« 이전계속 »
days. As far as the equator the winds ranged between E.N.E., and S.E., but principally well to the southward of east which prevented our crossing the line farther east than the 154th degree of west longitude. We experienced a current more or less every day setting to the southward, after passing the equator the winds still continued to range as above, but somewhat stronger than when to the northward; the current now took a more northerly direction about W.N.W., and the rate about half a mile an hour.
Flints Island. On the 13th of September we passed in sight of Flints Island, the position of which deduced from a compass bearing and the estimated distance, I conceive to be in latitude 11° 28'0" S., and longitude 151° 48' west of Greenwich, this I can venture to say is within five or six miles of the truth. It is very low and cannot be seen far off.
Peregrino Island. On the 15th of September passed very near the spot where Peregrino is marked on the chart, but saw it not.
We began to lose the trade wind in latitude 22° south from which to Valparaiso the winds were exceedingly irregular. In latitude 31° south we had strong breezes for three days from E.N.E., and then from S.E., three days longer. In my opinion we were not far enough to the southward, if we had gone as far south as the fortieth degree we should have made a shorter passage. The best passage known from the Sandwich Islands to Valparaiso was made in forty-two days by a small American brig, she crossed the trades with a topmast studding sail set, then kept well to the southward, where she met with strong westerly winds, which continued with but little interruption till her arrival at Valparaiso.
Mas à Fuera,On the 20th of October passed near the island of Mas à fuera. This island as I stated in my remark book of last year, is incorrectly laid down in all our charts, its position according to my observations in passing it on this occasion is in longitude 80° 56' 30"
southerly wind is anticipated ; in full confidence of which, vigilance had perhaps become relaxed, the barometrical and other indications overlooked or disregarded.
On Friday evening October 21st, the lightning about the mountainous regions eastward of Valparaiso was most remarkably vivid and continuous, and accompanied with some thunder. The welkin in general remained free from cloud, but immense masses appeared stagnant upon the mountains, and a dense fog-bank settled along the sea horizon.
On Saturday the same weather continued ; the wind light or moderate from the northward. At 3h. 30m. p.m., a smart shock of an earthquake took place, and in three minutes after a more severe one followed, which was general on the heights about the town, as well as on the low ground of the Almendral, which is not usual, for slight shocks are frequent on the plain, which are not felt on the elevated positons. The night set in cloudy, turbid and obscure, with a moderate northerly breeze, and falling barometer.
Before midnight the wind increased, the sea became much agitated, the surf on the beach unusually so; its hollow noise was deafening to a considerable distance, and so totally disproportioned to the wind, that it was considered more the effect of the afternoon shock than the precursor of a visitation
West of Greenwich. Error of chronometers corrected and reduced back on our arrival at Valparaiso four days afterwards.
From Valparaiso to Central America. The Talbot sailed from Valparaiso on the 1st of November, and anchored in Port de la Union (Central America) on the 26th without any remarkable occurrence. The currents in the vicinity of the equator and crossing the bay of Panama varied considerably both in direction and velocity. The winds were favourable though light till after crossing the equator, which we did on the 16th in longitude 83° 30'00" West of Greenwich. We then had light variable winds and calons, thunder, lightning, heavy squalls and rain till we had passed Cape Blanco, when we were favoured with a fresh north-easter out of the Gulf of Papagayo which took us to the entrance of the Gulf of Fonseca.
Gulf of Fonseca.-We entered this Gulf on the 26th of November and anchored off the watering place in Chicarene Bay for the purpose of completing our water with greater despatch, as by anchoring here instead of the inner harbour it saved the boats employed on that service a pull of at least three miles with each turn of water. This anchorage is perfectly safe during the fine season, viz : from May till November, as the only strong winds during that period are off the land from the northward, and consequently cause no sea, but during the remaining months the inner harbour of Port de la Union ought to be resorted to. Supplies of every kind are scarce and dear, except beef, which is tolerably cheap and good. Water is good and abundant.
Port Acajutla. The distance from la Union to Port Acajutla is about 115 miles, a moderate day's sail, but owing to exceedingly light and baffling winds it cost us three days and a half.
unknown for a number of years. His Majesty's sloop Sparrowhawk, then at anchor in the port, and some few of the merchant vessels, made proper precautions for bad weather, but far the greater part of the shipping were seen, when daylight set in on the 23rd, to have taken no precaution whatever.
