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41. You have the lower cap in the top, proceed to place it on the mast-head.

Lash a block to one side of the mast-head, reeve a girtline through it from aft forward, and lead it down through the square hole of the trestle-trees ; place the topmast with its head forward in the water ; reeve the girtline through the sheave hole, stop it along the mast, and hitch it round the mast-head : sway away, ease the heel in with a heelrope, point it fair for going up, put a handspike in the fid-hole with a line at its end ; place the lower cap so that its round hole shall be over the square hole of the trestle-trees ; sway away on the topmast till the head has entered through the cap, then belay, and lash the cap to the topmast; sway away again till high enough, and then haul on the line from the handspike in the heel, and so slue the cap round till the square hole is over the lower mast-head ; lower a little, place the cap, cast off the lashing, and beat the cap down into its place; lower down the topmast. 42. Send up the topmast cross-trees.

Place the block on the eye-bolt on the under face of the cap ; overhaul down the girtlines outside the top, and hitch them one to the outer end of the forward starboard horn, the other to the after starboard horn ; seize their ends; stop both girtlines to the trestle-trees and to the port horns; sway away ; when high enough cast off the first stops and then the next ; the man aloft placing it over the lower cap, so that the after hole between the trestle-trees is over the round hole of the cap. When the topmast is sent up, it takes the cross-trees up with it. 43. Send up the cross-trees from the topmast head.

After getting the lower cap up, lower the topmast a little, put a bolt in the sheave hole so that the topmast rests on the trestle-trees, then shift the mast-block to the eye bolt underneath the cap. Sway away again, take out the bolt, and when the topmast has entered about two or three feet through the cap, place girtline blocks at its bead. Hitch these girtlines to the horns of the cross-trees, stop them to the other horns, send up. When at the masthead rest them on the cap, standing on their after part and their under face looking forward, cast off stops, &c.; then lower the topmast and the cross-trees will fall over the topmast head

14. Send the topmast up.

The block is on the eye-bolt under the cap; the mast rope rove from aft forward, and overhauled down through the square hole of the top, rove through the sheave hole of the topmast, stopped along the mast, and the end made fast to the mast-head; sway away till the head enters the lower cap; cast off the end, and make it fast to the eye-bolt on the other side of the mast, so as to have an even strain on the two parts ; cast off the stops ; sway away again ; fid it. 45. Rig the topmast.

Put the bolsters on, then the starboard rigging, next the port, then the backstays, and last, the fore-topmast stay. 46. Suppose the topgallant mast is up, rig it.

First the grummet, then the fore-topgallant stay, then the rigging, and last, the backstays. 47. Which mast would you rig first ? And why?

The foremast. Because I have the means of staying it; and the maintopmast, &c. cannot be stayed till the foremast is.

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MANAGEMENT OF A SHIP UNDER CANVAS.

1. The ship is under double-reefed topsails and courses, with the wind a point abaft the beam and a heavy squall to windward, and would not carry canvas,--what would you do first ?

Haul the mainsail up, and keep her before the wind; then take the sail off her.

2. Under double-reefed topsails, foresail, jib, and trysail, which would you take in first ?

The trysail. 3. How would you take in the mainsail in a gale of wind?

Keep the ship well full; steady the lifts; ease off the lee sheet a fathom or so; man the weather clew-garnet, buntlines, and leechlines ; then ease away the tack and haul up on the clew-garnet and buntlines; the tack being close up, man the lee clew-garnet, buntlines, and leechlines ; ease away the sheet, and haul upon the clew-garnet, buntlines, and leechlines. This sail, as well as the foresail, is often taken in by means of spilling lines.

N.B.-Some captains prefer the lee sheet hauled up first; but it shakes the sail more, consequently is more liable to carry the sail

the sail away.

4. How would you reef a topsail?

Haul in the weather topsail brace, and check the lower yard ; haul out the reef tackles and lay aloft.

5. Blowing hard, the wind two points abaft the beam, you want two reefs in the topsails, which topsail would you reef first ?

I should keep the ship before the wind, and reef the fore topsail first.

6. At what time would you swing your main yard, staying a ship?

With the wind about a point on the weather bow. 7. What time the fore yard ?

When the main yard is full, and I think the fore yard will fill.

