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101. When you go to to sign the Bills of Lading, and you find more put down than is on board, what would you do?

I would object, and if he persisted in keeping the wrong amount, I should sign so much " or so many

" in dispute. 102. If he wont let you, and will have a clean bill signed ?

I should go out and buy three blank bills, fill them in myself for the amount on board, sign them, give the merchant two of them, and proceed on my voyage.

103. If your ship is engaged for a lump sum, what would you be very careful about 2

To see that she was not too deeply laden. 104. How would

you

do that? By having the draft she is to be loaded to stated in the Charter-party.

105. You are offered a charter in a foreign port for a place you were never at ; what would you do before accepting it ?

Go out and ascertain full particulars about the place; if my ship can always lie afloat; whether, to be afloat, I must lie a long way from the shore; the prevailing winds and storms; whether ships there have often to slip ; port charges, and its capabilities for food, fresh water, &c.

106. You are kept on demurrage abroad; what would you do when you got your Bill of Lading back ?

Write on it the number of days I have been on demurrage. 107. What is a common bill ?

It is a written agreement on stamped paper, in which the debtor agrees to pay his creditor, on a day specified, the sum of money which he owes him. 108. Here is a form of one ; explain it. £250.

Sunderland, November 6th, 18— Sixty days after date, pay to me or my order the sum of two hundred and fifty pounds, value received.

SAMUEL HORN. To Mr. William Cross, Merchant,

Sunderland.

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This bill was drawn by Mr. Horn on Mr. Cross, who owed him the money, and Mr. Cross accepted it by writing his name and the word "

accepted ” across it, also stating where it would be paid.

109. Conld Mr. Horn make use of it before the 60 days had expired ?

Yes : he could pay it away by endorsing it; and the second holder could pay it away again by endorsing it under Mr. Horn's endorsement.

110. If, when abroad, you were offered a bill as above, and endorsed, what would you do before taking it ?

Note the names and go and try to find out if they were good names or not. 111. What is a bill of exchange ?

It is almost similar to a home bill; but on account of the risk incurred in sending it home, it is drawn in sets of three, and usually made payable so many days after sight. The following is the form of one :Exchange of £100.

Odossa, September 9th, 18— No. 106.

Sixty days after sight of this FIRST of EXCHANGE, (second and third of same tenour and date unpaid) pay to the order of John Thompson & Co. the sum of one hundred pounds sterling, value received.

GEORGE WINTER. To Messrs. Jones Brothers, Merchants.

London. 112. If you took a bill of exchange for your freight, how would you transmit to your owners ?

Send No. 1. by post to my owners, and No. 2 by the next post to my wife or some other trustworthy friend, to be given to my owners, and retain No. 3 till I heard if the others had arrived or not.

113. Suppose the crew complain of the provisions when in port, what should be done ?

A survey should be called on the provisions, and the award entered in the Official Log Book.

114. If the crew refuse to go to sea through the alleged unseaworthiness of ship, what should be done?

A survey must be called.

115. Who pays ?

The ship, if she is found to be unseaworthy; but the man or men who complained, if she is not. The money can be deducted from their wages when paid off.

116. If scurvy should make its appearance amongst the crew when at sea, what

you

do ? Increase the allowance of lime juice to one ounce (two tablespoons-full) per day; give them preserved potatoes or onions, and greens, carrots, turnips, &c., if I had them ; à plentiful supply of good water ; attention to personal cleanliness, and to cleanliness, dryness, and ventilation of the quarters of the crew, and give them gentle exercise. If in port, get fresh vegetables, watercresses especially, or fruit.

Average. 117. What are the two kinds of average ?

Particular average and general average. 118. What is meant by particular average ?

Where the loss falls on the ship, the cargo, or the freight, and which cannot be held as a loss for the benefit of all concerned. 119. And by general average ?

Where the loss falls on the value of the ship, freight,

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and cargo.

120. Can you describe what is necessary to bring the loss under general average ?

It must be a voluntary sacrifice, that is, the master, after consulting with his mates and crew, deliberately orders the cargo to be thrown overboard, the masts to be cut away, or anything else necessary to save the ship. Secondly, there must be an absolute neoessity for this loss ; that is the ship must be so situated, that without this sacrifice the ship and cargo would be lost.

121. A ship at anchor sees that she must be run into by another vessel, if she does not slip ; she therefore slips. Would the loss of chain and anchor come under general average ?

Yes : because it was voluntary sacrifice necessary to save the whole ship and cargo, and it did save them.

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122. A vessel at anchor is fouled by another vessel, and loss sustained, would this come under general average ?

No: it would be particular average. 123. A ship at sea is caught in a squall, whereby her masts are lost, is this a case of general average ?

No: it would be particular average. 124. If she had been thrown on her beam ends, and the masts had been cut away by the master's orders ?

Yes : that would bring it under general average. 125. Suppose you have incurred losses during the voyage which are proper subjects for a general average, what would you do on your arrival at your port of destination ?

Make a regular protest, inserting the whole particulars of the jettison entered in the log-book as soon after it as possible ; and along with two or more of the crew, I would make oath that the goods were thrown overboard, or the loss incurred, for the safety of the ship and the rest of the cargo, and for the preservation of the lives on board, and for no other cause.

126. Have you any lien on the cargo for the shipper's share of the loss ?

Yes. 127. If you have been so placed during the voyage that you were forced to do something that will have to be settled by a general average, what would you get from the consignee before

you delivered the

An average bond ; a document by which he binds himself to pay his share of the general average when it is ascertained how much his contribution amounts to. DANGERS AND NAVIGATION OF THE ENGLISH

CHANNEL 1. Between what bearings is the Bishop Rock Light hidden ?

Between the bearings of SW by W and W by N N. 2. How does the Bishop Rock Light bear from the St. Agnes' Light ?

W N, about 41 miles. 3. What dangers are there near the Land's end ?

The Runnel Stone, Longships, and Seven Stones.

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Parig raway between S. Apesso ice Linuri 5. Give its bearinga ir say neist sies?

FtAs to the Wa...ESE E, 21 Bles.
Langrep

...SW s, it
Lizards

...WSW 24 6. How do Catant bear fron Scity ?

E, 99 miles. 7. And from the Lizard ?

by W % W, 89 miles. 8. What dangers are there near the Lizard ?

The Manacles and the Stags. 9. How do the Lizard Lights bear when in one ?

W by X and E by 8, 74 yards apart. 10. What is the mark for clearing the Manacles, coming from the westward ?

Keep Beast Point open of Black Head W by S, until the tower of Mawnan Church is well open of Nare Point N by W.

Night Mark.--Keep the Lizard Lights open S of Beast Point, W 4 N, until Saint Anthony's rev. light bears NNE.

11. How would you steer for Falmouth harbour, coming from the Wost ?

The samo marks as in the last answer, and stand in on NNE. 12. What danger is there at the entrance ?

The Black Rock. 18. On which sido would you pass it ?

On its East side, because the channel is wider and doopor. 14. What dangers are there off the Start ?

The Peartroe Rocks of a mile to the westward, and
tho Skorries to the northward and eastward.
· 15. What are the marks for clearing the Skerries, coming
up Channel ?

Prawl Point open of Start Point W I N clears the
South end.
Berry Head open of Downend Point Ne clears the

NE
East side.

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