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with the action of the sea, the damage must be greatly
Yes, in those parts where instructions from the owner of the vessel would reach me in time, so as not to cause delay, or prove injurious to the property under my command.
9. If you were at too great a distance to correspond with the owner, what would you do ?
I would have a survey made by an experienced shipmaster and a merchant or shipbuilder, if such persons were to be obtained ; if not, I would be guided by my own judgment, with the assistance of the most experienced men I could find, and abide by the decision then made.
10. If your vessel were driven among rocks, what means would you use to save the lives of all on board, and part or the whole of the cargo, if practicable ?
If the rocks were near the shore, or above water, I would get the end of a good hawser made fast to the shore or to the highest rock within reach of the vessel, making the other end fast on board, and set it well tight with a good purchase, on which I would construct a traveller, with a
chair or something of the same nature slung to it, and in this manner haul the passengers, crew, and property on shore.
11. How would you get the end of the hawser made fast. to the shore ?
In all probability there would be people on the shore to make it fast. I would send it to them in the following manner :--By making a cork fender or some other buoyant substance fast to a small line, (such as the log-line or leadline,) it would, on being thrown overboard, drive on shore with the small line ; a larger line might then be hauled to the shore, and afterwards the hawser. If the place were uninhabited, other means might be used : I would endeavour to get on shore by swimming, with the assistance of a lifebuoy, or in a boat, or in any other manner which circumstances might suggest or permit ; and as it is not probable that the vessel could be got off a bed of rocks, I would get what I could from her.
12. Suppose the land inhabited, but the shore high and precipitious, so that no communication can be held between the foot and top of the cliff, how would you endeavour to open a communication with the people on the top ?
It could not be done by floating a line ashore, nor by a man swimming; the line must be sent up into the air. This can be accomplished by means of a kite. light hoop, but if you had none handy, take three light. pieces of wood and bind them strongly together in the shape of a triangle, and cover it with canvas; attach three or four pieces of strong cord, at equal distances, to the wood, and fasten the ends securely to a light line. The shore being a lee-shore, the kite will be driven by the gale shorewards. If it reaches the top safely, proceed as before described.
There is a kite patented by Captain Nares, R.N., with everything ready for instant use, and may be obtained at. any port.
13. If the vessel struck on a bed of sunken rocks, what would you do ?
I would take to the boats, having them stored with provisions and water in the best manner circumstances would permit. If the boats were disabled, I would construct a raft. in the manner already described in page 106.
14. How would you raise a sunken vessel ?
I would sling her with good cables, and raise her between two or more vessels, or floats constructed for the purpose. 15. How would you sling her ?
Having ascertained the position in which the vessel was lying, I would sweep each end of her with the bights of two cables of sufficient length to allow the ends to remain above water. I would then take two other short pieces of cable, (about two-thirds of the length of the vessel,) and make a large link at their ends, through which I would reeve the ends of the first mentioned cables, and allow the short pieces to sink to the bottom, one on each side of the vessel, they would then act as bridles by connecting the end cables; all being thus united, would securely sling the vessel, and the greater the strain on them, the tighter they would grip.
16. Having slung the vessel how would you proceed to raise her ?
The power of buoyancy must be regulated by the weight to be raised. The general principle, however, under which I would act, would be to place two vessels, one on each side of the sunken vessel as near to her as possible. I would then place two logs of timber directly over the sunken vessel, with their ends resting on the decks of the vessels used to raise her with, having their decks and beams well fortified to bear the pressure.
The ends of the slings must then be made fast to the logs of timber, and hove tight up at low water. As the tide returned all would rise with it, (that is, if the power of buoyancy were sufficient for the purpose,) then at high water, all should be hauled into shoaler water, till the sunken vessel again takes the ground; and so on every tide till the sunken vessel could be seen. The logs of timber must then be dispensed with, and the slings made fast to the vessel without them. Where there is no tide, or there is little rise or fall, the vessels which are used to raise the sunken vessel must be loaded before being hove down, and afterwards discharged; as they rise out of the water, they will lift the sunken vessel in the same manner as when lifted with the tide.
They might be filled with water and pumped out, if consistent with prudence.
ACTING ON A SURVEY. Report on a Ship.--I would state all, even the smallest things and parts damaged ; then the words " lost, damaged, or destroyed ; and we further recommend that these repairs be carried out ;' or words to a like effect.
Report on a Cargo.-State how she was stowed and dunnaged, the damage done, with marks and numbers of the packages; and " we recommend that the damaged goods be
; i sold, and the rest re-shipped.":
LOWER MAST SPRUNG AT SEA. Fish it with the best spar I have got, using the small spars to fill up contlines with ; lash it with rope and chain
; lashings alternately, and wedge it.
Look to it every day, more particularly after severe weather.
LEAK IN SCARF OF THE STEM. Make a stopwater ; that is, bore an auger hole through the inner end of the scarf, and drive in a treenail.
For management of a Steamer at Sea, &c. see Appendix.
LAW OF STORMS. 1. What do you understand by the phrase "Law of Storms” ?
The laws that certain storms, which revolve about a centre and at the same time travel onward, seem to follow.
2. What name is generally given to such revolving storms ?
Cyclone. 3. State some of these laws ?
The parts of the earth where they are supposed to commence, and the times of the year when they may be excepted ; the way they revolve, and the course they follow; where they change this course, or are said to recurve, and the direction they take after recurving ; and from these data, to find where the ship is in the storm circle, and so to do the best with her under the circumstances.
4. In what parts of the world would you expect to encounter these storms ?
In the North Atlantic, especialy in the neighbourhood of the West Indies and along the line of the Gulf Stream ; the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea; the South Indian Ocean; the China Seas; and the coast of Australia.
5: About where do they commence, and when may they be expected, and in what directions do they travel ?
In the N. Atlantic —a few degrees N. of the Equator, sometimes in the neighbourhood of the Cape Verde Islands; may be expected from July to beginning of November; they travel W.N.W to about the West India Islands, where they recurve to the N. and N.E., following the Gulf Stream, and sometimes reach across to our Islands.
In the Bay of Bengal-during April and May, and October and November. The storms of the two first of these months. commence in the north part of the Bay, while those of the other two months commence near the north of the Andaman Islands. The October storms are the worst. All travel W.N.W., those of April and May striking Bengal, and those of October and November striking Madras.
In the S. Indian Ocean-December to April. They commence about 10° S. to the westward of Java, and travel W.S.W. till to the southward of the Mauritius or Réunion, where they turn to S.W. and S. to about Lat. 28° S. and then recurve to the S.E.
Australian Coast,-December to March, from N.E. to S.W.
China Seas,-the typhoons, July to November, from N.E. to S.S.E.
Japan Sea,- August to October, from N.E. and S.E. 6. How do they revolve ?
Those North of the Equator, against the hands of a watch, or as a left-handed rope would be coiled down.
Those South of the Equator, with the hands of a watch, or as a right-handed rope would be coiled down.
7. What wind is always found nearest the Equator in these storms ?