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piddle at,--scraping and drying the peel of oranges. At a place in Newgate-street, there is a prodigious quantity prepared, which they sell to the distillers.” JOHNSON : “Sir, I believe they make a higher thing out of them than a spirit; they make what is called orange-butter, the oil of the orange inspissated, which they mix perhaps with pomatum, and make it fragrant. The oil does not fly off in the drying.”

BOSWELL: “I wish to have a good walled garden.” JOHNSON : "I don't think it would be worth the expense to you.

We compute in England, a park-wall at a thousand pounds a mile; now a garden-wall must cost at least as much. You intend your trees should grow highes than a deer will leap. Now let us see ;--for a hundred pounds you could only have forty-four square yards, which is very little ; for two hundred pounds, you may have eighty-four square yards, which is very well. But when will you get the value of two hundred pounds of walls, in fruit, in your climate ? No, Sir, such contention with Nature is not worth while. I would plant an orchard, and have plenty of such fruit as ripens well in your country. My friend, Dr. Madden, of Ireland, said, that, 'in an orchard there should be enough to eat, enough to lay up, enough to be stolen, and enough to rot upon the ground.' Cherries are an early fruit; you may have them, and you may have the early apples and pears. BOSWELL: “We cannot have nonpareils.” JOHN

Sir, you can no more have nonpareils than you can have grapes.'

BOSWELL: “We have them, Sir ; but they are very bad.” JOHNSON : “Nay, Sir, never try to have a thing merely to show that you cannot have it. From ground that would let for forty shillings you may have a large orchard ; and you see it costs you only forty shillings. Nay, you may graze the ground when the trees are grown up ; you cannot, while they are yourg.” BOSWELL: “Is not a good garden a very common thing in England, Sir?” JOHNSON : “Not so common, Sir, 'as you imagine. In Lincolnshire there is hardly an orchard ; in Staffordshire

very little fruit.” BOSWELL: “Has Langton no orchard ?" JOHNSON: 'No, Sir.” BOSWELL: “How so, Sir?” JOHNSON : “Why, Sir, from the general negligence of the country. He has it not, because nobody else has it.” BOSWELL: “A hot-house is a certain thing ; I may have that.” JOHNSON : “A hot-house is pretty certain ; but you must first build it, then you must keep fires in it, and you must have a gardener to take care of it.” BOSWELL: “But if I have a gardener at any rate” JOHNSON : “Why, yes.” BOSWELL: “I'd have it near my house ; there is no need to have it in the orchard." JOHNSON: “Yes, I'd have it near my house. I would plant a

* It is suggested to me, by an anonymous annotator on my work, that the reason why Dr. Johnson collected the peels of squeezed oranges may be found in the 358th Letter in Mrs. Piozzi's Collection, where it appears that he recommended “dried orange-peel, finely powdered," as a medicine.-Boswell.

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great many currants; the fruit is good, and they make a pretty sweetmeat.”

I record this minute detail, which some may think trifling, in order to show clearly how this great man, whose mind could grasp such large and extensive subjects, as he has shown in his literary labours, was yet well informed in the common affairs of life, and loved to illustrate them.

Mr. Walker, the celebrated master of elocution, came in, and then we went up stairs into the study. I asked him if he had taught many clergymen. JOHNSON : “I hope not.” WALKER : “I have taught only one, and he is the best reader I ever heard, not by my teaching, but by his own natural talents.” JOHNSON : 66 Were he the best reader in the world, I would not have it told that he was taught.” Here was one of his peculiar prejudices. Could it be any disadvantage to the clergyman to have it known that he was taught an easy and graceful delivery ? BOSWELL: “Will you not allow, Sir, that a man may be taught to read well ? JOHNSON : “ Why, Sir, so far as to read better than he might do without being taught, yes. Formerly it was supposed that there was no difference in reading, but that one read as well as another.” BOSWELL : “ It is wonderful to see old Sheridan as enthusiastic about oratory as ever.” WALKER: “ His enthusiasm, as to what oratory will do, may be too great: but he reads well." JOHNSON : “He reads well, but he reads low; and you know it is much easier to read low than to read high ; for when you read high, you are much more limited, your loudest note can be but one, and so the variety is less in proportion to the loudness. Now some people have occasion to speak to an extensive audience, and must speak loud to be heard.” WALKER : The art is to read strong, though low.”

