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HEELING ERROR.

The full lines in P and Q represent the ship when upright, and the dotted lines represent her when heeled 10° to starboard, the ship’s head having been placed at North when she was on an even keel, and the ship is supposed to be in North latitude.

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In P, the North point of the needle is drawn to windward, which is most frequently the case, then the errror is compensated by a magnet placed vertically under the centre of the card with its North pole upwards.

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In Q, the North point of the needle is drawn to leeward, in this case the magnet must be placed with its South pole upwards.

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CURRENT SAILING. Given a current acting on some part of your ship and its drift, also the ship's rate in the current, to find the direction she must steer to reach her port.

If the current is on the port beam, starboard beam, port bow, star board bow, port quarter, or starboard quarter, then the ship will drift to leeward, as in the following figure.

Where S is the Ship, and P is the Port. The line SP is called the Port Line.

P

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e

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с

e

d
Current on Port Beam,

Ship drifts towards a
Starboard

6
Port Bow
Starboard ,

d
Port Quarter
Starboard

f Measure off on this line the amount of the given drift. With a pair of dividers measure on the same scale the ship's rate. Place one leg on the current point, and the other on the Port Line; then the edge of a pair of parallel rulers aced against the legs will be the required direction, if ught back to the centre of the ship.

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To reduce the Depth as found by the Lead to the Soundings.

as given by the Chart. 1. What is the rule for reducing the soundings ?

Open the Admiralty Tide Tables at the given month and place; take out the time of high water, the height of the tide, and the half mean spring range. Erter Table B with the difference between the times of cast and of high water on the top, and the difference between the height and half mean spring range at the side.

Apply the correction there found to the half mean spring range. The result is the amount to be subtracted from the cast to give the Soundings on the Chart. 2. What are the Soundings on the Chart ?

Low water at spring tides, and consequently the least water that there ever is over that spot.

3. The rise and fall at Tynemouth Bar is 16 feet. Roughly speaking, how much would you take from a cast taken at i tide off the Tyne ? 8 feet.

4. At high water ? 16 feet.
5. At low water? Nothing.
6. At ebb or flood ? 12 feet.
7. At ebb or { flood ? 4 feet.

SHIP'S BUSINESS.

Invoice, Charter-Party, and Bill of Lading. 1. You are appointed Master of a ship, what is the first thing you would do on taking command ?

Get all the ship's papers from che last Master, and enter a list of them in the Official Log Book, and sign it myself, and get the late Master to sign it also ; then take the Ship's Register to the Custom-house and get my name put on it. 2. What is a Churter-Party ?

A written contract entered into by a Merchant and a Shipowner, (or the Master) for the hire of a ship for a specified time or voyage. Tho Owner contracts to supply a stout ship, properly supplied with the necessary stores and

provisions, and properly officered and manned. The Merchant contracts to supply cargo, and pay certain freight for the use of the ship.

3. What would you be careful to see was in the CharterParty?

The freight, lay days and demurrage days for loading and discharging, and the rate of demurrage. 4. What are lay days ?

Days allowed for the ship to load or discharge in. Sundays and Holidays do not count, unless the phrase

running days " is mentioned, when all days count. 5. What are demurrage days ?

Extra days for loading or discharging, when the Merchant has, from any cause, been obliged to detain the :ship over the lay days. Sundays and Holidays to count. 6. Your ship is ready to receive cargo what would you do?

Have my ship moved to the place specified for receiving the cargo ; then give a written notice to the Merchant that I was ready to receive cargo and should come on my lay days the next day, and enter a copy of this notice in the ship's log.

7. When the goods come on board, what document comes with them ?

An invoice ; which is often called a boat note. 8. What is an invoice ?

An account of the goods shipped, with their marks and numbers, the name of the vessel and the master, the port of destination, the name of the consignee, and a description of the goods, with their cost and charges.

9. How many invoices usually come off, and what becomes of them ?

Two. The mate signs one and gives it back, and files the other.

10. Your lay days have expired, but the cargo is not all on board, what would you do?

Give a written notice to the merchant, informing him of the fact, and advising him that I shall come upon demurrage the next day ; then enter a copy of the notice in the ship’s log.

11. How is the demurrage to be claimed ?

Day by day, and on Saturday for Saturday and Sunday. 12. In the Charter-Party you promise that the goods shall be delivered at the port of discharge in the same good order in which they are received on board ; what is the exceptional clause put in ?

“ The Act of God, the Queen's Enemies, Restraints of Princes and Rulers, Pirates, Fire, and all and every other Dangers or Accidents of the Seas, Rivers, and Navigation, of what nature and kind soever, during the said voyage, being always excepted."

13. If it were & steamer, what additional clause would

you have ?

Accidents from boilers or engines.” 14. What makes the Charter-Party legal ?

The stamp. 15. Does a Charter-Party entered into abroad, where no stamp is required, require one when it reaches England ?

Yes : a sixpenny stamp must be put on within a week of its reaching the United Kingdom. 16. What makes it binding ?

The penalty clause. 17. What is the penalty clause ?

“The penalty for the non-fulfilment of this contract to be the estimated amount of freight.” 18. Who cancels the stamp ?

The person who signs last. 19. Who signs last ?

The last contracting party. 20. How do you cancel the stamp?

By writing my name across it, and dating it. 21. What is the penalty for not cancelling a stamp ?

Fifty pounds. 22. When is the Charter-Party considered to be complete ?

When it is dated, signed, and the stamp cancelled. 23. When the cargo is all on board, what document has the master to sign ?

The Bill of Lading.

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