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Dec. 21, at Buenos Ayres, Lieut. J. Feb. 12, at St. Hellier's, Jersey, the P, Thurburn, commanding H.M.S. lady of Capt. Williams, R.N., of a son. Griffon, to Margaret, daughter of J.
Feb. 19, at Donnington, Berks, the White, Esq., of that city, lady of Capt. Hayes, R.N., of a son.
Capt. J. Moberly, R.N.
Feb. I, Capt. T. Lyne, R.N. Feb. 16, at Alva House, N.B., Capt. Feb. 10, at the Caledonia Hotel, InLord Frederick C, P. Beauclerk, R.N., verness, Mr. C. Grant, late Midshipto Jemima Eleonora, daughter of the man of H.M.S. Modeste. late James Johnstone, Esq.. of Alva. Feb. 15, at Penzance, retired Com.
March 13, at Brighton, Capt. Fitz. T. Ratsey, R.N. gerald, R.N., Governor of Western Au- Feb. 23, at Woolwich, Lieut. F. A. stralia, to Eleanor Caroline, daughter L. Bullock, son of Capt. F. Bullock, R.N. of C. Elwes, Esq., of Kemp Town, Feb. 23, near Wexford, Com. A. Brighton.
From the 21st of February to the 20th of March, 1848.
January, 1848.-Mean height of Barometer—29621 Inches; Mean Temperature=42.8
degrees; depth of rain fallen_3.13 inch, To CORRESPONDENTS.--We cannot exactly see in what manner we can carry out
the object of “B. C.,” if he will state more clearly what his views are, He shall be happy to give them consideration.
Hunt, Printer, 3, New Church Street, Edgware-road
N AUTICAL MAGAZINE
STRAITS OF SAN JUAN DE FUCA.-By Mr. G. I. Gibbon, Master,
R.N., of H. M. sloop “ Modeste."
CAPE FLATTERY and Cape St. Juan form the western entrance of the supposed Straits of San Juan de Fuca, the former, or Southern Cape, is situated in lat. 48° 23' N. and long. 124° 26' W.; it is moderately high, and on an E.b.S. bearing, distant 12 miles, appears like an island, high in the centre, with a gradual rounding slope from N.W. to S.E., and is thickly wooded with pine and cedar trees of gigantic size. At a little distance S.W. from the foot of the cape, and just within the confines of the beach, is a rock in the shape of a pillar about 400 feet high and 60 feet in circumference, the upper part of it has a slight inclination or bend to seaward. About it mile W. S. from the Cape is a flat island called “ Classet," covered with grass; it is nearly a mile long and half a mile wide, with several large rocks between it and the main; and about 14 of a mile N. from the centre of this island, and 2 miles N.W.b.W. W. from the Cape, is a dark rugged rock called “Duncan," from 8 to 10 feet above water, at low spring tides, and generally at three-quarters flood it is wholly covered. From the whirling and broken water extending from it, in a N.W. direction, a full half mile, I am led to suspect the existence of a dangerous reef of rocks, and as the tide here trends to the southward of west, and runs at the rate of three to five miles an hour, influenced by the state of the weather, the force and direction of the wind, I should recommend all strangers bound into, or out of the straits, to keep to the northward of the stream of it, until at least four or five miles east or west of its meridian; nor do I NO. 5.-VOL. XVII.
consider it advisable ever to pass between it and Classet Island unless bound into or out of Neah Bay, and then only with a good commanding breeze.
The latter, or northern cape, is situated in lat. 48° 33' N, and long. 124° 12' W.; it is one of the south-western projections of land of the Island of Vancouver, and also forms the east point of the entrance of Port St. Juan. There is nothing to encourage a descriptive account of it, more than being a plain low bluff, and like the whole south-western face of the island, is thickly wooded with pine, cedar, and oak trees; many from their stupendous size must be the growth of ages. I think its position is admirably adapted for the erection of a light-house.
I should recommend all strangers when bound into the straits after they have made both capes, to get into a mid-channel course, steering about E. 1 S. until the centre of Classet Island bears anything to the westward of S.S.W., then an E. | N. course will take you up off Rocky Point, (which is the most south-eastward projection of the Island of Vancouver, off which are many rocks above water. The largest of them is about the size of the hull of a ship of about 200 tons, and is the southernmost of the whole group,) and sufficiently to the northward to clear the shelving ground off False and New Dungeness. Should you be bound for Port Victoria, and from the direction of the wind have to borrow on the north shore, be sure to give those rocks a berth of at least half a mile, for the tide here rims very strong and irregular. From the outer or southern rock, the mouth of Victoria bears N.N.E. 1 E., about 114 miles distant. It has a dangerous rock lying off it, covered with only 11 feet of water, and bears from the south-eastern point of the harbour about south 500 fathoms. I know of no good anchorage with out the harbour, the land being steep to and bottom rocky. Her Majesty's sloop Modeste, in September, 1844, anchored in 35 fathoms water, about ore mile S. 1 E. from the inouth of the harbour, and N.N.E. E. from Rocky Point.
