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Night Mark.- There is a fixed light shewn in the direction of Berry Head in the same tower as the Start light, and is only visible between the bearings of W * S and SW by S, and clears the Skerries. 16. What dangers are there near the Bill of Portland ?

The Race and the Shambles. Portland lights in one NNW W lead between them.

17. What are the bearing and distance of the Casquets from Portland Bill lights ?

S by W W, 47 miles. 18. Upon what bearings does the red light on the Needles shew white ?

Between the bearings of E to ESE, and a ray towards Hurst between SW by W and SW by W ] W. 19. Where is the Owers light vessel ?

In 19 fathoms at i mile SSE from the elbow of the Outer Owers, and about 6 miles SE by E from Selsea Bill. 20. Are the Owers sand or rocks ?

Rocks. 21. What danger is there near Beachy Head ?

The Royal Sovereign Shoals with only 9 feet at low water on the Easternmost patch and deep water alongside. 22. What is the mark for clearing them ?

Keep the light or lighthouse open of the next eastern cliff, NW *W, and it will lead one mile south of Southern Head. A Light Ship, shewing a white rev. light, having 3 flashes in quick succession every minute ; and by day a small ball over a ball is now placed here.

23. Suppose you are near Beachy Head in very thick weather, wind from the N, what would you do ?

Heave my ship to, with her head to the North, and keep the lead going.

24. Why head to North ? Because the set of the current is towards the French coast. 25. What danger is there near Dungeness?

Stephenson Shoal. 26. What is the mark for clearing it ?

South Foreland and Dungeness lights in line E by NN, lead 4 mile South of it.

27. Can ships anchor under protection of the Point ?

Yes ; both on the East and West sides of it. 28. How would you know the anchoring ground at night?

The light shews red between the bearing of SW by W 1W, into the land, to mark the anchoring ground to the E ; and a red light is shewn from the lantern between the bearing of E and the land, to mark the anchoring ground to the West.

29. Beating into the Downs from the southward, when would you put your ship about ?

When the high South Foreland light disappears. 30. What do the South Foreland lights clear ?

When in one, W by N, they lead clear of the South end of the Goodwin Sands.

31. In entering the Downs from the South, how would you steer for the anchorage ground ?

Round the South Foreland at about one mile distant, in 12 to 14 fathoms; and when the lights are in one W by N steer NE by N for the anchorage. 32. What are the marks for anchoring in the Downs ?

Upper Deal Mill in one with Deal Castle W by SIS; and South Foreland bigh light over the middle of Old Stairs Bay SW w. 33. What is the general course through the Gull Stream?

SW 1 W. 34. If you had to slip from the Downs, wind from the SW, what would you do ?

I should have my three topsails, foretopsail aback ; foretopmast staysail weather sheet aft, and a spring from my starboard quarter. Buoy the cable and slip, and when the ship is sufficiently round, cut the spring and fill away. Bring the high light over the middle of Old Stairs Bay, SW 1 W (or high light SW 1 W at night). When past the Gull L.V., keep the same general mark, or the L.V. SW I W will lead through the remainder of the Gull Stream ; and when North Foreland light is NNW, or Goodwins lights ESE, haul out to the Eastward and lie to. 35. On which side of the Gull L.V. must you pass ?

On either side.

36. What inark is there to enable vessels to keep East of Margate sand ?

A red ray of light from the North Foreland lighthouse between in by W 1 W and N I E for this purpose.

DANGERS AND NAVIGATION OF THE

EAST COAST OF ENGLAND.

37. What are the two lights on Orfordness for ?

When in one, South of the Ness, they lead through Hollesley Bay, close to the NW edge of the Whiting, and across the Cutler in 4 fathoms. The high light is red between the bearings of E by N N, and E N, invisible inshore.

When in one North of the Ness, they lead between the Napes and Sizewell Bank. The low light is red over Sizewell Bank, invisible inshore.

38. How can you tell which way the Newarp L. V. is riding.

She has 3 masts at unequal heights. The mainmast is highest, the foremast next, and the mizenmast the lowest. 39. What danger is there off Whitby ?

