« 이전계속 »
New Books. NARRATIVE OF THE VOYAGE OF THE SAMARANG, during the years 1843-46, em
ployed surveying the Islands of the Eastern Archipelago; accompanied by a brief vocabulary of the principal languages. Published under the authority of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, by Sir Edward Belcher, R.N., C.B., F.R.s., F.G.S, 8c., Commander of the Expedition, with notes on the natural history of the islands, by Arthur Adams, Assistant surgeon, R.N.
The contributions of hydrographic surveyors, to the general store of knowledge, have neither been few, nor unimportant. The journals of Beechey, Foster, King, Fitzroy, and Stokes, afford evidence of the assiduity and diver. sified intelligence, with which this section of naval officers labour in their prescribed vocation, is carried on; and give abundant proof of the energy and perseverence with which they collect materials for publication, and record their daily proceedings. If we have enlightened and eloquent histories of important national events, from the pens of military writers, graphic details of heart-stirring campaigns, episodes exceeding romance and drama, in daring and pathetic incident, and not unfrequently a lurid unfolding of the intricate texture of national policies, and stratagetical statesmanship; from the naval literali, (created by the Hydrographic Office,) we have the researches of fresh and unfettered intellect, in new and untrodden fields of nature; startling situations of individual peril, that seem designed only for the illustration of individual bravery ; manifestations of resource and promptitude in extremity, and personal exposure that wear the bearing of inspiration from a presiding providence, together with invaluable hints for the young and aspiring seaman, in the important accomplishment of knowing “what to observe and how to observe." Such works can scarcely be perused without engendering a love of knowledge, and also of adventure; both of which, tend at once to form and to dignify the character of the British naval officer. But they do much more than this; they often suggest the most important views of what should be the policy of Great Britain, towards distant countries. They do their utmost to enlighten her states. men on the great questions of our commercial relationships ; and where their evidence is candidly received, they assist in dispelling many absurd and injurious illusions in the minds both of senators and of the public.
In calling the attention of our readers, to the two interesting volumes before us, we have to observe that, on the return of Sir Edward Belcher from his former voyage, in H.M.S. Sulphur, in 1842, during the continuance of hostilities with China, he offered his services, to take part in the operations, expected to be proceeded with in the ensuing spring. They were accepted, and he, consequently, commissioned the Samarang, of twenty-six guns, on the 17th of November, of that year.
About this period, however, intelligence of the conclusion of the treaty of peace arrived, and the object of Sir Edward's voyage was happily changed.
His talents were now required for an employment more conducive to the advancement of civilization, and to the true principles of international policy; and we find him engaged to proceed to the Chinese Seas, for the purpose of making a satisfactory survey of regions, the hydrographic knowledge of which was by the opening of several Chinese ports, rendered of such great importance to British commerce.
The Samarang left Spithead on the 26th of January, 1843, but did not reach Falmouth until the 5th of February, owing to the severe gales that prevailed. Here, agreeably with Sir Edward's instructions, the Samarang was swung, to determine the amount of local attraction, and experiments were made on shore with Hansteen's needles. These were conducted at the
house of Robert Ware Hose, Esq., to whose scientific merits a well-deserved compliment is paid en passant.
On the evening of the 9th of February, 1843, the Samarang proceeded to sea, and on the 25th, passed between the Island of Fuertaventura, (Canaries,) and the coast of Africa. Here, in lat. 27° 7' N., long. 14° 34' W., she fell in with the wreck of a large vessel, which had been observed on the homeward voyage of the Sulphur, off the coast of Portugal; the fore part of her bow timbers and stem, still above water. Her drift to this position is considered, by Sir Edward, as evidence of the prevailing southerly currents, for being two-thirds immersed, and probably covered with barpacles, she could have been but little affected by the wind.
On the 2nd of March, the Samarang passed the Island of Bonavista, and “ much closer to the breakers," observes Sir Edward, “ than we should have ventured, had I been aware of the danger reported in that neighbourhood." The next day she anchored in the Bay of Porto Praya, in the Island of St. Jago, Cape de Verds. Here she remained four days, refitting, watering, and completing astronomical observations, the observing position being “ upon Quail Island, rather nearer to the landing place than the centre of the island, and just below the highest ground."
