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east winds, and there is no shelter from the sea, which rolls in heavily; but with all other winds I think any man-of-war could get out, if she did not leave it too late, till the sea was too heavy, as there is plenty of room for beating.
The passage from Guaymas to Molage Bay can be easily done in twenty hours. I left Molage again on the 14th, and arrived at Guaymas on the 16th, being thirty-six hours. On the 26th of August I sailed from Guaymas for Mazatlan, where I arrived on the 3rd of September, in eight days. This, at this season of the year is considered very fair, as south-easterly winds and calms prevail. I kept over by advice on the western shore, and passed inside of Catalon Island; but I think the more you can keep in mid-channel the better. We experienced little or no currents, but the wind was very light and the weather fine all the way.
On the 30th and 31st of August, we had an easterly current about 14' per diem. We anchored off Mazatlan, about 4 off Christon, on the following bearings, 23 fathoms water;—Christon Island, N.N.E. E.; Rock, N.E. E.; Venado, N.N.W.; Town, N.b.E. E. This is a very good berth for a large ship, like the Constance, but on the 8th I went about l'1 further in, with the following bearings, in 22 fathoms water, Christon, N.N.E. } E.; Town, N.b.E. . E.; Rock, N.E. E. This is a very good berth for a small vessel, and quite far enough off for safety, and more convenient when you have occasionally to communicate with the shore, with only one boat fit for the purpose. Here I lay till the 23rd of September: during the whole time we experienced light winds, and generally fine weather. The nights were always, and invariably, attended with heavy thunder, and very vivid lightning, and generally heavy rain with an occassional squall.
On the morning of the 19th we experienced a very heavy squall, which lasted for about two or three hours, and the water regularly boiling, which for the time made me imagine that it was the commencement of a very heavy Cordenazo; but in four hours it had passed off, and was quite fine. As far as I could judge the weather was not worse than you would meet with any where at certain seasons, but the rolling your boats into the water every now and then is the natural consequence of being anchored three or four miles off the land, in the open sea, where the current at times keeps the ship swung across the wind.
On the 23rd the barometer being very low all day, the moon being near the full, and the sun near the Equinox, it was deemed advisable to weigh, but we experienced nothing more than very terrific lightning and thunder, with heavy rain.
On the 26th I weighed for Guaymas again. During this passage of seven days we had very light winds, and chiefly from the north-west.
On the 2nd October, we experienced a very heavy long rolling swell from the south-east, which lasted two days. It was subsequently accounted for by being informed that on that day at Mazatlan and San Blas, it blew a very heavy gale of wind; but in the gulf we had no wind but only the swell.
We arrived on the 4th of October, and sailed on the 6th for Mazatlan, where we arrived on the 13th, in seven days. During most of this passage the winds were very light and variable, and I kept about the midchannel. The last three days though the wind was from south-east and south-west, the current run to the southward from half to a mile, an hour. I anchored outside Christon about two miles at first, but requiring about twenty-eight tons of water, and seeing two merchant ships inside, I weighed on the 16th and ran in also. Anchorage marks, Town, N.b.
W W .; Christon, N.W.b.W. į W.; Outer Rock, S. 1 E. At this season it is better not to anchor nearer Christon, in case of blowing you have room to drag.
On the 22nd as the moon was nearly full, I weighed and kept off and on till the 26th, when I anchored again inside and remained there till the 2nd of November, during which time the weather was fine, and cool, and the usual indication of the bad season being over, viz:--the absence of thunder and lightning at night.
On the 2nd sailed for San Blas, winds light and variable from W.N. W., current setting to the northward and eastward; anchored on the 5th, and sailed the same evening for Mazatlan, winds moderate and light from N.N.W., to N.W. a little current to the south-east.
On the morning of the 8th, we ran into Mazatlan with wind from E. N.E., anchorage marks, Town, N.b.W. W.; Christon Peak, N.W.b.W. 1 W.; Rock, S.b. E. 1 E.; Extreme Bluff, W.6.N. 1 N. During both passages the weather was very fine. We lay here till the 16th, during which time the weather was fine, with strong sea breezes daily from northwest and the nights calm, and the air perceptibly cooler.
On the 10th American frigates Independence, and Congress, and corvette Cyan, arrived, and on the 11th took possession of Mazatlan, and hoisted the American flag.
