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Grenada, August, 7th, 1848. Sir. The cask in which the enclosed was found, was picked up on the shore of the windward side of this island, on the 14th ult.
I am, Sir, &c.,
May 7th, 1848. Ship Sophia, Capt. Saxon, from Calcutta, February 11th, 1848, bound to Demerara, with Coolies. N.B. This cask was thrown overboard in lat. 5° 10' N., long. 40° 20'W. Whoever should pick this up will be kind enough to report it to the Editor of the Nautical Magazine.
This has drifted in the usual direction W.N.W., making good 1310 miles in 150 days, or about 12 miles a day.
IMPORTANT DISCOVERY.-Under this head a correspondent of the Southern Reporter has the following :-" Within the last few days I have been informed on indubitable authority that some of the talented and scientific gentlemen connected with the Royal Irish Fisheries Company, have discovered that " the celebrated fishing banks of Newfoundland actually extend across the Atlantic to within 100 miles of Ireland !" and the quantity of fish on the said banks, is more than sufficient to supply the markets of the whole world.
LORD MAYOR'S DAY.-A new feature was introduced into the “ Lord Mayor's Show" of Thursday, namely, a model of a very handsome brig, on a car, drawn by six horses. The little craft was neatly rigged, and was well found in serviceable stores, being supplied with most of the patent improvements and inventions of the age, such as Harris's lightning conductors, Brown's controllers, and Porter's celebrated anchors. She was well manned, and her gallant seamen on deck and in the tops cheered lustily in acknow. ledgment of the contiguous plaudits of the crowded populace. Without any excessive stiffness, she stood up very well on her legs; she pitched very little, rolled less, and appeared quite easy. Indeed, we might pronounce her to be a " very easy ship;" she did not "strain anything'' but the lungs of the spectators, and the hardy and fearless ship's company. “Generally speaking," she proved to be a very sound ship, and “ exhibited no symptoms of weak. ness after her perilous voyage through Ludgate-bil race and Cheapside flats ; but this, in a great measure, may be attributed to the judicious application of " Jeffery's marine glue," with which not only ber decks, but her sides were payed. She was quick in stays, and answered her helm remarkably well, especially when put a hard n-port.” Aloft she was just able to have her royal yards crossed; but on deck they carried on till "all was blue," notwithstanding which not a spar was sprung, nor, strange to say, were any one of the crew, although the "main-brace" was so often“ spliced." The ship's company seemed proud of their craft, and, with the grateful public, felt the greatest confidence in the bit of bunting flying at the mainmast head
“ The flag that's braved a thousand years
The battle and the breeze," under which the Lord Mayor, Sir James Duke himself, has so creditably served his Sovereign and his country. With reference to the festivities at Guildball, eonspicuous among the guests of the New Lord Mayor were the members of the Naval profession, including, among others, the Duke of Northumberland; Admirals Dundas, Sir J. A. Gordon, Sir Henry Hart, and the Hon. Sir F. Pellew ; Captains Sir J. G. Sinclair, Bart., J. W. Montague, and Sir W. Burnett, who expressed, by their participation in the festivities at Guildhall, their gratification at the eminent and honourable position attained by one whose extreme youth had been passed on shipboard in various climes, It was the crowning point of a life of progression-the consummation of a career which had commenced among the sailors of England, which had reached its bighest altitude among the merchants of London, and which, after introducing Sir James Duke into the Legislature of his country, had installed him in the civic and judicial chair as Lord Mayor of this ancient capital.
SCREW PROPELLING.–On the 1st November, we had the satisfaction of witnessing another of those admirable applications of this principle, which, under the able conduct of James Laming, Esq., the managing director, seconded in this case by the joint talent of Mr. Wigram and Messrs. Maudslay, the emi. nent builders and engineers, promise to establish one of the most successful and extensive mercantile associations of this country. The Earl of Auckland left the Brunswick-pier, at Blackwall, at noon on that day, to submit her powers to the test of the measured mile in Long Reach. A party of fifty ladies and gentlemen accompanied the directors of the company. Among them we noticed Edward Zohrab, Esq., the Ottoman Consul ; Mr. Alderman Moon, the Messrs. Wigram and Maudslay ; Richard Smith, Esq., of Manchester; Capt. Ford; Lieut. Jennings; and Captain Halsted, R.N., and Mr. F. P. Smith, to whose untiring energy and perseverance in forcing into public notice the performance of the Archimedes in 1839, the commercial interests of this country are indebted for the screw as a practical invention. The Reach was clear, the water smooth, and the weather favourable ; and the result of four runs up and down, before the mile, taken with perfect accuracy, gave a mean speed for the vessel under steam only of 9:114 nautical miles. The mean revolutions while upon the ground were 66:75, showing a slip of 9.3 per cent. only. The Earl of Anckland is a three-masted schooner of iron, and of the following dimensions :-Length between the perpendiculars, 150 feet; breadth extreme, 25 feet; tonnage, O.M., 464. Her engines are of 60-horse power, and occupy, with 100 tons of fuel, 31 feet of the length of the vessel, allowing stowage for 400 tons of measurement goods. Her engines drive direct on the screw shaft ; the cylinders are inclined, and are 36 inches diameter, with stroke of 18 inches to work, at 80 revolutions. The screw is 9 feet 6 inches in diameter, on Mr. Woodcraft's principle, with a inean pitch of 15.16. The mean draft of water was 8 feet. After landing her merry party at the pier again about half-past four, the Auckland proceeded to take her berth at the Tower Stairs. She is intended to take up her place among a line of similar vessels trading to Constantinople; the further development of the commerce of the Turkish empire having been selected as their first field of enterprise since the company has received the Charter of Incorporation, to which its able management has so well entitled it.-Morning Chronicle.