8. You are running with the wind three points on the starboard quarter blowing hard, and it suddenly shifts round on the port beam, what would you do?

Fill the main yard, haul the mainsail up, and the fore yard will box her off.

9. If you were on the port tack, with the wind two points abaft the beam, and it suddenly shifted to four points on the starboard bow, what would you do ?

Haul the main yard round, and keep the fore yards aback to box her off : when she comes round, haul the head yards round, and trim the yards. 10. Provided she would not pay off, what would you do?

I would brail in the mizen, and let her come round on her heel, acting in the same manner as when veering her.

11. The wind increasing, how would you begin to reduce the sails ?

I would first take in the royals, flying jib, and small staysails, and topgallant sails next. 12. Go on -- the wind still increasing ?

I would take in the first, and afterwards the second reef in each topsail and stow the jib. 13. The wind still increasing, what would you do next?

I would close reef the fore and mizen topsails, reef the courses, and stow the mizen.

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14. Go on-the gale still increasing, with a strong sea running ?

I would reduce to two close-reefed topsails, and carry them as long as the ship and masts could bear them without injuring either, in order to keep steerage way on the ship. I would have the helm well attended to, easing it down to the pitching of the ship.

15. If the ship could not bear two close-reefed topsails, what would

you

do ? Stow the fore one, afterwards the main one, and set a storm trysail either on the main or mizen mast.

16. The gale being at its height, and a very heavy sea running, the ship labouring very hard, could you do any thing to ease her ?

I would have the helm strictly attended to, and not lashed to leeward, as is often done. By carefully watching the action of the seas and motion of the ship, she may be eased greatly when contending against a heavy sea. 17. Is there anything else you could do ?

I would lower down gaffs and booms, unreeve all steering sail gear and spare ropes, and send down royal and topgallant yards. 18. Which is the best way to send them down ?

I would send them all down to windward, bending a line on the lower yard arm to steady them while being lowered. 19. Send down a top-gallant yard, blowing hard.

Unshackle the haulyards and unreeve them ; reeve a yard rope through the sheave hole at the mast head. Bend it on to the quarter of the yard and sway away till high enough to get the lifts off. Unparrel the yard ; stop the yard rope to the yard arm and bend on a tripping line to the weather yard arm.

Unhook the braces and lower away. 20. Send down a topsail yard, blowing hard.

The same as above, only I would have a block at the mast-head.

Some use a gun-tackle purchase. 21. What precautions would you take ?

Have some stout rope to go round yards and masts as preventer parrel, till all was ready to lower; and, in the case of a topsail zard, have stops in the weather rigging. 22. Suppose the vessel broke off, what would you do ?

Veer her.

23. Why would you veer her ?

The vessel breaking off would bring the sea more on the beam, causing her to labour more heavily, and is often attended with great danger. The more a vessel can be kept end on to the sea, the easier she will bear its fury. 24. How would you veer her under present circumstances ?

If possible, I would set the close reefed fore topsail and staysail, lower down the trysail, and put the helm hard over to windward, ordering the crew from the deck till the vessel was before the wind. I would then brace round the after yards, clue up the fore topsail, lay the fore yards forward, but not sharp up, ready for stowing the sail, down fore topmast staysail, and, as she draws the wind on the quarter, set the trysail again, keeping the crew as well sheltered as circumstances would permit until the ship comes to the wind, then stow fore topsail and staysail as quickly as possible. 25. Why would you send the crew from the deck ?

In a heavy sea-way there is great danger in a vessel going off, and likewise in coming to the wind ; should a sea strike her at such times, it must almost of necessity sweep something away, and no prudent officer will expose his crew more than is absolutely necessary. 26. Weather moderating, what sails would you set first ?

I would set the close-reefed topsails first; the fore and aft sails next, in order to keep her as steady as possible.

27. Go on setting the sails, the wind moderating and changing to the starboard quarter ?

I would set the sails in much the same manner as I took them in, with all steering sails, fore and aft, on the starboard side.

28. Suppose the wind fly suddenly round to the port bow, with a hard squall, what would you do ?

I would haul in the starboard fore braces, and fill the . head yards ; shiver the after yards, putting the helm hard a-port, brail in the mizen, and let her go off before the wind

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