On the 16th weighed for San Blas, winds light from the north-westward, found current setting strong to the southward.
On the 18th anchored in San Blas. During our stay till the 28th, the weather was fine, but the mosquitos and sand flies as numerous and more vicious than ever.
On the 28th sailed for Valparaiso, crossed the line on the 15th of December, in the night, in seventeen days, in 105° 25' west, passed in sight of, to windward of Easter Island, on the morning of 29th, in 314 days.
On the 2nd December at 5h. 30m. P.M., we observed an island bearing W.N.W., which though (as laid down) would have been 60' distant, we could only believe to be Passion Rock. As we passed less than 30 to the westward of it in July last, and did not see it; and now passed 60' to the eastward of it, it is possible it may be laid down 30' too far to the westward.
Lat. and long. I have given from bearings, and supposed distance is 17° 11' N., and long. 106° 21' W., and on till it appeared from aloft high, and peaked in several places.
The Island of Bornabi–Pacific Ocean.
(Continued from page 582.) The Island of Bornabi is mountainous in the centre, and more or less hilly from the mountains to the shore throughout. The whole island is thickly wooded, and produces many varieties of good timber, fit for house, ship-building, and other purposes. The shores are fronted with mangrove trees, growing in the salt water, which form an impenetrable barrier to boats landing, except in the rivers, and other small canals or channels, formed amongst them by nature. Many of these are so narrow as scarcely to admit of oars being used; they arswer every purpose, however, as all the houses situated near the shore, have generally one of these channels leading to them.
The soil is composed of a rich red and black loam, and would, if properly cultivated, produce every variety of tropical fruits and esculent roots; together with coffee, arrow-root, and sugar-cane. The trees do not branch out until near the top; the trunks of many of them are covered with climbing plants and vines, and the lower part of the trunks enveloped with ferns, of which there are many varieties; these give the ground a matted or woven appearance. The woods throughout the island are very thick, and often composed of large and fine trees; among them are tree ferns, banyan, pandanus, and several species of palms. The sassafras tree is also found here.
Many beautiful sweet scented white and yellow flowers are to be found. These are much esteemed by the natives, and are strung into wreaths, which both sexes wear round their hair at feasts, and on other occasions. These wreaths are exceedingly handsome.
The bread-fruit tree is very abundant, and grows here to a large size. The cocoa-nut and wild orange are also found in great numbers. A small species of cane or bamboo is very common, and is used for making floors and side wicker work for the houses. Wild ginger and arrow-root also abounds. The cultivated plants and trees are, bread-fruit, of which they have many varieties; cocoa-nut, ti-root, tarro, bananas, tacca, from which arrow-root is made; sugar-cane, which is used only for chewing; yams, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, tobacco, in small quantities; and kava, (piper mythisticum). The latter is cultivated to a large extent throughout the island, and daily used at their feasts.
They pay very little attention to the cultivation of arrow-root; yet, what I have seen made from the root, appeared to be of a very superior quality.
Yams are plentiful all over the island, but whalers get their supplies chiefly from the north side, where they are cultivated to a much greater extent than at any other place; they are, however, of rather a small size, and of an indifferent quality, through not being properly cultivated. The cultivated ground does not extend far from the coasts, near which all the villages are situated.
There are no inhabitants inland, and few of the natives have ever visited the centre of the island. There are no traces of any native quadruped, except rats. The flying fox, or vampire bat, is very plentiful, and very destructive to the bread-fruit. Wild pigeons abound all over the island. They appear to be in best condition, and most plentiful, from December till Åpril. · A vessel recruiting here, may obtain a daily supply of them, for all hands, by giving a couple of native boys fowling-pieces, with ammunition. These youths are excellent shots, and, in half a day, will procure a sufficiency for a whole ship's crew. No fear need be entertained of their stealing the fowling-pieces; as I have never heard an instance of it during my many visits to this island. A fig of tobacco each, will sufficiently remunerate them for their labour; and numbers will be found daily volunteering their services. Poultry is plentiful all over the island.
The usual price of one dozen fowls is twenty-four figs negro-head tobacco, or two fathoms of cheap calico. Yams can be purchased from the natives for ten figs of tobacco per hundred; bread-fruit, ten figs per hundred; cocoa-nuts, the same; bananas, two figs per bunch; and all other productions of the island, at an equally low rate. Fish are taken on the reefs in great abundance and variety. Mullets are very numerous, and are frequently seen leaping from the water in immense shoals. The small fish are chiefly caught in hand-nets, and the others in various other modes.
