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than that which I have so earnestly recommended. It is evident that the ships referred to were driven by a current beyond all calculation, and although those examples have produced the effects of warning the mari. ner, and inducing a more than ordinary good look out, yet I am so forcibly impressed with the peril which may ensue, if no other means of guidance are provided, that I say again, a light should speedily be fixed on the Great Basses, and the sooner that important object is attained the better.

On the very important subject of Colonial Lighthouses, and the modern improvements in their construction, whether on isolated rocks or on the main land, I recommend all who take an interest in such national concerns, to give their earnest attention to the observations thereon, by that zealous and talented member of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Alexander Gordon Esq., as published in the Nautical Magazine for 1846, page 170; and I may say in conclusion that, when we do know that lighthouses have been substantially built on rocks under water, we may readily believe a similar building on the Great Basses, where, except in strong breezes and a heavy sea, the rocks, as already observed, are always above water, can on that position be constructed with far more ease, and with as perfect safety and security,

I am, &c.,

CHRIS. BIDEN, Master Attendant. To the Editor N.M.

THE BRITISH NAVY AND ITS SEAMEK.

EVERY thinking person must be impressed with the paramount importance of this subject; and the honest patriot will ever pray that by wise councils, his country may be enabled not only to hold, but uphold, with justice its exalted station among the great nations of the earth.

The state of continental Europe at this moment demands the utmost vigilance of Great Britain, and, no doubt, receives it; but if there be one point in her own relations having a bearing upon that state or condition, and which calls imperiously for the closest attention, it is that of manning her fleet.

The number of seamen drawn by ballot for home service, may voluntarily enter for a limited period, or for the entire time of war, for general service in any part of the world; by which, those who enter into the contract will secure certain advantages to themselves.

Men drawn by ballot for Home service. Ist may voluntarily enter for 5 years ) Pensions per annum to 2nd « « « « 7

commence after the tenth 3rd " " " " 10 " ļ year of servitude. 4th “ “ “ “ for I Auxiliary Bounty given for

the term of the whole war. the whole war-service only.

Voluntary enlistment of men not drawn.
1st )

As above, and
2nd

As above { Bounty given for ten 4th

| Years service also. Now for the working of the scheme. Let us suppose that the state requires 60,000 seamen, A. B's, and 0. S. (exclusive of landsmen and boys) and that the total number liable to be drawn for home service, as registered amounts to 300,000. Draw, in the usual way 60,000.

Again, suppose it should happen that only 30,000 of the men thus drawn are at home, (in the United Kingdom); see from the returns of voluntary entry at the different rendezvous, whether the number still required is likely to be made up in that way, or not.

If likely, then there will be no necessity to draw a second time to complete the sixty-thousand needed. But, should the entry be slow, and the necessity urgent, draw on until the number wanted be obtained. Then follows the entry, voluntarily, for general service of the men drawn.

It is premised there will be Tenders at the different ports of the kingdom to receive the men who are drawn; and other vessels ready to convey them to Portsmouth, Plymouth, &c.

I shall say nothing about the indulgence granted to the men of choosing their ship, as circumstances may not always admit of it; but it is one which has a good effect.

The vacancies from death, &c., which will occur, may be expected to be filled by the men who voluntarily enlist among those who are not drawn, for we may reasonably suppose, when the advantages are made enticing, there will be a great many ready to offer their services.

The apparent partiality in taking at once those men who happen to be at home among the number drawn, cannot be avoided; it will, perhaps, correct itself by those men who are abroad, and who have been drawn, volunteering for general service on the stations where they happen to be at the time, or they may do so immediately on their return home.

Thus, after the fleet has been fully manned, those men serving in merchant vessels would be exempt from molestation, for at least five years; a point of itself so gratifying that, the whole scheme would, in all probability, please the general body of seamen; and thus, also, impressment hitherto "a terror to all Blue-jackets", would receive its "quietus"; another point that would not only give satisfaction, but delight, to a class of men invaluable to the country; and who, whatever may be their faults, will, we may ardently hope and expect, merit all that that country can do for them, by emulating in war, the noble deeds of their predecessors.

But, as I remarked in the former paper, as “ necessity” in such a weighty affair as the perservation of a kingdom, rises above law, the power, no matter how obtained, of impressing sea-faring men must be held as the dernier resort; and it will be the fault of the seamen themselves if

NO. 2.- VOL. XVII.

it be put in force, should a reasonable scheme to obviate it be adopted; and that fact should be stated in any accompanying proclamation.