Being abreast of Rocky Point, and bound for New Dungeness, steer S.E. I E. to S.E.b.E., depending on the direction of wind and set of the tide, and having reached within sight of the Ness, being the eastern end of a remarkable belt of pine trees, which extends the whole length of the southern side of Dungeness Bay, bear a little to the southward of S.S.E., which will clear you of a long shelving spit of sand, extending about of a mile north, from the extreme point of Dungeness Spit, over which the tide runs very strong, and produces a dangerous race for boats. Run on that bearing until within the bay, and when you have brought the extreme point of Dungeness Spit to bear, from N.b.w. to N. W,, you may then haul up for the head of the bay, and anchor in any depth, from 7 to 4 fathoms, good tough holding ground.
The best position for a small vessel to anchor in, is about a quarter of a mile from the north side of the bay, with the extreme point of the sandy spit bearing from N.N.E. to N.E. in from 5 to 4 fathoms water.
There is excellent water to be had from a small river in the S.W. part of the bay, where you can enter your boats at half tide and fill the
casks in the boat. Potatoes, salmon, and a great variety of fish, are brought by Indians to barter for clothes. Whale and salmon oils are also offered in small quantities.
The Indians here are not unlike those at Cape Flattery, the inen have a wild and savage aspect, are of middle stature, and somewhat robust, their complexion tawny, their only covering a small plaited grass fringed apron, round their loins. The women present a soft and mild appearance, and not of an uninteresting complexion; they have a pleasing tone of articulating words of their language, and were it not for the deformity of the upper part of their heads, which are flattened when infants, they would be symmetrically formed. They are blessed with a bewitching risibility of expression, which is seldom displayed with more becoming modesty by an enlightened race. Their dress is simply a fringed belt, made from the fibres of the inner part of bark of the white cedar, worn round the loins.
The climate, I think, is in no way insalubrious at any season of the year, the distant country is exceedingly mountainous, many of the highest peaks (particularly Mount Baker) are capped with perpetual snow; whilst there are many extensive plains, clothed with exuberant pasture, where numerous herds of elk and deer are found. The dense forests of pine, cedar, oak, yew, maple, poplar, ash, willow, alder, elder, and hazel, are the abiding places of the hear, panther, wolf, fox, racoon, Jynx, and squirrel; whilst the lakes and rivulets abound with wild-fowl, (swans, geese, ducks, and seal, &c.), and in season the swamps and marshes afford cover for snipe and plover.
It is in the lakes of the high land where the sagacious beaver builds its huge dam with such adroitness and skill, so, as its instinct would seem, to surpass the genius of man himself.
During my short stay here, of seven days, the weather was particularly fine, for although rain fell incessantly the whole of one day, still the atmosphere did not feel humid, the temperature was mild, the thermometer ranging from 52° to 530 and the barometer kept at 30-30. I had no opportunity of ascertaining the time of high water, or its vertical rise and fall, at the full and change of the moon, and having no artificial horizon, was unable to ascertain, with the accuracy I could wish, the exact geographical position of the extreme point of Dungeness Spit on which a beacon would be invaluable to a mariner visiting this bay. However by using the sea horizon in the morning, and taking a back observation at noon, and applying to the chronometers their errors on Greenwich mean time, with their daily rates obtained last at Honolulu, “ Sandwich Islands,” makes the long. 123° 8' 02" N., and the lat. 48° 12' 20" W., which, I think, will be found near the truth.
EXPERIMENTS MADE TO DETERMINE THE LENGTH, HEIGHT, AND
SPEED OF THE SEA, NEAR THE CAPE OF Good Hope. THE height of the sea was determined by the method recommended by M. Arago, viz. :-observing the height, that the eye must be raised above the water line, in order to see the crest of the coming wave on with the sea horizon, when the ship is in the trough of the sea. This method, which may seem difficult at first, we found after a little practice, to be capable of giving very fair results, where the means of a number of observations were taken:
The length of the sea was measured, by noting the length of line required to veer a spar astern of the ship, when going dead before it; so that, the spar might be on the crest of one wave, when the ship was on the crest of the preceding one. At times, when the sea was regular, I have reason to believe, we obtained a very close approximation to the truth.
The speed of the sea was obtained, by noting the time the crest of the wave took to pass from the spar to the ship's stern; adding, of course, the speed the ship was going to that observed:
SHANGHAI is situated in the province of Kiang-su. According to the statistical tables of the Emperor Kien-long, Kiang-su contains 40,000 square miles, and has a population of nearly 38,000,000 souls. If these figures are correct, they give an average of 946 inhabitants to the square mile, and show this province to be the most populous in the world, in proportion to its extent.
Kiang-su is esteemed the richest province in China. It consists of plains perfectly watered, being traversed in its whole length by the