At daybreak on the 23rd, it blew moderately at N.b.W., or right into the port; a very heavy swell rolling in, and two or three boats were swamped at the jetty in attempting to land. Towards eight o'clock some smart rain fell, and thick hazy weather set in. The wind also had rapidly increased to a strong gale. At this time the Chileno brig Cinco de Abril, at anchor off the Almendral, in about six fathoms, was surrounded with broken water, which in bad weather occurs some distance off shore, and her case was already hopeless ; she commenced driving before sh. 30m., and by iOh. A.M., was thrown upon the beach, amid a most furious surf, which in 84 minutes washed her to atoms. Her crew, except one drowned, escaped by means of a line secured on shore, which had been got there with great difficulty, although this vessel was thrown well up on the beach.
At 8h. 40m. the American ship William Byrne, on the point of sailing for Guyaquil, and lying in seven fathoms, a short distance from that part deno. minated Cape Horn, began to drive. She then sent down her top-gallant The principal town of this port is Sonsonatte which is situated about fifteen miles inland. There is also a small village on the coast which gives its name to the port; it consists of about thirty habitations of various descriptions, most of them of the meanest order; they are constructed of bamboo open work at the sides, and the top is rudely thatched of palm leaves which latter is however made impervious to the heavy rains that fall almost perpendicular in the wet season. There is also still remain ing the ruins of an old Spanish fort in which is situated the dwelling house of the Governor. This officer performs all the official duties of Captain of the port, Administrator, &c. I estimate the population at about one hundred and thirty individuals.
The port consists of an open bay, of which Point Remedios is the eastern boundary. There is anchorage all over it at a prudent distance from the shore in from seven to fifteen fathoms water; the bottom appears to be of sand with here and there a patch of mud. Large vessels should not anchor in less than twelve fathoms.
The surf breaks heavily on the beach which renders landing in ship's boats almost impracticable. The usual mode of effecting this object is in large canoes or bongoes which belong to merchants residing at Sonsonatte, and are kept for the purpose of discharging cargoes. There is generally one of these kept afloat, moored just without the surf in the north-east corner of the bay, near where the village is situated, persons desirous of landing usually pull in in their own boats, transfer themselves with a portion of their crew into the bongo and haul in through the surf to the beach by a line fast to the shore for that purpose. To get on shore dry they will then require to be carried out through the receding surf which is about a foot or eighteen inches deep. There is another landing place which is practicable only in the finest weather, on the rocks about
yards, and let go a second anchor, when she appeared at the end of her resources. At 10h. 30m., her starboard chain parted, and the other anchor refusing to hold her, she passed within a few fathoms of the dangerous rocks of Cape Horn, and came on shore on the western part of the Almendral beach, with her larboard broadside to the shore, where she continued beating and rolling about until her masts were cut away, when she took a more fixed position in the sand. At this time it blew hard in squalls, and the rain was incessant. But though the surf beat most impetuously upon this ship, as well as upon the beach, yet no difficulty was apprehended in getting the passengers and crew on shore, until it was put to the test.
And now had arrived a moment of peculiar excitement,-disaster and distress were prevailing in every direction, the beach was crowded with spectators, among whom the foreign residents were most conspicuously assiduous, rendering at all points the most effective advice and assistance, particularly the British Vice-Consul, J. A. Miller, Esq., J. Waddington, Esq. F. Burdon, Esq., Messrs. M'Farline, Green, King, E. White, and Mr. Beecroft, late of his Majesty's ship Blonde.
The evening preceding this eventful day, Mrs. Cope, the lady of W. Cope, Esq. his Majesty's Consul at Guyaquil, had embarked for a passage to that river, and had been induced to go on board thus early in the persuasion that
a mile south of the village towards Point Remedios; but great care and judgment are required in attempting it.
Point Remedios.—Has a reef off it extending in a south-westerly direction nearly three miles in fine weather. This reef scarcely shows itself, therefore more caution is necessary in rounding it. Vessels of a light draught have frequently passed safely over the outer part of it unknowingly, whereas several others less fortunate have been brought up by detached rocks, and a total wreck has ensued. The point is long and low, thickly wooded, and from the eastward easily recognized. Its extreme is in latitude 13° 33' 0” N., and longitude 89° 44' 0" W., of Greenwich; variation 10° easterly.
Supplies.-Beef, poultry, vegetables, and fruit are plentiful and cheap. Water is plentiful on shore, but the difficulty of getting it off through the surf is very great; however, if much wanted, it may be had with a little extra labour and perseverance.
Port of Istapa. We experienced some difficulty in finding this place, owing to the hidden position of the village, the similarity of the coast, and the want of instructions to guide us, therefore, I conceive the following simple description will assist a stranger in hunting it out.