These islands furnish abundant supplies for the refreshment of whalers; but, as yet, there are few articles which can be made available in commerce. The islands produce about 500lbs. of tortoise-shell annually; the whole of which is purchased from the natives, at a very low rate, by the Europeans living on the island, and sold by them to whale ships, at an advance of 500 per cent.! They take their payment chiefly in spirits, tobacco, muskets, and gunpowder. The introduction of these articles, and their abuse by the vagabonds on shore, have tended much to demoralize the natives.
This is the only article of merchandize which can be, at present, procured (except biche de mer), beyond the immediate wants of the visitors. Ginger, arrow-root, sassafras, coffee, sugar, and many species of excellent timber, might, however, be easily added to the list of exports.
Whalers procure annually about fifty tons of yams, and abundance of bananas, bread-fruit, and poultry. Pigs are only to be obtained from the Europeans. The natives reared them formerly, but, through being too lazy to fence in their plantations, they ultimately killed them all, and substituted dogs as an article of diet instead.
The description of goods most sought after by the natives, as returns for what these islands furnish, are red serge or camlets, of which they are passionately fond, muskets, gunpowder, lead, flints, cartouch boxes, cutlasses, broad axes, tomahawks, fish-hooks, butchers' knives, adzes, chisels, plane irons, hand saws, gouges, gimblets, bullet moulds, calico, drill, gaudy cotton handkerchiefs, negro-head and Cavendish tobacco, tobaccopipes, files, serge and cotton shirts, trousers, beads of all sorts, Jews'harps, straw hats, blankets, small boxes or chests, with locks and hinges, iron cooking pots, fowling-pieces and small shot, needles and thread, &c.
Near Matalanien harbour, are some interesting ruins, which are, however, involved in obscurity; the oldest inhabitants being ignorant of their origin, and have no tradition bearing any reference to their history. That a fortified town once stood upon this spot, and not built by savages, cannot be doubted; the style of the ruins giving strong proofs of civilization. Some of the stones measure eight to ten feet in length, are squared on six sides, and have, evidently, been brought thither from some civilized country, there being no stones on the island similar to them. Streets are formed in several places, and the whole town appears to have been a succession of fortified houses. Several artificial caves were also discovered within the fortifications.
This town was, doubtless, at one time, the stronghold of pirates, and as the natives can give no account of it, it seems probable that it was built by Spanish buccaneers, some two or three centuries ago. This supposition is confirmed by the fact, that about three or four years ago, a small brass cannon was found on one of the mountains, and taken away by H.M.S. Larne. Several clear places are also to be seen a little inland, at different parts of the island; some of which are many acres in extent, clear of timber, and perfectly level. Upon one of these plains, called K-par, near Roan Kiddi harbour, (and which I have frequently visited,) is a large mound, about twenty feet wide, eight feet high, and a quarter of a mile in length. This must, evidently, have been thrown up for defence: or, as a burial place for the dead, after some great battle.
Similiar ruins are to be found at Strong Island, of which the natives can give no account.
Vocabulary of the Bornabi Language. Edge'tum. What name.
Mamon'. Good. Togata met. What is that called. Kachalel. Handsome. Koto. To come.
Mary'ry. Long. Tonga ta. To come.
Muttamut. Short. Kyto. Come here.
Ma-dig'idig. Small. Hug'owy. You go away.
U'lyn. A man. E'a. Where.
But a but. White. Ta. What.
Tontol. Black. Gota'wy. Go up.
Joby'ti. A chief, Gotiwy. Go down.
Lap'pilap. Great. Monti. Sit down.
Jyrrimaun'. A boy. Huta. Rise up.
Jyrripeyn.' A girl. Wen'ti. Lay down.
Li. A woman. Me'rila. To sleep.
Bout. A wife. Maam. Fish.
Piel. Fresh water. Meni'ka. Biche de mer.
Nanjyt. Salt water. Kajinibut. Tortoise-shell,
Koa'ba. A trunk or box. Mahi, Bread fruit.
Mung'ah. Food. Peyn, Cocoa-nuts.
Nam'minam. To eat. Oot. Bananas.
Tuur. A native belt. Meji'wate'. Bad.