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screw. The extent of the resisting mass, inust of course, depend upon the natural tenacity of the soil. Even in this reasoning it must be evident that a vertical force was calculated upon; but as, practically, that seldom, if ever occurred, the angle of tension and the curve of the buoy cable again gave the moorings greater power. This was found to be correct in practice, and the application of the moorings became very extensive. An arrangement was made with the port of Newcastle-on-Tyne, by which, for the sum of £2500, the right of fixing these moorings in the Type was given ; and Mr. Brook, the engineer, showed that, last year, whilst in the neighbouring port damage was done to the shipping to the extent of nearly £30,000, no injury was sustained in the Tyne, entirely owing to the sound holding of Mitchel's screw-pile moorings.
Mr. W. A. Brooks gave an account of the nethod of laying down the moorings at Newcastle-on-Tyne, under his directions. A heavy chain, tormed of 31-inch round iron, in links of three feet long each, was stretched along the bed of the river, in the direction of the current. To this chain, beneath each tier, was attached a 24-inch studded mooring chain, fixed to the head of a screw mooring, another screw being also placed beneath each tier, and driven down between ten and twenty feet into the clay, and sometimes full a foot deep into the shale rock. The screws were four feet in diameter, and were placed in depths varying from fifteen to twenty-four feet at low water spring tides. They were screwed down to the depth of fifteen feet in one hour and a-half, and sometimes twenty-one feet in two hours.
Each mooring screw was intended to have borne the strain of four heavy ships; but during the last winter, the port was so crowded, that more than double the proper number of vessels was moored upon each, and yet there were no signs of weakness, and whilst nearly £30,000 of damage was done at Sunderland, during a heavy storm, no casualties occurred at Newcastle, which Mr. Brooks stated was entirely owing to the sound holding of the screw moorings. He argued, therefore, that the small sum of £2.500 paid by the harbour commissioners of Newcastle, for the right to put down these moorings, was a very wise expenditure.
Mr. T. Smith, pilot-master of the port of Shields, corroborated Mr. Brooks's statement.
Capt. Washington, R.N., had in the course of his surveying duties, seen the screw moorings in almost every position, and had heard them universally eulogized as being the best and safest moorings hitherto known. He strongly recommended their employment.
It naturally occurred to Mr. Mitchell, that the same means of resistance to downward pressure might be used, and he proposed to apply it for the foundations of lighthouses, beacons, and other structures, which for maritime purposes, it might be desirable to place upon sand and mud banks, where hitherto it had been considered impracticable to place any permanent edifice. In the year 1838, a plan for a structure of this nature for a lighthouse, on the Maplin Sand, at the mouth of the Thames, was laid before the corpora · tion of the Trinity House, supported by the opinion of James Walker, Esq., their engineer. The nine iron piles, five inches in diameter, with screws four feet in diameter, were accordingly driven twenty-two feet deep into the mui, and with proper precaution they were allowed to stand two years before any edifice was placed upon them.
The lighthouse was subsequently constructed, and, as was testified by Mr. Walker, had stood perfectly until the present time. Pending this probation, it was determined to erect a lighthouse to point out the entrance to the harbour of Fleetwood-on-Wyre, and under the advice of Capt. Denhamn, R.N., the screw piles were adopted. The spot fixed on was the point of a bank of loose sand, about two iniles from the shore ; seven iron piles, with screws of three feet diameter, were forced about sixteen feet into the bank and upon them timber supports, forty-eight feet in vertical height were fixed to carry the house and lantern. This structure was completed in six months, and was perfectly successful, never having required any repairs to the present time. A similar lighthouse was erected pear Belfast, and since then several others, with a great number of beacons, have been fixed in situations heretotore deemed impracticable.
Capt. Washington also examined carefully the screw pile lighthouses, and had every reason to be satisfied with them, as affording a means of placing lighthouses and beacons where they were before impracticable, and enabling floating lights to be generally superseded by fixed lights, which latter he proved, from documentary evidence, to be one-third less annual cost than the former, and certainly more useful to sailors. For in spite of all the care, attention, and even lavish expenditure of the Trinity Board to moor the light-ships securely, they did go adrift just at the time they were most required. He, therefore, advocated fixed lights in every situation where a foundation could be obtained ; and he believed that, with the screw pile, there were scarcely any situations where this could not be accomplished.