EDWARDS' PATENT PRESERVED POTATO. The following letter affords us the opportunity of again noticing this valuable article as a Vegetable Diet for the use of the Crew on board Ship. Numerous Special Reports and Testimonials have proved its efficacy in counteracting the ill effects produced by the continued use of Salt Provisions.
“It gives me much pleasure to add my unqualified approval of your Preserved Potato, I can only repeat what has been already said of it, viz., that it is an excellent Antiscorbutic, is economical, easily cooked, and capable of remaining good in any climate. I could wish it see it entirely supersede that crude and flatulent article of Diet, the Pea.
(Signed) “James L. CLARKE, M.D., Surgeon, R.N."
THE AMERICAN EXPEDITION TO THE DEAD SEA. We tran-late the following from the Courrier de Constantinople :
““ Our readers may remember that in the spring of the year, Captain Lynch. and some of his officers, of the United States brig Supply, proceeded to Constantinople, to obtain permission of the Ottoman Government to explore the Lake Tiberias. This was granted, and the recommendations given by the Sultan to the different officers of the places visited obtained for the intrepid officers every kind of assistance required. Nobody opposed the scientific research, the Arabs themselves offering their assistance, and frequently declining any remuneration for aid often of the most valuable kind.
“Our little expedition (says Captain Lynch) composed of some 15 persons, landed at St. Jean d'Acre, from which place we were desirons of proceeding to the sea of Galilee, or Lake Tiberias, distant some 40 miles. We had with us two metal boats-one of copper, the other of iron ; these we landed and put into good condition to sustain the shocks which when drawn by camels from one place to the other they inevitably must encounter. We were encouraged by the idea of being the first to embark on a similar expedition, except the late Mr. Cardagan, who did not survive the fatigues he underwent, and left no memoranda of his voyage to the Dead Sea. We also thought that all Christendom united in the thought of an expedition on this mysterious lake, and the interest it might present to the future navigator.
“ No sooner had we landed than our difficulties commenced, we requiring so many things of which we had not even thought. All being prepared, we placed our boats on carts prepared on board the Supply, and we set out for the Lake. On the road we had to climb several mountains, and cross formidable ravines. On more than one occasion we had to lower our boats by means of ropes down the frightful precipices. But all our difficulties were surmounted by the patience and address which distinguish the true sailor; and on the 8th of April the two boats floated on the picturesque and deep blue waves of the Sea of Galilee, the American flag floating from the top of their small masts.
* We found the navigation of the Jordan very difficult and dangerous on account of the fearfully rapid currents. The idea of the fall of the Jordan between the Lake of Tiberias and the Dead Sea may be conceived by its crooked bed, which, in a distance of 60 miles, serpentines 200 miles. In this distance the ex. pedition was plunged into no less than 27 dreadful rapids, not counting several others of a less remarkable declivity. The difference in the level of these two seas is 2,000 feet.
« For a few hundred yards from its mouth, the water of the Jordan is sweet. The waters of the Dead Sea are without smell, but to the taste they are bitter, salt, and disgusting.
“On entering, the boats encountered a gale of wind, and so thick were the waters that the boats appeared to strike against the hammers of the Titans rather than the waves of a raging sea.
" The expedition continued its daily operations, making topographical sketches, until its arrival at the southern extremity of the sea, where a very astonishing spectacle awaited us.
"On passing the mountain of Sodom (says Captain Lynch) we observed to the
S.E, a large column in the shape of a funnel, composed of solid rock salt, and covered by carbonate of calcium, a mine of crystallization. Mr. Dale made a sketch of it, and the doctor and I landed to obtain specimens.