Talking of the origin of language ;-JOHNSON: “It must have come by inspiration. A thousand, nay, a million of children could not invent a language. While the organs are pliable, there is not understanding enough to form a language ; by the time that there is understanding enough, the organs are become stiff. We know that after a certain age we cannot learn to pronounce a new language. No foreigner, who comes to England when advanced in life, ever pronounces English tolerably well; at least such instances are very rare. When I maintain that language must have come by inspiration, I do not mean that inspiration is required for rhetoric, and all the beauties of language ; for when once man has language, we can conceive that he may gradually form modifications of it. I mean only that inspiration seems to me to be necessary to give man the faculty of speech ; to inform him that he may have speech; which I think he could no more find out without inspiration than cows or hogs would think of such a faculty." WALKER : “Do you think, Sir, that there are any perfect synonymes in any language?” JOHNSON : “Originally there were not ; but by using words negligently, or in poetry, one word comes to be confounded with another.

He talked of Dr. Dodd. “ A friend of mine," said he, came to me, and told me, that a lady wished to have Dr. Dodd's picture in a bracelet, and asked me for a motto. I said, I could think of no better than Currat Lex. I was very willing to have him pardoned ; that is, to have the sentence changed to transportation ; but, when he was once hanged, I did not wish he should be made a saint."

Mrs. Burney, wife of his friend Dr. Burney, came in, and he seemed to be entertained with her conversation.

Garrick's funeral was talked of as extravagantly expensive. Johnson, from his dislike to exaggeration, would not allow that it was distinguished by any extraordinary pomp. Were there not six horses to each coach ?" said Mrs. Burney. JOHNSON : “Madam, there were no more six horses than six phenixes.'

Mrs. Burney wondered that some very beautiful new buildings should be erected in Moorfields, in so shocking a situation as between Bedlam and St. Luke's Hospital; and said she could not live there. JOHNSON :

Nay, Madam, you see nothing there to hurt you. You no more think of madness by having windows that look to Bedlam, than you think of death by having windows that look to a churchyard.” MRS. BURNEY: “We may look to a churchyard, Sir ; for it is right that we should be kept in mind of death.” JOHNSON : Nay, Madam, if you go to that, it is right that we should be kept in mind of madness, which is occasioned by too much indulgence of imagination. I think a very moral use may be made of these new buildings ; I would have those who have heated imaginations live there, and take warning.” Mrs. BURNEY: “But, Sir, many of the poor people that are mad, have become so from disease, or from distressing events. It is, therefore, not their fault, but their misfortune ; and therefore to think of them is a melancholy consideration.'

Time passed on in conversation till it was too late for the service of the church at three o'clock. I took a walk, and left him alone for some time; then returned, and we had coffee and conversation again by ourselves.

I stated the character of a noble friend of mine, as a curious case for his opinion :-“He is the most inexplicable man to me that I ever knew. Can you explain him, Sir ? He is, I really believe, nobleminded, generous, and princely. But his most intimate friends may be separated from him for years, without his ever asking a question concerning them. He will meet them with a formality, a coldness, a stately indifference; but when they come close to him, and fairly engage him in conversation, they find him as easy, pleasant, and kind as they could wish. One then supposes that what is so agreeable will soon be renewed ; but stay away from him for half a year, and he will

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neither call on you, nor send to inquire about you.” JOHNSON : “Why, Sir, I cannot ascertain his character exactly, as I do not know him ; but I should not like to have such a man for my

friend. He


love study, and wish not to be interrupted by his friends ; Amici fures temporis. He may be a frivolous man, and be so much occupied with petty pursuits, that he may not want friends. Or he may have a notion that there is a dignity in appearing indifferent, while he in fact may not be more indifferent at his heart than another.”

We went to evening prayers at St. Clement's, at seven, and then parted.

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N Sunday, April 20, being Easter-day, after attending solemn ser

, , the painter, sitting with him. Mr. Lowe mentioned the great number of new buildings of late in London, yet that Dr. Johnson had observed, that the number of inhabitants was not increased. JOHNSON : “Why, Sir, the bills of mortality prore that no more people die now than formerly ; so it is plain no more live. The register of births proves nothing ; for not one-tenth of the people of London are born there.” BOSWELL: “I believe, Sir, a great many of the children born in London die early.” JOHNSON: “Why, yes, Sir.” BOSWELL: “But those who do live, are as stout and strong people as any: Dr. Price says, they must be naturally strong to get through.” JOHNSON: “That is system, Sir. A great traveller observes, that it is said there are no weak or deformed people among the Indians; but he with much sagacity assigns the reason of this, which is, that the hardship of their life, as huuters and fishers, does not allow weak or diseased children to grow up.

Now had been an Indian I must have died early ; my eyes would not have served me to get food. I indeed now could fish, give me English tackle ; but had I been an Indian I must have starved, or they would have knocked me on the head, when they saw I could do nothing.

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