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20th.— There are many retired master mariners in Liverpool who having little to do, would possibly gladly attend for a fee of five shillings per diem, which would be no great tax upon the funds.

21st.—One of the Trinity-House Examiners who is said to talk so much about Euclid, analytical demonstrations, &c.; and to speak with so much contempt of all the scientific examiners out of London, must surely have acquired more knowledge than he possessed when he edited Thomson's Tables, printed in 1845, as he seems then to have been unaware of precession, aberration, and nutation.-Vide p. 21.

On February 27th 1844 * Regulus
He gives * Rt. Ascn. 10h. 00m. 048.00 should be 10h, oom. 068.56 error -28.56
Decl. 12° 43' 34'8N. “ 12° 43' 21"1N, , +1317

Same* 25th March
Rt. Ascn. 10h. 00m. 048.00 “ Ioh. 00m. 068.48 „ -28.48
Decl. 12° 43' 37"'5N.

12° 43' 21'7N. , +1518
Castor* 6th January
Rt. Ascn. 7h. 24m. 388.46

7h. 24m. 418.39 Decl. 32° 13' 27''N.

320 13 19/8 , +7112

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All Examiners ought to be themselves examined by some person whose abilities are undoubted and who can neither have prejudiced nor interested motives, say some one nominated, by Admiral Beaufort, Mr. Raper, Mr. Riddel, or many others, such as Mr, Coleman senior; but such as Mr. Griffin, or Mr. B. J. Bell could not be supposed impartial.


(The report being also anonymous.) Liverpool, 12th Oct., 1848.


In 1835.-In Well Street, London Docks, this establishment, to improve the habits and raise the character of British Seamen, was opened. Under the patronage of the Bishop of London a society was formed and officers of the Institution appointed, and rules were adopted for its management, among which we find the following :

“ That this Institution be designated, “The Sailor's Home, or Brunswick Maritime Establishment," having for its object, the providing a receptacle for seamen paid off from their respective ships in the port of London, or otherwise out of employ, where they may be boarded and lodged at as low a charge as possible, during the time they may have occasion or choose to remain there; and where the utmost efforts will be made to improve their moral condition, by affording them religious instruction, and by urging upon them a careful performance of their duties, both to God and man.

“ That all subscribers of one pound annually, be members of this Institution; and contributors of ten pounds, or upwards, be considered members for life.

“ That the chaplain of the Institution shall be a Clergyman of the Church of England, to be nominated by the Directors, subject to the approval of the Bishop of London.

“ That there shall be domestic worship morning and evening at the Sailor's Home; and that all meetings of the Institution, whether public or private, shall be commenced with prayer.

“ The Directors meet at the Sailor's Home the second Thursday in each month, at twelve o'clock, for transacting the business of the Institution”.

The institution is designed to afford protection to sailors from a long established and well organized system of extortion and imposition to which the acknowledged carelessness of their professional character, their habits of intemperance, and the pecularity of their circumstances render them singularly liable.

No one in England can be indifferent about the condition of the seaman without the danger of incurring the blame of neglecting the interest, or of being willing to compromise the credit of the nation. In Divine providence the security of this country from outward enemies is made materially to depend upon her seamen; the prosperity of the kingdom is closely connected with the success of its commercial transactions; and the character of the land stands immediately associated with the conduct of its seamen in all the distant parts of the world,

But there is still a higher and more important purpose to be considered in the object of the Sailor's Home, and it rests in the means that are adopted to impart, and the opportunities that are presented to the inmates, of receiving religous knowledge while they remain in the institution. From the very nature of their employment, there is not a class of men in Britain who labour under greater disadvantages than seamen do, with respect to the momentous concerns of a future state, and from the long removal they frequently experience in many cases, from the privilege of attending public worship. The seaman, on his return from a foreign voyage, and discharged from his ship the moment she arrives in the Dock, falls as a matter of necessity into the hands of the publican, or the crimp; his health, his morals, and his hard-earned wages, are alike sacrificed in scenes of riot and debauchery, and he again leaves the shores of England with the bitter feeling of having been robbed and injured in that land which should have afforded him a kind and christian reception.