APPEALS TO THE HOUSE OF LORDS.— Thursday, March 9th. The Lord Chancellor heard appeal cases to day. The peers assisting were the Earl of Stradbroke and Lord Campbell. The case heard was, the Mayor, Commonalty, and Citizens of London, appellants—the Attorney-General respondent.
Civic Property in the Thames, its Banks and Soil. This case arose out of an information filed by Sir Frederick Pollock, when attorney. general, showing that by Royal Prerogative the ground and soil of the coasts and shores of the sea round this kingdom, or of every port, haven, arm of the sea, creek, pool, and navigable river thereof, into which the sea ebbs and flows, and the shore lying between high and low water mark, belong of right to her Majesty ; that the Thames is such an arm of the sea. and a King's highway; that the Mayor and Corporation of London, by prescription, or some Royal grant, hold the office of bailiff or conservator of the Thames from Staines Bridge to Yantlett Creek or Yenland; and their duty is to prevent all obstructions of the navigation of the river or nuisances therein, but they do not thereby acquire any estate or interest in the ground or soil of the river's bed or shores between high and low water-mark; that they have, notwithstanding, claimed to be seized of the freehold of the bed and soil of the river, in right of their conservancy and exercised ownership of it, by granting licenses to W. Cubitt, builder, Sir T. Turton, and to c. Park, to embank the strand and soil of the river at the Isle of Dogs, Rotherhithe, and at Battersea, for a consideration in money, whereby nuisance would be created, impeding the free current and navigation of the river, where in times past it has been wont to flow, against right and to the injury of the lieges and the prejudice of the Crown's title and prerogative; that remonstrances have been made on the subject in vain by the officers of the Crown denying any grant by the Crown of the property in the soil or the banks of the river; that the corporation ought to discover their title, if any exist; that the charter of Henry VI. to the City of London, nor any other charter, grants no such right, nor if the former did so grant, is it any longer in force, having been
revoked and annulled ; that they have do title by immemorial usage, nor have they exercised sufficient acts of ownership to assert and sustain that title ; that all these embankments will prove nuisances to the subjects of her Majesty; and that the corporation by its town clerk ought to produce certain deeds, charters, maps, and documents, relating to this asserted right of the corporation for the purpose of discovery. The information then requires answers, on vath, to twenty set interrogatories. Then followed the prayer that the Court of Chancery would declare thereupon the rights of the Crown, and of the corporation in this respect; order issues at coinmon law, if neces. sary, to deliver in the question at issue; in the meantime that the contractors be restrained, by injunction, from carrying on the embankments and works alluded to; that all things be restored so as that the tidal water may again flow as it did before ; and further, that the corporation furnish an account of all the profits, fines, rents and issues received, to her Majesty's Exchequer; that the right may be declared to this property in the Crown, so as to avoid multiplicity of suits ; and that relief may be given in the suit consistently with equity and good conscience.
The corporation demurred because the Attorney General had not made out such a case as entitled him to relief in a court of equity against the corporation, or to any discovery touching any matters referred to in the said information as far as it is demurred to; and for answers to such parts as are not thus demurred to, they allege that they created no nuisances, nor do they intend, at the places mentioned, Rotherhithe and Battersea, nor do they allege they have power to grant licenses to erect or create a nuisance on the river.
Upon argument the Master of the Rolls overruled the demurrer. From that decision the corporation appealed.
Mr. Bethell and Mr. Serjeant Channell to-day argued that the order of the Master of the Rolls should be reversed, because the issue raised by so much of the information as is demurred to, is simply a question of common law; because the Court of Chancery has no jurisdiction to determine matters and things depending upon the legal title to lands and tenements, when such legal title is contested until after the title has been established in a court of law: because the Crown does not possess any prerogative to transfer to the jurisdiction of the Court of Chancery matters which, as between subject and subject, would be exclusively cognisable in a court of law; because so much of the information as is demurred to, relates entirely to matters and things which form a fit subject for an information of intrusion at common law, or of some other legal proceeding where the appellants would obtain the benefit of the statute of the 21st of James I., c. 14, of the benefit of which statute the appellants will be deprived, if the Attorney-General shall succeed in compelling them to answer and defend themselves in the Court of Chancery in respect of the matters and things inquired after and put in issue by that part of the information which is demurred to; because the present information, if it can be supported at all, ought to have been filed in the Court of Exchequer, as a court of revenue, that court having both legal and equitable jurisdiction, and such equitable jurisdiction not having been transferred to the Court of Chancery by the statute of the 5th of Victoria, c. 5.
