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11. If you were within a day or two of your port, would you go to all this trouble ?

No: I would get a long spar out aft, with chain round the outer end to weight it, and a warp or chain middled round the end ; the parts brought to blocks at the ends of boomkins or outriggers for the purpose ; and so inboard to the barrel of the wheel. 12. How would you keep it off the taffrail ?

Suspend it in the crutch of a small pair of shears aft. 13. The following is another plan of making a temporary rudder, which has been much approved by many experienced seamen.

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I would first cut lengths of the largest rope hawser on board, having them twice the length of the rudder intended to be made; then doubling their ends together, the bights would form the rudder head, through which the tiller might be placed and secured, (No. 1) using as many parts of the rope as the size of the rudder would require, occasionally sti Fened and filled up with wood or bars of iron, and bind the whole tight round with good small lines as far down as where the projection of the rudder will be required; then placing a piece of strong wood horizontally between the layers of the hawser, leaving as much projecting as the size of the rudder would require, over which I would place the bight of other pieces of hawser, whose ends would reach the ends of the first pieces, (No. 2) then bind all together as before, (No. 3) and hang it in the same manner as explained in the preceding answer. The tiller must be unshipped while the rudder

is being hung.

SEAMANSHIP.

1. How would you moor a ship in a bay or roadstead ?

Having come to with a single anchor, I would endeavour to ascertain if the place was attended with any local dangers, such as a heavy swell, or strong sea setting in, or whether the wind was more boisterous from any one point than from others. On ascertaining this, I would run out a kedge and lines in the direction I intended to lay the second anchor, which would be in such a place that, when moored, the ship might bear equal strain on both anchors from the point from which most danger might be apprehended ; then haul the ship out by the lines, veering away at the same time the cable of the anchor already down to the end. If greater scope were required, I would bend on warps, and veer away sufficient for the purpose, and then let go the other anchor, veering away the cable as the cable of the first anchor was being hove in, until the ship was in a good position between the two anchors.

2. Is this rule preferable in all places and under all circumstances ?

No: there are places where the land is very high, and covered with snow for the greater part of the year, (such as the coast of Anatolia, on the south side of the Black Sea, with many other places of the same nature, thereby causing the atmosphere to remain so cold, that although it may be blowing a gale of wind in the offing, (where it is much warmer) directly towards the land, yet it no sooner reaches the land, than it is repulsed or driven back by coming in contact with the coldness of the land; it will then be succeeded by light airs from the land, and squalls flying about in different directions ; and a ship moored in the foregoing manner would be constantly turning round and round, having sometimes her stern and sometimes her beam to the sea, thereby causing her to roll very heavily, and in a manner that might prove very injurious to her, besides stopping all possibility of working cargo. 3. How would you moor her under such circumstances ?

I would lay the best bower anchor to seaward, say, from the starboard bow, and the small bower or port anchor in a direct line towards the land, at the greatest distance my

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cables would reach, placing the ship in a good position between the two anchors. I would then have a good rope hawser, out of the port quarter, made fast to the in-shore cable, at a short distance from the stern of the vessel, and by keeping this tight the vessel must consequently lay with her head to seaward, under all circumstances, or any change of wind, and will in this manner keep end-on to the swell of the sea rolling towards the land. Provided, however, it comes on to blow from the land, or on either beam, very hard, slack down the hawser, and the vessel will instantly swing round head to wind, and is still properly moored.

4. If you were riding in a strong tide, with the wind right aft, how would you act ?

In all probability the vessel would have to be steered as if under weigh. However, if the tide is not too strong, she will lie on either side of the anchor with a very small sheer, bracing the after yards up the same way as she is sheered, with the head yards remaining square. As the tide eases the sheer must be strengthened until the helm is hard over, then set the staysail, or other small sails, to keep the cable tight while passing the anchor. I would always let the vessel

pass and re-pass, flood and ebb, on the same side of the anchor, if possible. 5. How would you box-haul a ship ?