“I deem it necessary," remarks Sir Edward, “ to be particular in stating these facts, because discrepancies are frequently noticed by successive visitors to the same port, which may be traced to the difference in locality. Magnetic observations for correct comparison should always be conducted in one particular site, and especially amongst islands of volcanic origin. At Tahiti, the differences of observation are often great. The consul, or principal merchant should be apprised of the exact spot, and the place should be marked, if time permit, by some such effectual method as digging a hole and filling it up with lime and stones, which will soon become a solid conglomerate. Three good angles to conspicuous objects, would also assist in finding such a position.
“ The amount of magnetic variation or dip, is well known to differ on the eastern and western sides of islands, ard therefore on basaltic or trap formations too much care cannot be taken to select the same localities, used by former observers. The data offered to prove the question of annual change can be of little value otherwise, although we may notice in recent publications, the deduction of this element, from the year 1600 to the present, without any certain knowledge of the positions at which they were observed."
These remarks seem well worthy of remembrance by other observers. After leaving Porto Praya, the Samarang directed her course to the Cape, and there her commander had the pleasure to meet the discovery ships, Erebus and Terror, and to exchange social and naval courtesies with his good friends, Ross and Crozier.
On leaving Simon's Bay, the Samarang sailed for Singapore, and thence to Borneo; the instructions comprehending an especial visit to Sarawak, and its justly celebrated British Rajah. For many particulars of this sojourn we must return to the work at future opportunities, and also for numerous interesting facts, relating to the social, political, and moral condition of the islands visited, contributed by Mr. Adams, in addition to that department especially committed to him, namely : the natural history of the places described. The loss and recovery of the Samarang, in the River Sarawak, will be found a most interesting incident in the history of proceeding, and is another testimony of the resource and promptitude of Britons, both officers and seamen, in the hour of emergency. The attack of the pirates, and their defeat is also an episode of much and heart-stirring effect. Altogether, the work will well repay a perusal, in the variety and importance of its information, as well as in the practical value of many of the suggestions and facts which it brings together, bearing both on the naval and commercial interests of Great Britain, and directing also the eye of the christain philanthropist and philosopher, to many a neglected region in which the tree of life as well as of knowledge, might be successfully planted. We shall close this, our first notice, with the following extract, relating as it does to an important object, long since proposed to the naval world, and soon, we trust, to be accomplished.
“I received a communication from the Governor, Lieut.-Col. Butterworth, requesting an opinion as to the site for the Horsburgh testimonial, intended to be erected as a lighthouse, in some part of the Strait of Singapore. The sum of 6,400 dollars was already subscribed for that purpose. A surveying party, under the command of Lieut. Baugh, was despatched to examine the Romania Islands, and shoals adjacent, and upon the completion of the plan executed by Mr. Richards, second master, my opinion was given in favour of placing it upon the outward and southern Romania Island, not only as calculated to guide vessels safely in and out of the straits, but as a better lead to ships approaching the eastern side. Vessels could grazé the island on which the lighthouse would be erected, could anchor to await tide, and would always be in a condition to make progress, without any attendant danger.
"This would not, however, to be the case, if placed upon Pedro Branca; it is true that it would then point out where the dangers, so well described by Horsburgh, exist, and enable a vessel, if she had sufficient breeze, to aroid them; but more than this it would not effect, but if Romania Island invites approach, and securely clears Pedro Branca, there can be no solid reason for putting a light in a spot where it could only partly serve one purpose.
" The Romania Shoals are not dangerous, even if a vessel ground there, and she must then draw above eighteen feet, and the position of Romania would afford facilities of communication, as well of forwarding letters to Singapore, without detention. There are many other reasons for preferring this spot for a lighthouse, one of which, and the most important is that a light will carry a vessel clear of Johore Shoal, as long as it is kept in sight, and the same outwards. No light in any other place could effect this desirable object."
WEBSTER's ROYAL RED Book is the best Guide Book that we have met with for the Metropolis of Great Britain. An alphabetical arrangement of residencies, followed by another of persons, renders it at once one of the easiest possible of reference for immediate information of that kind which is sought for, not only by strangers, but even by residents. It is carefully done ; the whole of the proper names appearing in capital letters, and those of the streets in red ink, accompanied by an almanack, evinces a degree of attention not always bestowed on these matters.
