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until the sails were reduced sufficiently for the ship to bear them.
29. In staying suppose your ship paid right off before the wind how would you act ?
I would keep the fore yard square until she came to, then trim it.
30. Supposing you are running under the lee of a sand, the wind one point free, and your main topsail brace gives way, what would you do ?
Let go the lee sheets and halliards, and clew down the yards. 31. How would you tack a lazy ship?
Check the lee fore brace. 32. You are nearing your port of destination (by your reckoning) in foggy weather, when would you bring your ship to an anchor ?
When I found by the lead that the water shallowed to a prudent depth. 33. How would you put a ship about ?
Give the order, “ About Ship.” See all clear, the hands at their respective stations, and ease the helm down. “ Helm's a-lee.” Ease off; then, as she comes round and shakes, “ Tacks and sheets ;” and when within one point
; of the wind, “ Mainsail haul;
down main tack and aft sheet; trim the head sheets and shift the helm, and when round far enough for the head yards to fill, “Let go and haul ;” down tack and brace the yards. 34. How would you put the ship about with only the watch?
I would hook my tack tackles on the lee sido ready for boarding the tacks; when round, raise the clews of my courses, and then proceed as with all hands. 35. In staying, what is to be particularly noticed ?
If the ship gathers stern-way, to shift the helm. 36. Wind on the port quarter, the weather main-topgallant brace gives way and also the parrel ; what would you do?
Bring the wind on the starboard quarter so as to bring yard gently aback against the mast. Then secure it.
LOSS OF BOWSPRIT, MASTS, &c.
1. You have sprung your bowsprit, what would you do?
I would fish it with spare spars, send down the fore topgallant and royal masts, and take in the flying jib-boom, to ease the bowsprit as much as possible.
2. Suppose it is carried away at the knight-heads, how would you act ?
I would immediately keep the ship away, get good purchases from the lower and topmast heads. Take them outside, and bring them in through the hawse pipes and set them up by the windlass. I would rig the jib-boom after the manner of a billyboy's bowsprit, and set the fore topmast stay up to it to set the jib on.
3. Suppose your foreyard were carried away in running, so that you could do nothing with it, what would you do ?
Send down the main yard, and then send it up forward. 4. If you carried away your topmasts, what would you do?
If they were gone close at the cap, I would scarf them ; they would then set the topsails with a single reef.
5. If they were broken into three or four pieces, what would you do?
It is most likely I should have one spare spar for a main topmast. I would take the jib-boom for a fore one and the mizen boom for a mizen topmast. 6. If you sprung a lower mast what would you do ?
I would fish it with spare spars, sending down the topgallant and royal masts, and all other things possible, to
7. Suppose your lower-mast head is getting rotten and the cap is working down; what would you do?
Make a spanish cap. Take rope or chain and wrap it round and round the lower-mast and topmast underneath the cap. Fix the ends to a handspike and turn it round and round till I got the rope or chain fixed hard. Fasten the ends of the handspike to the topmast and wedge all tight.
DUTIES OF A SECOND MATE.
1. You are appointed to a ship ready to take in cargo, what is the first thing you would do on going on board ?
Report myself, and ask for orders. 2. And then, if no special order was given you ?
Go into the hold, see that the limbers were clear, the hold well swept, dunnage properly laid, and the pumps all right. 3. And then ?
Take an account of everything that would be under my charge.
4. If your ship were ready to proceed to sea, what would
you see to ?
That the wheel-chains were clear, and their ends properly secured ; see that no nails or other iron is near the binnacles, and see that the lead and log lines are properly marked, and put them away myself, so that I should know where to lay my hand upon them at a moment's notice.
5. Coming on deck to relieve the watch at night, what are the first things you would do ?
First, see that my side lights are burning brightly ; next, who is on the look out ; then relieve the watch.
6. You are in charge of the deck, coming on dark, ship labouring a good deal, what would you do before darkness set in ?
See all running gear coiled up and hung on the pins, halliards overhauled ready to let go, everything secured about the decks, battens and tarpaulins secure on the hatches and that there is no chafe on the mast coats.
7. Discharging cargo. Supposing you found only the hoops and staves of a cask in the hold ; what would you
do with them; give them to the cook or throw them overboard ?
No. Be sure and let them stay where they are, until the captain has seen them.
8. The captain has left orders to be called ; would you leave the deck or bridge to call him ?
No. I would send a man whom I could trust to call him. But, if his orders are that I must call him myself, or
if I had to leave the deck, I would give charge to the best man I had in my watch before leaving.
9. You have charge of the deck of a steamer at sea, and a cry is raised of a man overboard on the port bow; what is the first order you would give, and why?
Starboard. To give the man a chance of clearing the
ADDITIONAL FOR ONLY MATES.
Examination in Chart.
The Applicant will be required to answer, in writing, on a sheet of paper which will be given him by the Examiner, all the following questions, according to the grade of Certificate required, numbering his answers with the numbers corresponding with these on the question paper :
1. A strange chart being placed before you, what should be your special care to determine before you answer any questions concerning it, or attempt to make use of it ?
Which is the North part of the chart. 2. How do you ascertain that in our British charts ?
In our British charts there is always at least one compass the true North point of which is marked by a star or other ornament.
3. Describe how you would find the course by the chart between any two places, A and B.
I would lay the edge of a parallel ruler over the two places, A and B ; then, taking care to preserve the direction I would move one edge of the ruler until it came over the centre of the nearest compass on the chart; the circumference of the compass cut by the edge of the ruler would show the course, being careful to take it from that part of the circumference towards which I want to go.
4. Supposing there to be 21 points of East variation at the first-named place, what would the course be magnetic ? the true course being N.N.E.
Easterly variation to the left ; Westerly to the right; therefore, the magnetic would be N i W.
5. How would you measure the distance between those two, or any other two places on the chart.
I would measure one-half the distance on the chart by my dividers ; then, placing one leg of the dividers on the
; middle latitude, I would measure on each side of the same, and the distance measured between these two extreme points would be the required distance. 6. Why would you measure it in that particular manner ?
Because on a Mercator's chart the degrees of latitude increase in length as you approach the poles.
[The above comprises all the questions on the Chart that are put to First Mates and Only Mates.]
TENDING TIDE, &c.
1. How would you place a ship at single anchor ?
Keep her to leeward as long as possible. 2. How would you get her there, wind on the quarter, and weather tide ?
After she has dropped astream as far as her chain will let her, back all the yards, and let her drop to leeward, then give her a sheer from her anchor. 3. The wind comes on the beam ?
Point the main yards into the wind. 4. The wind still heads her ; it is now on the bow ?
Bring the main yards still into the wind, the fore yards just by, and ease up the sheer. 5. Wind right ahead ?
Give her a shear, and let her drop astream, then bring the fore yards forward on one side, and the main yards forward on the other side. The after yards should be brought forward on the same side as her head is sheared to. 6. The wind flies round to the other beam ?
Back the yards, let her drop down to leeward, and give her a shear from her anchor. Point the main yard into the wind if necessary. 7. Slack tide, swing her.
When the tide has done she will swing herself till she is head to the wind, then swing the yards. When the lee tide makes she will swing head to the tide ; let her lie So, with yards aback, and shear from her anchor.