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9. Describe an engine-room telegraph ?

In the following sketch the handle A is worked by the officer of the watch, who moves it towards his left side for going ahead, and towards his right hand for going astern. The vertical position is "stop," and the other orders are “stand by," "slow," "half-speed," and “ full."

The handle B is the repeating single, and is worked from the engine-room thus :-The officer on deck puts the handle A at “ t-speed” to the left; this motion causes a bell to ring in the engine-room ; upon this the engineer looks at his dial and sees the pointer at

1-speed ;" he then moves his handle to the same, and this movement causes B to move found to -speed" ahead, thus shewing the officer of the watch that his order is perfectly understood.

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SCREW RACE.

1. What is meant by a right-handed screw propeller ?

One that revolves from the port to the starboard side of the ship during the upper part of its revolution while

the ship is moving ahead. 2. What is meant by a left-handed screw ?

One which revolves from the starboard side to the

port side under the same conditions as in the last. 3. What effect has a right-handed screw on a ship going

a-head ?

It tends to send her to the port side of her course, the effect being as if she carried a starboard helm. 4. What effect has a right-handed screw upon a ship going astern?

To throw her to starboard of her course. 5. What effect has a left-handed screw upon a ship going ahead ?

To throw her to starboard of her course. 6. What effect has a left-handed screw upon a ship. going astern ?

To throw her to port of her course. 7. If your ship were moored to a buoy in a river behind

a broad tier of other ships, you want to get under weigh with your own steam only, there is a dolphin aft of you ; how would you manage ?

I should take her out under stern way; then, if she is a right-handed screw, as she will have a tendency to cant to starboard I should give her a sheer before starting, so as to bring the current on the starboard bow, then the action of the current would act against the effect of the screw, and the ship would have a better chance of coming out in a straight course.

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VENTILATION.

1. What general direction does the air between decks take ?

It takes the opposite direction to that of the wind. The more the ship is battened down the more sure is. this rule.

2. Where should ventilators be put ?

There should be two, one forward and one aft, for

each hold. 3. Which would be the uptake ?

The weather one for the time being. 4. Are the ventilators protected ?

Yes, with cowls. 5. Under what conditions are coal cargoes most dangerous,

that is, most liable to spontaneous combustion ?

When the coal is subjected to breakage during transport from pit to ship; when coal which is pyritic is shipped in a wet condition ; and especially when the

ventilation is through the body of the coal cargo. 6. In fine weather what would you do with such a cargo ?

Keep the hatches off whenever possible. 7. What precaution should always be adopted with coal

cargoes during long voyages ?

The temperature of the various portions of the cargo should be tested periodically by thermometers and

registered in the log. 8. Besides the hatches, what other means must be adopted

for relieving the gases from the surface ?

There must be ventilators giving free and continuous

egress to the open air in all states of the weather. 9. In ventilating the 'tween decks of an emigrant ship,

what is most to be guarded against ?

The down draft, giving cold to the people, must be guarded against by canvas screens.

EXPLOSIVES. 1. What general precautions must be taken in shipping

explosives?

The Board of Trade " stipulate for a substantial compartment formed of double boards, with an intermediate lining of felt," or they must be otherwise carefully stowed so as not to come into contact with or be in danger from any other part of the cargo; hence, they must be isolated by boards, or surrounded by sailcloth or felt, to prerent the powder getting adrift during the voyage.

TILOTS, AND BOOKS OF NAVIGATION,

NAUTICAL INSTRUMENTS, &c.

SOLD BY

THOMAS REED & CO. ADMIRALTY CHART AGENTS,

BOOKSELLERS, PRINTERS, STATIONERS, &c.
184, HIGH STREET WEST,

SUNDERLAND.

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BRITISH NAVIGATION. Coasts of England, Scotland, and Ireland, English and St.

George's Channels, Orkney, Shetland, and Lewis Islands,

Guernsey, Jersey, Scilly, &c. North Sea,

10s. 6d. & T East Coast of England, from Dungeness to the Tyne. 12 East Coast of England, from Harwich to Newcastle 10 The ('oal Ports, gr., from Flambro' Head to Coquet Island 8 Entrances to the Thames .

4s. & 7 6 River Medway, on 2 sheets

3 0 Harwich Approaches.

2 6 Harwich

3 6 Yarmouth and Lowestoft Roails,

1s. 6d. & 2 6 Lynn and Boston Deeps

2 6 River Humber

2 6 (oal Trade Pilot, from London to Aberdeen, on 3 sheets 10 0 Coal Trade Pilot, do with the North Sea 4 sheets 12 0 East Coast of Scotland, from Flambro' to Cape Wrath ..12 0 Flamborough Head to Aberdeen..

4 0 Tees Bay

2 6 Sunderland

2 6 River Tyne

3 Farn Islands to Berwick

2 0 Firth of Forth, on 3 sheets

.each 2

6 River Tay to Dundee

2 6 Aberdeen.

6 Moray Firth.

2 6

19 19 19 10 Ci 10

S. Pentland Firth...

1 Orkneys and Pentland Firth

4 Shetland Isles.

2 Orkney Isles

1 English and Bristol Channels

.12 Downs

1s. 6d. & 2 Dungeness to Thames

2 Isle of Wight, Spithead, g'c...

4s. & 2 Portland Roads, ..

3 Torbay—Dartmouth

.each 1 Plymouth Sound...

5 Falmouth..

2 Islands of Guernsey, Jersey, and Alderney.

6 Scilly Islands

2 Bristol Channel

10 St. George's and Bristol Channels

12 Liverpool Bay

2 QueenstownDublin Bay.

each 2 Hebrides, or Lewis Islands, with the adjacent Coast North, West, and South Coasts of Ireland ...

.10 South, and South West Coasts of Ireland Whole Coast round Ireland, and St. George's Channel ..10 Coasts of Great Britain, Ireland, &c., from the Shetlands to the Bay of Biscay.

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NORTHERN NAVIGATION. . Coast of Holland, River Elbe, Cattegat, Baltic, Gulfs of Finland

and Bothnia, Norway, the White Sea, &c. Coasts of England and Holland, from Flambro' Head to

the Downs, and from the Elbe to Cape Grisnez....12 0 Coasts of England and Holland, from the Humber to

Beachy Head, and from Boulogne to the Texel.... 8 6 Scheldt Entrance

0 Mouths of the Maas

0 Texel Entrance

6 Zuider Zee

6 Coasts of England and Holland, from the Downs and Harwich to Calais, Rotterdam, &c.

6 Entrances to the Elbe and Weser, the Ems, Eyder, foc.

0 The Sleeve, with Coasts of Norway and Sweden ..

0 Winga Sound and Gothenburg..

6 Christiania

0 Cattegat and Belts, with the Entrances to Gothenburg

and the Baltic, through the Sound and Great Belt 12 0

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