페이지 이미지
PDF
ePub

BEARINGS OF LIGHTS.

Only Mates, First Mates, and Masters must know how the

different 2 Lights bear when in 1, and what they clear.

“ Lizards "—W. by N. (Northerly) clear the Manacles. “ Portland Bill ”—NNW. I W., lead between the Race and

the Shambles. “ South Foreland "-W. by N., clear the South end of the

Goodwin Sands. • Orford Ness"-NE. by E., lead through Hollesley Bay

from the South, and between the Napes and Sizewell

Bank from the North. “ Hasbro'”—NW. 1 W., lead through the Gat.

Spurn Point”-NW. I N. “Whitby”—S. 19° E. and N. 19° W., lead right on the

Whitby Scar Rock.

DANGERS AND NAVIGATION OF THE ENGLISH

CHANNEL

On approaching the Channel from the Atlantic, your captain is too ill to work the ship ; the whole responsibility rests on you.

1. In what parallel of latitude would you make the Channel ?

From 49° 15' N to 49° 30' N. 2. Why?

Because by making the Channel to the North of this, I might be carried to the Northward of Scilly by the current setting athwart the entrance of the channel, and the tides running nearly nine hours to the Northward, and only three to the Southward.

3. What soundings do you get in the fairway of the Channel ?

Fine sand, small yellow stones with black specks, and broken shells, with 50 to 60 fathoms of water.

4. What is the course up the Channel ?

East by South, paying due attention to the deviation of

the compass.

On making the Channel in thick weather, how do you know when you are to the Northward of the fairway?

By taking a cast of the lead, and finding that the water is shoaling, with oazy bottom.

6. What is the best guide to the Navigation of the Channel, after the lights ?

The lead, if continuously used, as the soundings may generally be depended upon.

7. How do you know when you are approaching the French coast ?

By finding deeper water, with coarse stones and red sand.

8. How far would you think yourself justified in proceeding up Channel without making the land ?

To the Start.

9. On which side of the channel would you keep ?

The English side.

10. Why?

Because it is not so encumbered with dangers, the tides are more regular, the currents are not so strong, and there are

more and better harbours to run for in case of distress.

11. If you are not certain of your position when making the Channel, what should you depend upon ?

The log, lead, look-out, and quality of the ground.

12. Suppose you make the Channel in thick weather, and you have not taken the Sun for the last two or three days, what would you do?

Take a cast of the lead about every two hours, and more frequently when I get closer into the land.

13. Which would you prefer ; to go by the time since you took the last sounding, or the distance shewn by a log ?

The distance shewn by the log.

14. Why is it that a ship may be carried behind the Scilly Islands.

On account of the tides at the entrance to the Channel running nine hours northward and only three hours southward ; and there is a current setting to the north and westward.

15. Supposing you had to heave your ship to here ; how would you do it ?

With her head to the South, to stem this set.

16. Supposing you have brought your ship up Channel as far as the meridian of the Start, still thick, and no land yet seen; what would you do ?

Heave her to with her head to the North, keep the lead going, and put her about when I found the water shoaling dangerously.

17 Why with her head to the North ?

The current tends to the French coast.

18. Suppose it clears up, and a gale comes away from the SW, you got up to Dungeness at night ; what would you do, supposing you are bound for London.

Take her into the North Sea at the back of the sands, and heave her to between the North Sand Head and the Knock. In the morning run into Margate Roads.

19. How do you know the "Royal Sovereign ”L.V., in the day time, from the “ Varne" L.V.?

The "Royal Sovereign” has a small ball over a ball, the " Varne " has a ball.

20. How do you know the “East Goodwin " L.V. in the day time ?

It has a half-diamond over a diamond.

21. You are at anchor in the Downs, when a SW gale comes away ; how would you get out ?

I should cast her, (most likely I should have to slip) on the starboard tack ; let her go out till the S. Foreland lights bear SW, and the “ Gull” L.V., NE, from me ; then put the helm up, and steer for the Gull, passing it on either side ; then bring the Gull and S. Foreland lights in one aft ; steer on this course, which is NE till the North Sand Head L.V. is well abeam, or on the starboard quarter, when, if I had po pilot and did not know the neighbourhood well, I would haul out and heave her to between the Sands and the Knock. Next morning run into Margate Roads.

22. Crossing the North Sea, you want to make Tynemouth Light. Supposing you do not make sufficient allowance for the ebb tide, what light will you most likely make ?

The Coquet : one fixed.

23. What course would you steer from the Tyne to Flambro' Head ?

The usual plan is to steer SSE to Whitby, and then S by E 1 E to Flambro' Head ; but a direct course from. the Tyne to the Head would be S by E } E, 73 miles.

[ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small]

16. Sappucing marinera ap Channel as far as the meridian of the Stars, stick, and no land yet seen; what would you do?

Heave her to wià her head to the North, keep the lead going, and put her about when I found the water shoaling dangerously.

17 Why with her head to the North ?

The current tends to the French coast.

[graphic][subsumed]
« 이전계속 »