ENGRAVINGS. Her Majesty's V181T TO TIE CLYDE.- This is another of those heartstirring scenes which cannot fail to animate every beholder of this print, with the wish to have been present on an occasion which forms an interest. ing event in the annals of English history. The talented artist, Mr. Clarke, of Greenock, has endeavoured to concentrate within prescribed limits, every object that presented itself. It is needless to say how difficult it is to portray a moying panorama; Mr. Clarke has been particularly happy in
the group; the principal objects, and not least H.M. yachts, are truly demonstrated, the whole forming a coup d'ail, at once impressive as it is faithfully depicted.
BRITISH AND NORTH AMERICAN PACKET Ships “ EUROPA" AND “ NIAGARA."-We must not overlook the impression of the British and North American Mail Packet Ships, Europa and Niagara, by the same artist also before us. These proofs of Mr. Clarke's talent are an evidence that he is master of his particular profession; while Mr. Dutton's superior touches, as the lithographer, have not been lost in giving much effect to both scenes. The productions of Mr. Clarke will be considered ornaments to the portfolio of every lover of the fine arts.
H.M.S. "Queen,' - Another of Mr Dutton's lithographs has been received. In the nautical world, what seaman is there who does not feel that his ship is part of himself? and when he separates from her, would not wish to preserve the resemblance of the noble vessel that has “walked the waters like a thing of life,'' that has borne him through the raging seas or the deadly strife, in safety to the shores of his native home. Such objects must be highly valued by the mariner, particularly when they come within his means of possession. From the specimens we have seen, Mr. Dutton claims a share of our notice ; he is a young and rising artist, and while we feel it a duty to encourage native talent, whenever it comes under our observation, it is incumbent on us to give an unbiassed opinion as to its worth. A view of H.M.S. Queen lies on our table; we can safely say that, it is executed in Mr. Dutton's usual correct and masterly manner, being a faithful representation of a painting, by Lieut. West, who with the generosity that characterizes the British sailor, and the noble zeal that emulates the philanthropist, bestows the proceeds in aid of the fund for the relief of the widows and orphans of those who lost their lives in the Avenger.
PROMOTIONS AND APPOINTMENTS.
ADMIRALTY, March 20.—The following promotions have this day taken place, consequent upon the death of Admiral Richard Matson:-Vice-Admiral of the Red Sir Adam Drummond, k C.H., to be Admiral of the Blue – Vice-Admiral of the White George M‘Kinley, to be Vice-Admiral of the Red-Vice-Admiral of the Blue Sir Samuel Pym, K.C.H , to be Vice-Admiral of the White-Rear-Admiral of the Red James Richard Dacres, to be Vice-Admiral of the Blue-RearAdmiral of the White Hon. Josceline Percy, C.B., to be Rear-Admiral of the Red-Rear. Admiral of the Blue Hon. Sir Fleetwood Broughton Reynolds Pellew, C.B., K.C.H., to be Rear-Admiral of the White--Captain Charles Sotheby, to be Rear-Admiral of the Blue.
ADMIRALTY, March 23.–The following promotions have this day taken place, consequent upon the death of Vice- Admiral Frederic Warren: -Vice-Admiral of the White, Richard Curry, C.B., to be Vice-Admiral of the Red-Vice-Ad. miral of the Blue Samuel Butcher, to be Vice-Admiral of the White-RearAdmiral of the Red John Surman Carden, to be Vice-Admiral of the BlueRear-Admiral of the White Hon. Sir Anthony Maitland, C.B., K.C.M.G., to be Rear-Admiral of the Red-Rear-Admiral of the Blue Sir Francis Augustus Collier, C.B., K.C.H., to be Rear-Admiral of the White-Captain Sir Augustus William James Clifford, Bart., C.B., to be Rear-Admiral of the Blue.
ADMIRALTY, April 3.--The following promotions have this day taken place, consequent upon the death of Rear-Admiral Samuel Hood Inglefield:-RearAdmiral of the Blue Sir Charles Napier, K.C.B., to be Rear-Admiral of the White-Captain Sir Joshua Rowley, Bart., to be Rear-Admiral of the Blue. PROMOTIONS
-J. W. Newport, to Powerful-Hon.
S. O'Grady, to Trincomalee — A. H. COMMANDERS.-J. Dodd, G. H. Dacre, Law, A. C. F. Henage, D. G. David. M. Hewson, J. Waterman, J. Treeve, son, A. Broadhead, T. M. S. Pasley, J. Atkins, H. Conn, and T. Drane, to H. Beamish, W. H. Wright, T. H. be retired Commanders—V. O. Ingle- Martin, and E. T. Nott, to Hastingsfield.
