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THE CONFERENCE ON THE ROLE OF WHEAT IN THE WORLD'S FOOD SUPPLY was held April 30 to May 2, 1962, at the Western Regional Research Laboratory in Albany, California. It had its initiation in a resolution of the National Association of Wheat Growers, meeting December 1961 at Boise, Idaho, as follows:

"WHEREAS, the world food budget requirements are of concern to the people of the world, and

"WHEREAS, wheat can be utilized to help meet the food requirements of certain food deficient areas of the world: Now, therefore, be it

"RESOLVED, That a conference be sponsored by the National Association of Wheat Growers, Western Wheat Associates, Great Plains Wheat, USDA agencies and other interested groups, to expand the use of wheat from our country in meeting the food budget requirements of the world through the regular export programs of our country and the Food for Peace programs."

Responding to this resolution, Dr. M. J. Copley, Director of the U. S. De partment of Agriculture's Western Utilization Research and Development Division, and Howard Morton, Director of Utilization Research for Great Plains Wheat, Inc., initiated plans for a conference on THE ROLE OF WHEAT IN THE WORLD'S FOOD SUPPLY. As a preliminary action, the National Association of Wheat Growers, Western Wheat Associates, Inc., and interested agencies of the U. S. Department of Agriculture were asked to join in sponsoring and planning the conference.




The Western Regional Research Laboratory of the U. S. Department of Agriculture at Albany, California was selected as a site for the conference and, from the Laboratory staff, R. L. Olson was directed to organize a tentative program with guidance from G. O. Kohler and J. W. Pence. Following endorsement of the sponsors, the program was developed in final form. R. H. Nagel arranged for local facilities.

Exemplary cooperation and assistance were obtained from authorities in economics and nutrition, and from food scientists, whose names are found in this report in connection with their presentations, and whose participation is gratefully acknowledged.

This report was prepared by D. F. Houston assisted by C. C. Nimmo and D. K. Mecham and edited by R. T. Prescott in the Western Utilization Research and Development Division, Agricultural Research Service, USDA. Copies are available on request from Western Regional Research Laboratory, Albany 10, California, head- . quarters of the Division.

May 1962.




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Report of Conference


M. J. Copley
Western Regional Research Laboratory, USDA, Albany, California

Markets for U. S. wheat must be expanded; our wheat production continues to exceed our domestic needs, resulting in overabundance in spite of controls. And yet while we complain about our surpluses, in many countries there is hunger and starvation. How to get our life-saving grain out of our bins and storage houses and into the millions of hungry mouths of the world's famine-stricken people is our problem and our great challenge. Over the past few years, exports of wheat and wheat products have increased as the result of a number of programs. Examples are the governmentsponsored shipments of surplus foods, feeding of the underprivileged by volunteer agencies, surveys of nutritional status in various developing countries, and research to develop suitable products and evaluate new markets. The objectives have been varied, ranging from those that are strictly humanitarian and instrumental in foreign policy to long-range market activities to develop commerce. Some programs have been closely coordinated; some have been parts of larger programs with only coincidental coordination where interests overlap. Increasingly, the agencies and institutions concerned have drawn together to reach common objectives.

To encourage coordination and to make programs more effective the several sponsors organized this conference. It was their considered judgment Chat there is insufficient understanding of the need for wheat in large-scale international food programs, of the unique availability of wheat, of the nutritional values of wheat, and of the possibilities of using wheat in different forms to meet local traditions of food use.

Objectives are to clarify these important points and to provide: (1) a summary of available information on international food requirements; (2) a review of activities of governmental, agricultural, and industrial organizations in developing international trade in wheat and wheat products; (3) a discussion of potential overseas wheat markets; and (4) a presentation of technical information on nutritive qualities and the conversion of wheat to useful food products,


Glen Bayne, President
National Association of Wheat Growers, Washington, D. C.

Wheat plays a major role in the lives of most of us assembled here. For many, it is our chief means of livelihood. Wheat also plays a great role in feeding the world's populations. How large it is in various parts often escapes those who are closely connected with a particular phase of wheat production or utilization. This conference will help us reorient our thoughts, broaden our outlook, and see how United States wheat can achieve greater use in the world.

The National Association of Wheat Growers, which I represent, operates in 11 states that produce 55 percent of U. S. wheat. We are proud to co-sponsor this conference with Great Plains Wheat, Inc., Western Wheat Associates, Inc., and agencies of the U. S. Department of Agriculture concerned with economics, utilization, and marketing. I want especially to express our appreciation to Dr. M. J. Copley and his assistants for assembling this fine list of speakers and to Howard Morton for his effective activities in developing the conference.

The objectives and the discussions are excellently oriented towards our more comprehensive understanding and interpretation of the role of wheat. Our exchanges of information will provide a better realization of the problems and their solutions.


Sherman E. Johnson
Deputy Administrator for Foreign Economics
Economic Research Service, U. S. Department of

Agriculture, Washington, D. C.

. A world view of the present agricultural scene presents a double paradox. In many of the less developed countries, there is a shortage of food despite great physical potentialities for increasing food production. Contrast this situation with the United States and other countries where farming is carried on with modern technology. Here the incomes of farm people are depressed by supplies in excess of available markets.

ons Contrast food despite aradox.

Chronic food shortages should not be tolerated in any country because for the first time in human history it is physically possible to provide adequate food supplies for all the inhabitants of the world. But achievement requires use of modern technology. In most of the underdeveloped countries, adoption of improved farm technology would result in tremendous increases in food output. However, the present primitive production methods result in low yields, and the great masses of people are living on the margin of subsistence. Their entire lives are occupied with the struggle for "daily bread." Their inability to free themselves from the threat of hunger endangers both the economic and the political stability of many countries.

In striking contrast, adoption of improved technology has resulted in abundant production in the countries with highly commercialized agriculture. Output in recent years has exceeded available markets. Consequently, prices have declined and farm people are not receiving their proportionate shares of the fruits of progress. Some temporary relief for food-shortage countries has been provided by food aid from foodsurplus countries. But eventually food imports must be paid for with foreign exchange. Therefore, most of the long-term solution for the food-deficit countries must be sought in expanding their domestic food production by adoption of improved technology.

Many agricultural leaders have struggled with the paradox of either want or plenty. The United Nations Conference on Food and Agriculture which was held in Hot Springs, Virginia, May 17-June 3, 1943, made "Freedom from Want" its primary goal. The information report of the Conference stated that: "The delegates at Hot Springs began with Freedom from Want and with the first condition for Freedom from Want, the opportunity of every man to have enough food for himself and his family. ... Twothirds of the people of the world spend their lives on the land, raising food. And two-thirds of the people of the world, including many who live on the land, have never had enough to eat. =

dom from Want have enough food

lives on the

We have made some progress since this first FAO Conference was held in the midst of World War II. But available information indicates that about three-fifths of the world's population are now living in areas with serious food shortages. We still have a long way to go to achieve the goal of freedom from want for all people.

The present Freedom from Hunger campaign of FAO is an up-to-date attempt to deal with the problem of want, primarily by encouraging increases in production in food-deficit countries, but also by mobilizing supplies from the food-surplus countries. And FAO in the chief sponsor of a $100 million, three-year, multilateral food-aid program. 27

1/ "A Start Toward Freedom From Want." The Story of the United Nations Conference on Food and Agriculture, 1943.

2/ See Freedom From Hunger Campaign News, Vol. 2, No. 9. December 1961.

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