Put the helm down, light up the head sheets, and slack the lee braces, to deaden her way; as she comes to the wind, raise tacks and sheets, and haul up the mainsail and spanker ; as soon as she comes head to the wind, and loses her head-way, square the after yards, and brace the head yards sharp aback, and flatten in the head sheets ; the helm being down, will pay her off as she has sternway; as she goes off, keep the after yards lifting and square the head yards, shift the helm ; when she gets the wind on the other quarter, haul out the spanker, set the main-sail, and brace the after yards up ; and as she comes to on the other tack, brace up the head yards, and meet her with the helm.

6. On a lee-shore, by standing on, you must go on shore; you can clear the land on the other tack, but it blows hard, with a head swell, and she will not stay ; you cannot veer ; how would you get on the other tack if you had good anchorage ground ?

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I should club-haul her; cock-bill the lee anchor, get a hawser on it for a spring, and lead it to the lee quarter ; range the cable and unshackle it abaft the windlass ; Helm's a-lee ;' raise tacks and sheets as for going in stays ; as soon as she loses head-way, let go the anchor, and “ Mainsail haul; as soon as she brings her head to the wind, let the chain cable go, holding on the spring ; when the after-sails take full, cut the spring, Let go and haul ;" trim all to the wind. 7. If you had no anchorage ground ?

I should give her a stern-board. Put the helm down, swing the main yard, trip the after sails up, and she will pay round on her heel.

8. You are lying to in a gale of wind, and cannot shew a bit of canvas, how would you prevent the ship from falling off ?

Roll up a tarpaulin, take it to the mizen weather rigging, and let it go : the wind will unroll it and keep it firm.

9. You are scudding, how would you guard against the ship broaching to ?

If scudding under the main topsail and foresail, I would keep the fore topmast staysail set, with the weather sheet hauled flat aft; but if under bare poles, and the ship was likely to broach to, I would haul my fore yards sharp forward to the wind, to meet her. In extreme cases, the bight of a hawser hung over the stern, with a good length of rope, has been found very efficacious.

19. If your masts were all cut away in a gale, how could you keep her head to wind and sea ?

By paying out a sea-anchor a-head. 11. Being totally dismasted, how would you act ? The nature of such a loss will not admit of

any

definite instructions being given, so much depending upon the situation of the vessel, and the circumstances connected with it, whether caused by a sudden squall of wind, or from a long and heavy gale ; and also whether near the land, or a great distance from it.

12. What method would you use under these circumstances ?

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I should be guided primarily by the nature of the sea, whether running high or comparatively smooth ; also by the position of the vessel, as regards her being near the land, or having sufficient sea-room. Having sufficient sea-room, and comparatively smooth water, I would take time and save as much as possible to rig jury masts fore and aft. In a gale and a strong sea, I would be obliged to cut much away to prevent the hull of the ship being stove, but should, if possible, try to save any spars that were not likely to damage the hull ; any that would do, I should get up aft to set a staysail or any other small sail, iu order to keep the vessel's head to the sea, and with returning fine weather, I would rig the best jury mast I could with such materials as 1 had saved.

13. In case of your ship foundering, how would you provide for the safety of your passengers (if any) and the crew ?

If I had passengers, I should, on leaving port, tell off men to the different boats, and these men would be made to understand that they formed the permanent crew of the boats to which they were told off. I should occasionally exercise them in getting ready the boats, and make it the duty of each officer daily to see that his boat was in proper order, with everything ready, a plug and also a spare one made fast by lanyards close to each plug hole, for immediate use ; the rollocks with a lanyard to the foot of each passed through the rollock-hole and fast to the inwire or thwart of the boat, so that in an emergency there should be no searching for them ; and above all, I would be sure that the boats' crews were trained for each map to look after the proper gear he had to use, so that every man knew his work in case of sudden necessity.

If my boats were lost previous to the catastrophe, I should then set about making rafts, by taking three of the longest spars I could get, and forming a triangle of them ; then cross these by others and lash them securely together; cross these again by another layer, and so on till the spars are all used. If I had any empty casks, or water casks, or breakers, I would lash them to the undermost layer, and also rail the edges with small spars and ropes.

14. Naine some of the things you would put on the raft ?

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