It appears so obvious that—whatever plan be put in force as a substitute for impressment, it should be widely promulgated long before the time arrives for its fulfilment, for the purpose of quieting the minds of the seamen, and preventing their quitting the sea-service, or stealing away in foreign vessels from the country, under the impression that the old system will be adopted: I shall not dwell on that point here.

The rough scheme here submitted appears to me so reasonable, and free from serious objections that, I cheerfully offer it as a pendant to the preliminary paper, and have only farther to remark that

To be in all prepared to meet your foe,
Is half the battle won without a blow.

TRIAL CRUIZES OF TRINCOMALEE AND AMPHITRITE.

34, Montague Place, Dec. 4th. Sir.—The unsatisfactory way in which newspaper reports of trial cruizes are usually written, induces me to send you the accompanying table, in the hope that those who write those documents will make use of it, and thus give the public a clear notion of the merits of the respective ships when working to windward.

Your obedient servant,

L. G. HEATH, Commander, R.N. To the Editor N.M.

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RULE. Multiply the observed distance by the decimal in the middle column, the result will be the required distance.

If the number of points between the direction of the wind, and that of the other ship be less than 8 she is to windward of you, but if it be greater, then she is to leeward, (and would pass astern of you, if on opposite tacks.)

EXAMPLE
Oct. 10th, at 8h. 30m. A.M., observations were taken on board the
Amphitrite

Trincomalee bore . . . . S. 1 pts. W.
Direction of wind . . . . S. 4 " W.

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Therefore, at 8h. 30m. A.M., Trincomalee was 622 yards to windward of
Amphitrite.
At noon Trincomalee bore

N. 3 pts. W.
Direction of wind .

N. 12 " W.

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Therefore, at noon Trincomalee was 360 yards to leeward of the Amphitrite, and thus we see that in the course of the trial the Amphitrite gained 982 yards to windward.

REMARKS ON A COURT MARTIAL. We have received a curious and interesting paper detailing the proceedings of a Court Matrial on “Mr. First Mate Pilot, W. H. Harrison,” for the loss of the “ship Stalkart" on Saugor Island, but which we regret is too long for insertion in our pages.

it is not, perhaps, generally known, except to those commanders who have frequented the port of Calcutta, that the whole pilotage of the river and sandheads which requires a large and expensive establishment, ia a government service, and the officers of it (warranted servants of the East India Company appointed at home, and entitled to pensions, &c., after their term of service, like the Civil and Military Officers, of our great Indian Empire. A few years ago some very serious complaints were made before the Shipping Committee of the House of Commons of abuses said to exist in the pilotage of the Hooghly. The Court of Directors, as we learn, most creditably sent out strict orders, not only, that the special matters complained of should be enquired into; but, that means should be taken to establish a court, which, while it would give full protection to the great trade of the port, would also afford the Pilots due and fair protection against the complaints of those who, without any deliberate ill intentions might unfairly attribute to the fault of the pilot what was in fact, unavoidable, in such a river; which is in truth the most dangerous one in the world, when its great length, tremendous tides, and bores, shifting sand, and singular sudden formations of new lumps in the oldest and clearest channels, which rise up like the swelling of a moving bog or a quicksand are considered.

[It is to be hoped that Courts of Enquiry for every loss, or even serious accident on complaint may be established in all foreign ports, since we conceive that much public advantage may be derived from them. The trial ended in the acquital of the Pilot, and the remarks of the court in explanation of the finding, go to show that the ship appears to have been most wretchedly found, that her crew were in a most inefficient state; and as far as relates to the carrying into effect the orders of the Pilot, unaccountable delay, and slackness appears to have prevailed throughout. These we much fear are but too often the cause of such frequent losses and their melancholy results, we cannot fancy that in that highly useful branch of the Company's service, their pilot establishment, any but men of undoubted experience, established after a severe examination, should be placed in charge of the lives and property of individuals, and we heartily concur in the result of the present enquiry. Our correspondent at Calcutta has our best thanks for his attention.—ED. N.M.]

TIDAL HARBOUR COMMISSION.

A correspondent in the Nautical Standard in pointing out some of the principle causes of so frequent shipwrecks among Merchant Ships, mentions the following important one, that of over loading them, a practice as disgraceful as it is dangerous, we think his observations worthy of record, and heartily lend our aid in exposing the evil.]

My letter in your number of the 11th instant, bore upon the nonexamination of captains of merchantmen, and their consequent incapacity. I pointed out in it, the remedial measures to be taken to remove one of the principal causes of the daily shipwrecks which occur on our coasts, by the practical and theoretical education of our seamen. Until this is done, very little good indeed can be expected; but there are also many other things to be looked into as causes of disaster;-one, which seems to have escaped the attention of everybody, and is never mentioned

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