The case is of extreme importance to the corporation, as should it be unsuccessful in this instance, it may, hereafter, be called upon to discover its title to various portions of property, estates, tolls, and privileges, where the title is prescriptive, or lies hidden in remote antiquity:- Nautical Standard.
CURRENTS OF THE OCEAN.
British Consulate, Crest, March 15th, 1848. Sir.--I have the honour to enclose a copy, with a translation of a paper sent to me, by the Director of Customs of this port.
The original of this paper which was in a bottle, was picked up on the coast of Plozenet, about fifteen miles south-west of this, on the 4th or 5th of this month; and handed to the Marine Agent. I am, &c.,
(Signed) Antonio PERRIER. To H. G. Ward, Esq., Admiralty.
Copy of the paper sent to the Director of Customs, being a French translation of the paper found in the bottle :
“On board the ship (name illegible), of 72 guns, bearing the flag of RearAdmiral Sir T. Cochrane ; W. J. Hope Johnston, Captain, at one o'clock in the afternoon of the 10th of August, 1847; lat. observed, 47° 16' N., long. by chronometer, 21° 42' W., thrown into the sea at the same moment. We request the persons into whose hands this may fall, to send it, without delay to the Secretary of the Admiralty, in London.
(Signed) “ EDWARD WALLER, Secretary.'
CARRICKFERGUS.- A Carrickfergus correspondent writes to say that while a poor woman was gathering sea-weed, opposite the castle, she picked up a bottle, containing a piece of paper, on which the following was written: " The Chance, Capt. Herdman, is now off Islandmagee, in a sinking state." The Chance was a schooner, she sailed from Glasgow for Belfast, on the 22nd of October, 1846, and was never heard of since. This discovery decides the fate of the unfortunate crew.-Northern Whig.
BRAUNTON, near Barnstaple.—March 10: A bottle was found 5th inst., on Saunton Sands, about seven miles from the ports of Bideford and Barnstaple, and five leagues S.E.b.E. from Lundy Island entrance to the Bristol Channel, containing a slip of paper, on which was written the following: “ Emigrant ship Graham, for Quebec, June 13, 1847, lat. 51° 4' N. long. 45° 28' W., per chronometer. From Plymouth twenty-two days. Prevailing winds since leaving, westerly. Number of souls on board, 258, all well. This bottle is thrown overboard to determine the set of the current; the finder is requested to forward this to the editor of the Shipping and Mercantile Guzette, London.
“ T. C. Beach, Commander,
New CHARTS. (Published by the Admiralty, and sold by R. B. Bate, 21, Poultry.) MAULMAIN RIVER, Lieut. William Fell, 1842. Price ls. 6d. LABOUAN ISLAND, Sir Edward Belcher, 1847. Price 1s. 6d. JAFFA ANCHORAGE (Syria), Mr. Bodie, R. N, 1847. Price 3d. West Indies, Sheet I., Capts. Owen and Barne t, 1838. Price 2s. AMBONG Bay, Sir Edward Belcher, 1844. Price Is. 6d. CURRENTS ON THE COAST OF GUINEA, Capt Vidal, 1840. Price 1s. ENGLISH HARBOUR, (Antigua Island), West Indies, Capt. Barnett, 1847.
Price Is. 6d. MALAGA HARBOUR, Mr. Rundle, R. n., 1843. Price 6d. Simon BAY (Africa), Capts. Sir Edward Belcher and Stunley, 1847. Price Is. 6d.
CORRECTED: Pulo CONDORE, (Corrected to 1847.) Price Is.
PROMOTIONS AND APPOINTMENTS.
to Agincourt - R. Williams (act.) to
Royal Sovereign, COMMANDERS.-C. S. Forbes-F. M. MIDSHIPMEN.-R. Moore, A. D. MerFrazer-J. P. Baker-T. Saumarez, cer, F. M. Noel, and E. H. Pace, to
LIEUTENANTS.-J. G. C. B. Payne Champion-H. C. Farrington, and C. C. F. Curme-T. Goss-J. E Elliott. J. Grant, to Ganges-J. H. E. Wemyss,
PURSERS.-J. Barrett-W.F. Henna. and J. Jenkins, to Powerful-W. E. ASSISTANT-SURGEON.–T. Kincaird. Von Donelyen, to Fisgard — W. E.