* The expedition made the tour of the Dead Sea, and returned to the point of its departure ; the boats were in the same condition as when we left New York, and all the crew in good health.
“The following facts are not without interest :
“The bottom of the northern part of the Dead Sea is almost flat (a plain.) The meridional lines at a short distance from the shore vary but little in depth; the greatest depth found up to the date of this letter (May 3rd) was 188 fathoms, or 1,128 English feet. Near the shore the bottom is generally a saline incrustation, but the intermediate portion is of soft mud, with several rectangular crystals--most frequently cubes of pure salt. On one occasion we obtained only crystals with the lead line.
"In the same proportion that the north part of the Dead Sea is deep, so is the southern part shallow, to the extent that for a quarter of its length the depth was found to be but 18 feet. Its southern bed presented no crystallizations, but its shores are covered with incrustations of salt, and on landing the footmarks in an hour's time were covered with cristallizations. The shores in face of the peninsula, and its western side, present evident marks of destruction.
“ Birds and insects are, without doubt, to be found on the shore; sometimes ducks on the sea, for we saw some, but we could find no living object in this sea. However, the salt sources it receives contain fish belonging to the ocean. I feel certain, says Captain Lynch, that the result of our expedition will confirm to the very letter the bistory of the Holy Land, as regards the sunken cities.
“ After the examination of the Dead Sea, the expedition proceeded to determine the height of the mountains, and the level of a plain, from Jerusalem to the Mediterranean Sea.
“ They found the summit of the western coast of the Dead Sea more than 1,000 feet above its surface, and level with the Mediterranean. It is a singular fact, that the distance from the top to the bottom of the Dead Sea,—that is, the height of its shore, the elevation of the Mediterranean, and the difference of the level between the bottom of these two seas, and the depth of the Dead Sea, should thus be an exact multiple of the elevation of Jerusalem above it.
“Another fact not less curious is that the bottom of the Dead Sea forms two sunken plains--one elevated, the other depressed. The first part, south, is composed of clay or fat mud, covered by an artificial bay ; the latter, the upper part and more north, of mud, incrustations, and rectangular salt crystallizations, extending to a great depth, and with a narrow ravine defiling in the midst of it, corresponding with the Jordan at one extremity, and Wady Seib at the other.
“ The official report of Captain Lynch will be shortly published.”
New CHARTS A List of Charts published by the Hydrographic Office, Admiralty, during the month
of October, 1848. DUNGENESS TO THB THAMES, South Coast, Sheet 7, Capt. Bullock, 1848, price 2s. FARLAND POINT TO ARAN ISLAND, (West Coast of Ireland) Com Mudg",
1839, price Is. 6d. ARAN ISLAND TO DAWROS HEAD. Ditto Dilto price ls. 6d. ANCONA, Italian Su vey, price 25. KARA-AGHAJ BAY, (Archipelag',) Capt. Copeland, 1833, price 60, Kos, NISERO AND PISCOPI ISLANDS, (Archipelago,) Cart. Graves, 1841, price 2s. SIGHAJIK BAY, TO SCALA NUEVO GULF, Dito Ditto 1836, price 2s. STRATI ISLAND, (Arrhipelago,) Capt. Copeland, 1835, price 6d. KARKI AND LIMxIONA, Ditto. Capt. Graves, R.N., 1870, price 8d. HELGOLAND Bight, Danish Charts, 1841, price 2s. ESQUIMALT, (North-west Coast of America,) Vancouver Island, Lieut. James Wood
R.N., 1847, price is. 6d. VICTORIA HARBOUR, Ditto
Ditto Capt. Kellett, 1847, price is 6d
Nov. 7, Witham, Essex, Com. W. Robinson, R.N., to Eliza Ann, eldest daughter of the late Capt. J. H. Weiburg.
Nov. 14, at St. George's. Hanover
Oct. 17, at Teignmouth, aged 61,
Oct. 30, at Ashton, Lieut. Tullis, R.N
Nov. 1. at Cockermouth Com. P. Wybergh, aged 55.
At Rosenithan, Ret..Com. W. Lugg, R.N., aged 80.
Nov. 4, at Marylebone Church, W. H, Newman, Esq. to Mary, daughter of the late Capt. Sergent, B.N.
From the 21st of October to the 20th of November, 1848.
OCTOBER 1848.--Mean height of Barometer29-797 inches; Mean Temperature=508
degrees; depth of rain fallen=362 inches. We have received Mr. LIVINGSTONE's and Mr. REDFIELD's letters, which we are obliged to reserve for our next.