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8 Suppose she is a laden ship to leeward of her anchor, riding the weather tide, and is straining at her cable, what could you

do?

Slack out more cable. 9. Anything else ?

Fill on everything, hoist foretopmast staysail with its lee sheet aft, and sail her up in the tide, with a man to steer her as if under weigh.

10. You dont care about doing that; is there anything else you might do ?

Yes ; sail her over to avindward. 11. How would you do it ?

Point her yards into the wind, ease up her shear and let her drop astream ; then fill upon everything, hoist the foretopmast staysail lee sheet aft, down helm, and sail her ap into the tide to windward of her anchor. 12. How would you place her when you got her there?

Afteryards full, foreyards by, and a shear from her anchor. 13. Prepare to swing her to windward.

Before the tide slackened give her a broad shear, then fill upon everything, hoist the foretopmast staysail lee sheet aft; at slack water the ship will swing across her cable and come round head to wind; then down staysail, helm amidships, and brace all the yards into the wind as far as possible.

When the lee tide makes she will swing head to tide; lay her with the yards in the wind and a shear from her anchor. 14. Why did you hoist the foretopmast staysail ?

To keep the ship ahead of her anchor with a taut cable.

15. What are the principal points to notice in swinging a ship?

That she always swings on the same side of her anchor; that she has a taut cable; and when swung, that she has a shear from her anchor.

16. Riding the lee tide, as in Question 5, wind and tide right ahead; prepare to ride the weather tide.

Give her a broad shear, fill upon everything, and sail her clear of her anchor ; then back the foreyards, and point the mainyards into the wind. If the tide threatens to swing her further round, back the mainyards also.

17. Riding the weather tide in a laden ship and she broke her shear, what would you do?

Fill the yards, set the foretopmast staysail lee sheet aft, to work her back again ; when back, lay the yards as before. 18. If she breaks her shear again ?

If she is troublesome, work her back as before and sail her across to leeward of her anchor, and steer her as if under weigh.

19. Riding in an ordinary case, at slack water, there is no wind, what would you do ?

Heave dead short. 20. If you have been below all night, how could you tell in the morning it your anchor where fouled ?

Only by sighting it. 21. If you were about to anchor in 6 fathoms water, what range would you overhaul ?

About 7 fathoms. 22. How would you carry out an anchor ?

Run out a kedge first. Hang the anchor to the stern of the boat by the ring in the same manner as it is hung at the cat-head, pass a shank-painter under one of the flukes, and lead the ćwo parts forward to about the midships of the

Place the chain in the bows or in another boat if necessary. 23. How would you carry out a kedge ?

Place a plank across the quarters of the boat, and lay the flukes of the kedge on this plank, and so that the stock is over the stern of the boat a little to one side of the notch. When nearly out to the place, cast the buoy astream ; when quite out, pay out sufficient warp to let the kedge reach the bottom, take hold of the plank, and so cant the kedge overboard.

boat.

24. How would you moor with two anchors and forty-five fathoms of chain ?

Drop the working anchor first, and pay out 90 fathoms of chain, then let fall the bower ; throw all aback, heave in on one chain, and pay out the other till there are 45 fathoms of each out.

Another plan is :Let fall one anchor and throw all aback ; pay out 90 fathoms and let go the second anchor ; heave it on the first cable and pay out on the second, till there are 45 fathoms of each out. 25. How would you pick them up again next day ? Pick

up

the lee one first. 26. How would you cast your ship in getting under weigh ?

If to Starboard-Haul my port braces forward, and let my after-yards lie square. I may hoist the fore-topmast staysail, and keep the sheet to windward, to help her.

If to Port-Haul in the contrary braces. When cast, fill the head sails and brace up. 27. If you are wind-rode ?

As soon as the anchor is right up and down, put the helm the same way you wish her to cast, hauling in the same braces abaft, and the contrary ones forward. 28. If tide-rode ?

Put the helm the contrary way you wish her to cast, hauling in the contrary braces abaft, and the same ones for -ward. When the ship begins to go astern, change the helm.

29. You want to get under weigh ; you are hove dead short, wind on the bow, there is a rock right aft; what would

Give her a broad sheer, back everything, and let her dredge. 30. Suppose there was no wind, tide right ahead ?

Give her a broad sheer, and let her dredge. 31. Wind and tide, as in question 29, but the rock is on the lee quarter ?

Square the yards, and let her dredge. 32. What is the principal rule in casting a ship?

Always cast her towards the danger, if possible. 33. Supposing your ship has run under the lee of a sand bank and anchored, blowing hard ; the wind shifts round to the other bow, so you want to get under weigh ; how would

you do ?

you cast her ?

Get a spring out from what is now the lee quarter, and make it fast outside to the cable ; back the main yards, and have the fore yards by ; when all was ready, put the helm down, slack out a little cable to ease her head; and the main yard pays her off at first, then the fore yards ; when she is sufficiently round, fill upon the yards and cut the spring. :31. Riding in a bay, wind and sea rising and coming right in ; you want to get out to sea ; how would you cast her ?

I should note carefully which horn of the bay she would the easier clear; then take a spring from what will be my weather quarter to the cable ; fill on the after yards for the tack I go out on, and square the fore yards ; when all is ready, slip the cable, holding on by the spring ; when she is sufficiently round, fill on all and cut the spring. 35. Whenever you have to slip from a cable, what would

Buoy the cable.

ỹou do ?

SHIP'S LOG. 1. What entry would you make in your log after anchoring ?

The time, depth of water, which anchor is down, and how many fathoms of cable out, and bearings of two fixed objects. 2. What entries would you make day by day at sea ?

The courses steered and distances run, winds and weather, latitude and longitude by observation and dead reckoning, sail made or taken in, and generally the work done by the people, and name how many inches of water you found in the pump-well, and that you pumped it out.

MATE'S DUTIES. 1. What would you do on first joining a ship?

Report myself to the master, if he is on board. 2. And then ?

I should have a general overhaul of all standing and running gear, especially every part that is liable to be clafed. I would have the chafing mats off, and renew them where necessary.

If there is time, rouse up the chain cables, and see that the ends are properly stoppered, and that there are no faulty links nor worn shackle bolts.

3. Your ship is loaded ;. what would you be sure to see to before going to sea ?

That the hatches are properly secured, the pumps in good order, and the lead line is all right. 4. Where wonld you be stationed in going to sea ?

At the bows.

5. What for ?

To let go an anchor at a moment's notice, if required. 6. If you were appointed to a ship not yet launched, suppose you were on board the day of the launch, where would you station yourself?

At the bows. 7. Why?

To let go an anchor, if required. 8. At sea, if a gale has been blowing for the last three or four days, and now has passed off, what would you do ?

Examine everything aloft, to see that nothing has chafed, &c., and sound the pumps.

9. Taking in cargo from lighters; the lighters come off irregularly ; what would you do ?

Note the time that one finished, and the time the next commenced.

10. What would you do on receiving the goods from the lighter ?

I would keep tally, and if all is right I would sign one of the boat notes brought off by the man in charge, and keep the other. 11. If you were discharging cargo into the lighter ?

Get a receipt from the man in charge of her. 12. If any goods should be sent off to you in a damaged state ?

I should call the captain's attention to them before giving a receipt, and he would use his judgment about receiving them.

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