But now the establishment of this Institution forms a board and lodging for seamen and sea apprentices, during the time they must unavoidably remain on shore between their voyages, where they live comfortably and pay moderately. It registers their characters, ships them when they are ready to go to sea again, and provides instruction without any charge to those who wish to improve themselves in navigation. The Building (on the site of the Brunswick Theatre) is large and well ventilated and is now capable of receiving 300 boarders, giving to each man a sleeping cabin to himself, which, with every other part of the building is kept

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clean and made comfortable; the provisions are good, and their clothes are washed for them; for all this the seaman pays fourteen shillings per week, lads twelve shillings, and apprentices ten shillings per week. The Seamen's Church, built expressly for them, adjoins the “Home”, in which all the seats are free. Thus the blessing of religious and useful instruc. tion, the opportunity of leading a sober and decent life, a just account of money entrusted to the care of the Institution, security of property, and assistance afforded in getting shipped again, are the advantages that the Sailor's Home holds out to seamen.

We have thus made known to our readers, the formation, the Rules, and the character of the Sailor's Home. Our limits prevent our saying more at present than to recommend it to the wealthy of all classes whose aid it very much deserves and requires, and to all seamen when they come to the Port of London, where they may board and lodge with comfort and safety while on shore.

Doubtless some of our seamen who have benefitted by this excellent Institution and into whose hands this number of the Nautical Magazine may fall, will recognize in the annexed sketch the “Home” which they have found in the Port of London, and we regret there are not similar ones also to be found in many other ports. But in a future number we purpose to resume the subject, to shew the good that has already been effected, and how much the Home has begun to be appreciated by sailors, with some interesting particulars connected with its history,


H.M. Steam-ship Blenheim," Cove of Cork,

September 21st, 1848. SIR.-Some years since, I sent you two or three letters on the “ back turn” in steam vessels, and you were good enough to let them appear in your volume for 1840, under the head of “ Steam Boat Evolutions." I have now a few more observations to offer on the same subject, and trust you will find a place for them.

Since the letters* above alluded to were written, and to which I refer your readers, I have served in other steam vessels, namely, the Vixen, and the Terrible, and it was found that they invariably went up stern to the wind, with sternway against both helm and after sail; and in numerous instances I have known other vessels to do the same.

Who, that has passed up and down the Thames in the steam vessels, which ply between Woolwich and London, has not admired the skilful

* In the first of those letters, there is a mis-print. In the paragraph which runs thus, “ If the wind be strong, she will not come round until she brings it on the starboard beam as at 6." Expunge the word “pot."

manner in which they are handled? On one occasion, I observed one of those small vessels, with sternway, in a very strong breeze, present her stern to the wind, against her helm; and the conductor was foiled in his attempt to lay her alongside the floating pier. Upon questioning him on the subject, he said They will go contrary sometimes;” but he had not the most remote idea that the wind had anything to do with it. Now, in those vessels, the length of the rudder bears a much greater proportion to the length of the keel, than is the case with sea-going vessels, which will probably account for their being obedient to the helm under ordinary circumstances.

I will now mention another instance. The Blenheim went out of this harbour one day last week, for the purpose of trying some experiments with her engines. An opportunity was taken to try the effect of the rudder with stern way. The wind was blowing a “royal” breeze, and the ship was hove-to with the wind on the starboard beam; the spanker and main trysail were set, all other sails being furled, and the helm put hard to starboard. The engines were then backed at full speed, when to the astonishment of every one, she payed round off and presented her stern to the wind, against her helm and after sail. This experiment, made on board a ship of the line, propelled by a screw, supported as it is by what has already been said on the subject, establishes, beyond all question, the fact, that the rudder of a sea-going ship is of no service to guide her with sternway.

It is obvious, therefore, that we ought not to endanger the rudder pintles any more, by shifting the helm with sternway, for however loth we may be to give up a long-cherished and time-honoured notion, it cannot be regarded any longer than as a fallacy.

I remain, yours, &c.,

ROBERT C. ALLEN, Master. To the Editor N.M,


OBJECTS OF WORSHIP. THROUGHOUT the empire of China some vague idea is entertained by the people of the existence of one great being whom they designate as Shang-ti, the supreme ruler, the supreme sovereign, or whom they call Tien, Heaven; and believe that he, by a fixed destiny controls all the affairs of men.

The learned among the Chinese speak of him as he is designated in their most ancient classics, as having no form, nor sound, nor savour, nor tangibility; and to their minds he appears divested of all distinct personality. They do not regard this sublime being as the creator of the universe, nor as possessed of the attributes of eternal, and independant existance; but merely as a vast controlling power, the producer and the disposer No. 11.--VOL. XVII.

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