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Bishop
St. Agnes
Seven Stones

Trumpet Three blasts in quick succession every

Longships...

Wolf

Lizard
St. Anthony
Eddystone (New!

two minutes
Bell Two strokes in quick succession every

quarter of a minute
Bell Three strokes in quick succession

every quarter of a minute
Siren One blast every 5 minutes
Bell Every lialf-minute
Bell Twice in quick succession every half

minute
Horn One blazt every :3 minutes
Horn One blast every 2 minutes
Bell
Bell Constant
Horn Two blasts in quick so.ccession every

4 minutes
Gong
Trumpet Six blasts every minute

Start
Shambles
Portland
Needles.
St. Catherine

Nab
(wers
Beachy
Varne
Royal Sovereign
Dungeness
South Foreland
South Sand Head
Gull
North Sand Heail
North Foreland
East Goodwin

Gong
Gong
Trumpet Two blasts at intervals of 2 minutes

Trumpet Blasts of 5 secs. duration every 2 mins.
Gong
Gong

Gong

FRENCH SIDE

ad ad.

Ushant
Le Fore Rock

La Corbiere Rock.....

Trumpet At intervals of about 10 seconds
Trumpet A blast of 5 seconds, followed by 20

seconds quiet
Bell Three times in quick succession every

half-minute Siren Three blasts, 2 seconds duration, in

quick succession, every 5 minutes

d

Caskets.

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Sunk
Galloper
Knock

Shipwash

Corton
Lowestoft

Nicholas
Newarp
Cockle
Hasbro' L. V.
Leman and Ower.
Dudgeon
Outer Dowsing.
Inner Dowsing..
Spuru L. V.

Gong
Gong
Siren I wo blasts in quick succession every

2 minutes
Horn Blasts of 5 seconds duration, with

intervals of 2 minutes
Gong
Bell Three times in quick succession

every 15 seconds
Gong
Horn Three blasts every 2 minutes
Gong
Gong
Gong

Gong
Trumpet Blasts of 5 seconds every 2 minutes
Gong
Horn Two blasts in quick succession every

2 minutes
Rocket Every 10 minutes ; bursis with loud

bang at a height of 600 feet Siren One blast every minute Horn Two short blasts immediately follow

ing each other every 2 minutes SCOTLAND

Flambro'

Souter
Longstone.

St. Abb's
Sanda Island
Plaida

Siren Blast of ( sec. with intervals of 14 min.
Siren Blast of 7 sec. with intervals of 1 min.

Horn Five sec. sound, 10 sec, silence
WEST COAST OF ENGLAND

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WEST COAST OF ENGLAND-COXTINUED.

NAJIE.

SIGXAL.

REMARKS

Cardigan Bay

Trumpet S. Bishop

Trumpet

Beil & A gun cotton detonating rocket every Smalls

i rocket) -hour St. Ann's Head

Horn One blast every 3 minutes Helwick L. V.

Horn Blasts of 3 secs. duration, at intervals

of 2 minutes Scarweather L. V. .... Trumpet Two blasts in quick succession every

2 minutes Bull Point

Horn Three quick blasts every 2 minutes Lundy

Rocket Loud bang every 10 minutes at a

height of 600 feet Hartland

Horn Blasts of 5 seconds every 2 minutes Godrevy

Bell

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NOTE.- When a Vessel is observed from any of the Irish Light Vessels standing into danger, a gun will be fired and repeated until observed by the Vessel. The two Signal Flags J. D. of the Commereial Code, “ You are standing into Danger," will be hoisted and kept Aying until answered. In similar cases a gun is fired from English Light Ships.

L

APPENDIX K

MANAGEMENT OF A STEAMER AT SEA, &c.

GETTING UNDER WEIGH

With regard to getting steamships under weigh from an open anchorage little can be said.

The duty of the officer in charge of the deck is to see that all the water in the deck steam pipes leading to the winches and windlass is blown out, and that the winches are well lubricated before starting; seeing that the wheel chains are in perfect order by putting the helın hard over to port and starboard. If steam steering gear is used, it should be well looked to before starting, with the assistance of one of the engineers, also the officer should go aft and see that no boats are near the propeller.

In getting under weigh from a quay or wharf where moorings are used, especial care must be taken in keeping warps and chains clear of the propeller, and an officer aft at that time is indispensable, as more mishaps occur to steamers through fouling the propeller with ropes and chains, than from any other cause. Time should always be given, if possible, to allow of the stern ropes being hove in before the engines are moved. If circumstances will admit of it, a steamer's engines should be turned over the centres both ways, ahead and astern, before casting off, to admit of the condensed water in the engines being discharged, thereby ensuring their efficacy in starting quickly.

STEAM SHIPS UNDER CANVAS

As to the management of steamers under canvas no fixed rules can be laid down, owing to their masts being so differently placed. Most steamers, when under canvas with the wind on either side, carry a great amount of weather helm. This can only be regulated by reducing the amount of the after canvas.

If the vessel is to be some time under canvas, disconnect the engines and let the propeller revolve ; if it is only for a temporary break-down, then place the propeller (if a fourbladed one, and these are mostly now in vogue) with two blades up and down ; this is the best position you can place it in ; but as a rule all steamers steer very indifferently when dragging their propeller, and many are quite unmanageable under canvas with the propeller connected.

If on a lee-shore your engines become disabled try all means to cast her on the best tack with her canvas; sometimes they will not pay off on either tack; if you are in soundings, then only one course is left, viz. to let go 'an anchor, and watch when she comes head to wind ; then try and cast her with the head sheets, and slip the anchor ; of course this is a last resource, but better do this than go ashore.

고 ;

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When blowing hard with a very heavy sea and you wish to lay her to, double-reef the mainsail, set it taut out, and haul the boom flat amidships, ease the engines down to slow, or just to give her enough way to make her steer, then keep the sea about two to three points on the bow just so that the mainsail will keep full; this gives the sea a chance to run under her fore shoulder and to keep her bow up; whereas by keeping her dead head to wind she loses all her way, her canvas will not stand, she falls off into the trough of the sea, and becomes in a dangerous position; if she lies to badly on one tack bring the sea on the other bow and try that; if you find she falls off too much into the trough of the sea try to increase the amount of after canvas on the ship, and turn the engines a little faster; if this fails and you are in such a position that you cannot run her before the wind, then recourse must be had to a drog sail or sea anchor. Some steamers will headreach with their fore and after canvas set, with the engines stopped ; but I never knew but two, in an experience of twenty-five years at sea, that would do so with safety.

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