The whole of this country is remarkable for its mountainous ranges,
the ship was to sail forthwith. Having but lately arrived from England she had embarked a variety of valuable property, calculated for an extended residence in South America. Nearly the first intimation this interesting lady received of the perilous situation in which she was so suddenly placed, was the ship striking the ground with fearful violence; the fury of the sea that beat across her decks, the crashing of the masts and yards as they fell over the side, and other distracting sounds, followed in rapid succession. At this particular point of the bay it became a matter of infinite concern to releive this lady without delay.
With the intent of getting a line on shore from the ship a small boat, the only one within a mile of the spot, was hastily launched by Mr. Beecroft and five English and American seamen, who offered their services; but the boat was utterly incompetent for the occasion, and had hardly progressed ten fathoms when an enormous roller overwhelmed her, turned her over and over, and whirled her like a cork upon the beach, the people in her escaping with difficulty, chiefly by the assistance of the lassos thrown them by the numerous Chileno horsemen that assembled. All attempts at floating a rope from the ship were found fruitless by reason of a strong off-set.
In the next place an excellent and powerful swimmer was procured, and by the assurance of a large reward was induced to attempt this hazardous enterprise. With much difficulty he reached the ship by catching a line thrown to him from the bowsprit; the off-set had well nigh set him out; he was given up as inevitably lost by the spectators. His exertions led to no result.
Meantime Messrs. M‘Farline and Green, the navy contractors at Valparaiso, with a promptness and zeal that elicited the warmest encomiums, appeared suddenly upon the spot with a powerful whale boat, conveyed from the port by a gang of their own people; she was immediately launched, manned, despatched, and succeeded in bringing a hawser from the vessel, and establishing a communication. This done, she brought the lady and her
which may be seen in clear weather from a great distance seaward, many of their lofty peaks and volcanoes, serving admirably as beacons to guide strangers to the various little ports and roadsteads situated on its coast, which otherwise would not be easily found. Such is the case when bound to the roadstead off the village of Istapa. There are visible from the vicinity of this roadstead, to many miles seaward, four conspicuous mountains which are situated as follows: commencing with the easternmost one, which is the volcano of Pacayo; next west of this is the water volcano of Guatemala; then the fire volcano of Guatemela, and the last and westernmost is the volcano of Tajumulco. The first and last of these volcanoes are of a moderate height, and flattened or scooped out at the top; but the two middle ones, which are the volcanoes of Guatemala, are considerably higher and much more peaked at their tops. The easternmost one of the two last mentioned is the water volcano; it has but one peak which at some periods of the year is slightly snow-capped, and from the holes and crevices near its summit ice is procured the whole year round for the luxurious inhabitants of Guatemala. The fire volcano is to the westward of the last mentioned, and appears to have two peaked summits which open and close according to their bearing. From the roadstead it has the appearance of one mountain with a deep notch in its summit. The upper part of this mountain has a whitish
attendants on shore, for whose safety the most intense interest had been felt for the last two hours. She was landed half dressed, wet, terrified, and exhausted ; but amid the heartfelt congratulations of the assembled multitudes, and was immediately conveyed to the residence of the Vice-Consul.
While on this particular spot the foregoing events were transpiring, other parts of the bay witnessed similar disasters; vessel after vessel continued to break adrift, and gun after gun, fired as signals of distress, implored assistance, which it was impossible to afford. Numbers of the large launches used in the discharging and loading of merchant ships were driven on shore in groups, where they beat each other to pieces; while others, more securely anchored, sunk on the spot. A great many ships' boats also drove on shore; but as no attempt was made to receive and haul them up, they also went to pieces.
About 1h. 50m. P.M., the Chileno barque Serena, deeply laden with timber, parted her cables, and came on shore stern foremost on the beach, near the Cape Horn rocks. She broke up instantly from abaft the chestrees, but the bows, with the bowsprit and foremast, resisted the elements for several hours before they also disappeared. About the same time the English brig Sir John Kean, the Chileno brig Independence, the Irish schooner John Echlin, and the Chileno schooner Rosa, drove on shore in a group on the east side of the jetty, where they lay beating with great violence, the sea making a clear passage over them. The Chileno vessel of war Arequipana drove, and was in danger of foundering; she fired repeated guns of distress, but to no purpose. In short, destruction and distress presented themselves in every direction.
Between 4 and 5 P.M., the weather partially cleared up, and gave some hope of a favourable night; but this delusive idea had well nigh been fatal to many, as it led them to lose the remnant of daylight, and the most favourable time of tide to land. Soon after sunset the storm recommenced with exces