Whitby Scar Rock. 40. What is the clearing mark ?

Whitby lights in one S 19° E, and N 19° W, lead right on to it. To clear it, keep the South lighthouse open eastward of the North one.

The northern light is red from over the Scar Rock to inshore, bearing N 28° W.

41. What local mark is shewn from the Hartlepool Heugh lighthouse ?

In the same tower with the bright light (which is shewn all night) there is a lower one which shews red from half flood to half ebb. 42. What local light is shewn from Souter Point ?

In the same tower as the rev. light, but 214 feet below it, is a fixed light, shewing white from S 11° E to S 4° W, and shewing red from S 4° W to S 20° W.

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When the white light is open, my ship is in the line of Mill Rock and Cope Carr Point; and when it changes to red in that of Whitburn Stile, Hendon Rock, and White Stones.

HOW TO RIG A JURY KUDDER, &c. 1. If the pintles of the rudder were to give way, how would you act ?

I would try to get the rudder on deck, and bore a hole about two-thirds down, through which I would reeve a short chain, with a good rope pendant attached to each end of it; and again putting the rudder into its proper place, I would take the pendants in at each gangway and set them up, with a good purchase leading forward to the windlass bitts, and in this manner bind the rudder close to the stern-post, taking great care to have these purchases well attended to in order to keep the rudder in a right position. I should, of course, be obliged to allow it to hang in the sheers on deck, having a strong iron bolt or crowbar through the rudder head thwartways to hang it by, thereby leaving it with the greatest freedom of action under such circumstances, taking care to have the sheers well secured.

2. If your rudder was carried away during a gale, what would

you

do ?

Pay out a hawser, or a spar attached to a hawser, to steer with. When the sea had gone down sufficiently, I should set about rigging a jury rudder. 3. How would you make a jury rudder ?

Take a spar topmast, cut it to a sufficient length, bolt lengths of spars to this main piece, each shorter than the last, so as to form the shape of a rudder, then plank it over on both sides diagonally to make it stronger. 4. Suppose you had no spare topmast ?

Then take the mizen topmast ; or if a briy, the main boom.

5. Suppose you had no planks on board for planking it over with ?

Strip the bulwarks. 6. How would you get the jury rudder placed ?

Cross a chain around the main piece, about 2 feet from the heel, and cross another higher up, so that it shall come just below the rudder trunk casing. Get a pair of sheers rigged over the hole of the casing, pay out a warp down the trunk, bring the end in over the taffrail by the bight of a line thrown over it, pass this end of the warp through the hole for the tiller, take two half hitches round the standing part and stop the end, pass the other end of the warp through the block at the head of the sheers, and lead it to the winch.

Hang a kedge to the heel and throw all overboard. Heave on the winch till the rudder comes up high enough through the casing ; lead the chains at the heel forward to the fore chains, and the upper to the mizen chains ; bring them inboard, and set them taut.

7. How do you recover the kedge after the rudder is placed ?

Make a sheep-shank, slip one bight over the heel of the main piece before it is thrown overboard, and fasten the end to the kedge ; lay the sheep-shank along the main piece and stop it high up. When the rudder is in its place, this stop is cast off, and the weight of the kedge slips the bight off the heel, and the kedge is brought in over the taffrail.

8. How do you protect the rudder trunk casing from the play of the rudder ?

By bolting two spars athwartships, and other two over these, fore and aft, so as partly to cover the hole, and

, chocking up

the four corners. 9. How would you prevent the chains from chafing your ship?

Nail battens on the parts where the chains would chafe and woold and serve the chains. 10. How would you rig a jury rudder for a steamer ?

As the trunk would be too small for a topmast to go in, I should cut the main piece only long enough to reach its lower hole; shape the rudder as before ; fix the main piece to a cross-head, and suspend it by a warp down the rudder trunk casing, hung in a pair of sheers. chains will lead from the ends of the cross-head, but the lower chains would be cut to pieces by the screw, to prevent which, make the heel of the main piece lower than the Iudder-post, and have chain crossed low down.

Steer with chains from the outer edge, as in an ordinary rudder of a Steamer.

The upper

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