excess arises from an increased expenditure at Malta for the repairs of steamers; from greater progress having been made in the works at Bermuda than was contemplated, and from the Votes for Labour at Canada, the Cape of Good Hope, and Trincomalee; and for extra pay to artificers, &c., of the Fleet, being less than the exigencies of the service required.
Vote No. 10,- The excess under this head has arisen from the purchase of two vessels, the “Undine" and "Kestral," for which there was no provision in the Estimates; and from the payments for the repairs and fittings of the NO. 4.-VOL. XVII.
Steam Guard Ships performed in Merchant Yards, having been larger than were contemplated when the Estimate was prepared.
Vote No. 12.-This excess has been incurred in consequence of the extra cost of provisions, owing to the considerable advance of prices during the year; by an enlarged expenditure to meet the increased wants arising out of the extension of the Fleet; and also from the purchase of supplies for the service of other departments being larger than were actually required.
Vote No. 13.-The excess under this head is caused by more having been paid i han voted on account of distressed seamen; passages of naval officers; purchase of land for the extension of Portsmouth Yard; purchase of books, raising men for the Fleet; by an award to the owners of a French vessel; which had been run down by Her Majesty's ship Polyphemus; and a payment to Mr. Brewer, for the use of his patent for making blocks; also, from the defalcations of the late Mr. J. D. Thompson, as Naval Storekeeper and Agent Victualler at the Cape, after receiving from his sureties the amount of their bonds.
Vote No. 17.- This increase of expenditure has arisen from Freight Ships having been engaged and employed for the conveyance of troops, instead of Ships of War; for increased supply of stores (bedding, &c.); and from the sum of £34,568 6s. ld. having been authorised by the Treasury to be paid to the East India Company for troops conveyed to India, not provided for in this Estimate.
Vote No. 19.—This excess has been chiefly incurred for the conveyance of Mails between Callao and Valparaiso, in consequence of the contract for that service having commenced sooner than was contemplated when the Estimates were framed.
INSTITUTION OF Civil ENGINEERS.
Joshua Field, Esq., President, in the Chair. A paper was read by Mr. A. Mitchell, of Belfast Assoc. Inst. C.E., “ On Submarine Foundations ; particularly the Screw Pile and Moorings." Considering that the entire subject of the various sorts of piling, of solid stone foundations, of cofferdams, of masses of concrete, and the numerous modes adopted by ingenious men for overcoming local difficulties, would occupy too much time, and scarcely possess novelty, the author restricted himself almost entirely to the description of the works executed by him with the screw pile, as that had been chiefly employed for supporting structures on loose sand or mudbanks, wholly or partially covered by the sea, where it had been previously considered very hazardous, if not impracticable, to erect any permanent edifice; and in his narrative he scrupulously avoided all comparison with other modes of proceeding, even when they had the same object.
The origin of the screw pile was the screw mooring, which was designed for the purpose of obtaining for an especial purpose a greater holding power than was possessed by either the ordinary pile or any of the usual mooring anchors or blocks, of however large dimensions. It was proved by experiment, that if a screw, with a broad spiral flange, were fixed upon a spindle, and forcibly propelled by rotary motion to a certain depth into the ground, an enormous force would be required to extract it by direct tension, and that the power emploved must be sufficient to drag up a mass of earth of the form of the frustrumn of a cone reversed, the base being at the surface of the ground, and the section of the apex being equal to the diameter of the