A. J. Bullock, to Gorgon-W. Spark, LIEUTENANT.-W. M. Dowell. to Waterwitch.
Naval Cadets.-S. Douglas, to Ca. APPOINTMENTS.
ledoria–J. J. Barlow to Victory–J.
Patton, to Powerful-A. H. Caulfield, FLAG OFFICERS.—Sir William Hall E. H. Wilkinson, and W. H. Buckle, Gage, G.C. H., to be Commander-in- to Hastings-C. F. Hill, ty Prince ReChief at Devonport, vice Admiral Sir gent- H. W. Mist, to Gorgon-W. J. John West, K.C.B., whose period of Walker, to Hibernia. service has expired.
MASTERS' AssistANTS.-F. Piper and CAPTAIN.-J. W. Morgan, to Has J. Hitchfield, to Triton-W. E. Hare, tings.
to Waterwiteh-C. B. Brodie, and P. COMMANDERS, - J. A. Paynter, to Parks, to San Josef-C. May, A. Howe, Gorgon-R. R. Quin, to Waterwitch and G. Nixon, to Hastings — R. H. J, H. Cockburn, to Hastings-H. Har Gronsell, to Enterprise-R. L. Tracey, vey, R. R. Western, and H. J. Doug. to Investigator–T. E. Milne. to Sharplas, to study at the Steam Factory, shooter--Č. Chatfield, to Prince Regent. Woolwich.
SURGEONS.-A. Smith, to superinLIEUTENANTS.-J.C. Bailey, to come tend Tory convict ship-J. W. Webb, mand Sharpshooter-C. H. Young, and to Gorgon-R. T. C. Scott, to Hastings M. Lowther, to Gorgon-H. T. Vernon, -J. T. Jenkins, to Waterwitch. to S'ar-J. F. Ross, and G. V. Voss, ASSISTANT-SURGEONS.-C. Sproull, to Hibernia–C. G. Grylls, W. F. War (act.), and J. D. Cronin, to Victoryren, and W. C. Forsyth, to Waterwitch J. Closs, (act.) to San Josef-P. Por-W. L. N. Lockyer, to be flag to Sir ter, to Triton—J. Elliott, to AlbanFrancis Collier-H. J. Grant, G. A. W. C. M-Clare, (act.), to Gorgon-D. Phayre, G. Hancock, E. Webber, C. McEwen, to Hastings C. Roberts, to T. Curme, H. B. Everest, and W. G. Sharpshooter--H. French, confirmed to Lonard, to Hastings_Lord John Hay, President. to Powerful-J. P. Branch, to Cale- PAYMASTERS AND PURSERS.-G. W. donia–M. F. Brownrigg, to be flag to Pickthorne, to Gorgon-C. G. Burney, Sir William Gage.
(act.) to Waterwitch-W. Burke, to MASTERS.-J. Chegwyn, (act.) to Hastings—J. Irving, to be Secretary to Powerful-G. H. Forster, to Gorgon- Sir William Gage, G.C.H., CommanderH. D. Beach, to Waterwitch-T. Driver, in-Chief at Devonport. to Royal Sovereign-H. Brehaut, to CLERKS -H. J. R. Miall, to ResistHastings—J. S. Pritchard, to be Chief ance-J. Winstanley, (in charge,) and Officer in command of a Station, C. Hutchins, to Sharpshooler-Č. A.
MATES.-P. de Kautzow, to Star Shapcote, to Gorgon-C. G. Burney, T. Campbell, to Sharpshooler-G. El (acting paymaster and purser,) to liott, to Prince Regent.
Waterwitch, SECOND MASTERS.-F. J. Crabbe, to ENGINEERS.—G, Aitchinson (chief) Sharpshooter-J. Symons, to Victory- J. D. Beaton (second class assist.), to W. Imrie, to Blenheim-F. S. Skeed, Fisgard-C. M. Mauwich (assist. chief) to Dee-B. B. Stuart, and M. T. Wright, F. M. Sutton, J. A. Barby, and J. D. to Hastings.
Beaton (assists.), to Triton-G. Wicks MIDSHIPMEN.-C. L. Waddilove, and (first class chief), to Gorgon-J. BarGray to Victory-Hon. W. J. Ward, ber first class act.), to Sharpshooterand the Hon. M. Hay, to Prince Regent A. Leys (second class), to Blenheim.