Kirkanan, Č. W. Buckley, and A. Fox, APPOINTMENTS.
to Prince Regent-H. W. Goddard, and
C. J. Wrey, to Victory. Flag-OFFICER.-Rear-Admiral Har- NAVAL CADETS.— E, F. U. S. de vey to succeed Rear-Adm. Sir Lucius Rutzen, and J. E. Wilson, to Wellesley Curtis, as Superintendent of Malta --A, C. Curtis, and F. M. Norman, to Dockyard.
Havannah-J. Grant, to ChampionCAPTAINS -D. Price, to Wellington H. L C. Robinson, to Victory-E. M. -J. E. Erskine (1838) to Havannah Collyer, to Ganges-W. H. Grubbie, --H. Smith, C.B., to Ganges-E. J. Bird, and C. W. Evans, to President. to Investigator.
MASTERS'-AssistANTS,—W. G. SouCOMMANDERS.-J. Gordon, to Wel. they, and J. R. Richards, to Linnet lington-A... Fairman, to be Inspect. G. P. Chapman, to Wellesley-F. Fox. ing Commander of Coast Guard-R. to Ganges-A. Berton, to Star-H. Harris, to Ganges.
Howell, to San Josef. LIEUTENANTS —W. G. Hensworth, J. SURGEONS.-B. Bynoe, to Wellington F. Arnold, C. B. Stockdale, and T. - W. Houghton, to Ganges-R. AnTribe, to Wellington--S. C. Dickens, derson, to Investigator-P. Leonard, to and H. Johnson, to Star-M. Lowther, Poictiers. to Champion-0. J. Jones, G. T. S. ASSISTANT SURGEONB.-T. Hunter, Wenthorp, and C. Dunbar, to Ganges and R. Galvin, to Wellington-J. G.
-M. G. H. W. Ross, and F. R. Robin Ballantine, to Linnet-T. Hunter, and eon, to Investigator - E. E. Turnour, to W. Edwards (b.) to Ganges-A. Brown, command Shearwater - R. McKinlay M.D., to San Josef—R. D. Pritchard, Richardson, to command Pluto - . to Blenheim-J M. Murphy, and R.C. Rooke, to Blenheim-C. B. Payne, to Scott, to Vernon-H Matthews, to InHuvannah-H. T. Vernou, to Penelope vestigator-W. Dunbar, to Andromache - H. T. Harvey, (flag) to Ceylon-A. -W. Richardson (act.) to VictoryG. E. Murray, to Stromboli, vice Har. W. C. Torrence, to Jamaica Hospital.
PAYMASTERS AND PURSERS.-J. Hug. MASTERS.-J. Taylor, to liellington gins, to Wellington –T. Kerigan, to -S. Libby, to Linnet-C. Gahan, to Ganges. Ganges-Ġ. Filmer, to command the CLERKS.-A. Wood, and E. W. Gor
don, to Wellington-H. T. J. Kelly, and Mates.-C. J. Forbes, to Enterprise J. Lewis, to Blenheim-G. H. Shep-E. Nares, to Prince Regent-G. Tay- hard, to Ganges-H. M. Moore, to Viclor, to Champion - W. B. Mason, to tory-J. N. Jefferson, (in charge) to Hibernia–J. B. Lethbridge, T. D. At Shear water. kinson, and A. Graves, to Excellent CHAPLAINS.-R. B. Howe, to Ganges W. H. Anderson, to St. Vincent-S. -J. Blackburn, to Powerful. Wolrige, to Wellesley.
NAVAL INSTRUCTOR.-K. M. Knapp, SECOND MASTERS.--C. Austey (act.) to Havannah. to Wellesley-F. Taylor, to Ganges- ENGINLERS.-S. Parry (Chief), to J. Crosby, to Sheurwater-J. E. Fit Pluto.-W. Rowley (first class assist.), tock, to Blenheim-C. Forbes, to Prince and C. Mackay (third class assist.) to Regent - E. Swain, to Dee-W. Greet, tisgard.