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To reduce the Depth as found by the Lead to the Soundings.

as given by the Chart. 1. What is the rule for reducing the soundings ?

Open the Admiralty Tide Tables at the given month and place; take out the time of high water, the height of the tide, and the half mean spring range.

Erter Table B with the difference between the times of cast and of high water on the top, and the difference between the height and half mean spring range at the side.

Apply the correction there found to the half mean spring range.

The result is the amount to be subtracted from the cast to give the Soundings on the Chart. 2. What are the Soundings on the Chart ?

Low water at spring tides, and consequently the least water that there ever is over that spot.

3. The rise and fall at Tynemouth Bar is 16 feet. Roughly speaking, how much would you take from a cast taken at i tide off the Tyne ? 8 feet.

4. At high water ? 16 feet.
5. At low water? Nothing.
6. At ebb or flood ? 12 feet.
7. At ebb or 4 flood ? 4 feet.

SHIP'S BUSINESS.

Invoice, Charter-Party, and Bill of Lading. 1. You are appointed Master of a ship, what is the first thing you would do on taking command ?

Get all the ship's papers from the last Master, and enter a list of them in the Official Log Book, and sign it myself, and get the late Master to sign it also ; then take the Ship’s Register to the Custom-house and get my name put on it. 2. What is a Charter-Party ?

A written contract entered into by a Merchant and a Shipowner, (or the Master) for the hire of a ship for a specified time or voyage.

Tho Owner contracts to supply a stout ship, properly supplied with the necessary stores and

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provisions, and properly officered and manned. The Merchant contracts to supply cargo, and pay certain freight for the use of the ship.

3. What would you be careful to see was in the CharterParty ?

The freight, lay days and demurrage days for loading and discharging, and the rate of demurrage. 4. What are lay days ?

Days allowed for the ship to load or discharge in. Sundays and Holidays do not count, unless the phrase

running days " is mentioned, when all days count. 5. What are demurrage days ?

Extra days for loading or discharging, when the Merchant has, from any cause, been obliged to detain the ship over the lay days. Sundays and Holidays to count. 6. Your ship is ready to receive cargo what would you do?

Have my ship moved to the place specified for receiving the cargo ; then give a written notice to the Merchant that I was ready to receive cargo and should come on my lay days the next day, and enter a copy of this notice in the ship's log.

7. When the goods come on board, what document comes with them ?

An invoice ; which is often called a boat note. 8. What is an invoice ?

An account of the goods shipped, with their marks and numbers, the name of the vessel and the master, the port of destination, the name of the consignee, and a description of the goods, with their cost and charges.

9. How many invoices usually come off, and what becomes of them ?

Two. The mate signs one and gives it back, and files the other.

10. Your lay days have expired, but the cargo is not all on board, what would you do ?

Give a written notice to the merchant, informing him of the fact, and advising him that I shall come upon demurrage the next day; then enter a copy of the notice in the ship's log.

11. How is the demurrage to be claimed ?

Day by day, and on Saturday for Saturday and Sunday. 12. In the Charter-Party you promise that the goods shall be delivered at the port of discharge in the same good order in which they are received on board; what is the exceptional clause put in ?

“The Act of God, the Queen's Enemies, Restraints of Princes and Rulers, Pirates, Fire, and all and every other Dangers or Accidents of the Seas, Rivers, and Navigation, of what nature and kind soever, during the said voyage, being always excepted."

13. If it were a steamer, what additional clause would

you have ?

Accidents from boilers or engines." 14. What makes the Charter-Party legal ?

The stamp 15. Does a Charter-Party entered into abroad, where no stamp is required, require one when it reaches England ?

Yes : a sixpenny stamp must be put on within a week of its reaching the United Kingdom. 16. What makes it binding ?

The penalty clause. 17. What is the penalty clause ?

* The penalty for the non-fulfilment of this contract to be the estimated amount of freight." 18. Who cancels the stamp ?

The person who signs last. 19. Who signs last ?

The last contracting party. 20. How do you cancel the stamp ?

By writing my name across it, and dating it. 21. What is the penalty for not cancelling a stamp ?

Fifty pounds. 22. When is the Charter-Party considered to be complete ?

When it is dated, signed, and the stamp cancelled. 23. When the cargo is all on board, what document has the master to sign ?

The Bill of Lading.

24. What is a Bill of Lading?

The master's receipt for the goods on board, and his promise to deliver them in the same good order in which he has received them.

Note.--As the Bill of Lading is the master's receipt, he should naturally make it out himself from the invoices filed by the mate ; but it is the general custom for a clerk in the merchant's office to make it out, and the master goes to the office and signs it. 25. What is meant by a set of Bills of Lading ?

Three or more copies of the same all stamped, and signed by the master. 26. How are they distributed ?

One is sent by post to the consignee, one is kept by the master, and the rest by the merchant.

27. There being so many Bills of Lading, is there not a risk of having two or more presented to you at your port of discharge ?

No: there is always a clause in the bill to this effect: “ IN WITNESS whereof, the master or purser of the said ship hath signed Bills of Lading, all of this tenour and date, one of which being accomplished, the others to be void." 28. What is the "exceptional clause" in a Bill of Laiding?

The same as in the Charter-Party :-“The Act of God,” &c. &c. 29. What is the general clause ?

“Contents, weight, quality, and quantity unknown." 30. What special clause would you have in it ?

Freight, demurrage, and all other conditions, as per Charter-Party." 31. What extra clause would you have in for a steamer ?

“With liberty to call for coal at any intermediate port or ports ; to sail with or without pilots ; and to tow and assist vessels in all situations of distress.' 32. What would you do before signing the Bill of Lading?

Read it carefully over, and see that nothing in it was contrary to the Charter-Party ; see that all the goods

mentioned in it are actually on board by comparing it with the Cargo Book ; get back the mate's receipts; see that the necessary clauses are in, and write any remarks opposite the different items that I thought the case required, to limit my responsibility.

33. Suppose the Bill of Lading specified that you had 500 tons of iron on board, what would you write opposite to it?

Weight unknown. 34. One hundred sets of polished fire-irons ?

Not accountable for damage through rust. 35. Grain ?

Quality and quantity unknown. 36. Cargo consisting of such things as bales of hemp, flax, &c. ?

Weight and contents unknown. 37. Barrels of beer, wine, or any liquids in cask ?

Quality, quantity, and contents unknown; not accountable for leakage. 38. Cases of wine ?

Quality, quantity, and contents unknown; not accountab e for breakage or leakage. 39. Crates of earthenware or glass?

Contents unknown; not accountable for breakage. 40. Six chests of silver ?

Weight and contents unknown. 41. Suppose you take goods at a reduced freight, but with the understanding that they are to be used as dunnage, what would you write opposite ?

Shipped as dunnage. 42. If live stock ?

Not accountable for accidents or mortality. 43. What extra precautions would you observe if the goods were to be delivered in an open bay ?

I should, besides the above remarks, write—“To be taken from ship's tackles at the risk and expense of the consignee," unless I was paid extra freight for taking the risk on myself.

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