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Although it is greatly to the praise NIAS

transferred to stone. It is between as in the Ionic and Corinthian or

. to

ed: it is still the theme of admi of the Greek artists that, while
ration and will ever be so where richness is added, the simplicity of
taste and good sense exist. the general form is not injured,

Many of the admired buildings of and its capability of adaptation is rd

antiquity were constructed princi increased and rendered more con.
pally of wood, (even the temple venient for general use.

of Jerusalem partly so) as well as Such is the brief history of a h the early temples of Greece; many style, pronounced by general con

of which latter were destroyed by sent to have attained perfection. 5,

fire during the invasion of Xerxes.* The history is obviously founded
It was natural, in reconstructing in nature and fact; and in praising
these, to seek a more durable ma this style it is hardly possible to
terial and the advanced state of exceed the bounds of truth. In
the art would afford the means ;

the best Grecian specimens, every d

and stone being readily found in part is so well studied and con-
large blocks, it was substituted for sidered that no alteration can be
wood. But for form, no other idea imagined but for the worse. With

could present itself, but to imitate this praise (which is neither small .

that which they had been accus nor frequent), let its admirers be
tomed to, viz. the previous wooden satisfied, and not presume to limit

the powers of nature or of art to
Afterwards, the prototype being say, that no rival style shall attain
a little forgotten, and the arrange equal perfection. Michael Angelo
ments of the Doric entablature oc. was an enthusiastic admirer of the
casioning inconvenience to the ar- antique, but he disdained to be a
chitect, Ictinus rejected that or servile imitator : he justly remarks,
der, and introduced the sonic. that he who follows must be ever
Ater this, as luxury became more behind; whereas, he who takes a
fanciful, the Corinthian order was different path may hope to pass,
invented. Thus were established or reach as far as his rival.
the three. Grecian orders, which The next prominent fact in the
have been distinctly characterized history of this style is its adoption
as the strong, the elegant, and the by the Romans ; they, not "duly
rich, but still preserving great re. considering the original type, ap.
semblance in their general forms. pear not to have comprehended

Whether Grecian architecture the sublime simplicity of the Do-
was perfected in the manner here- ric; they felt but slightly the ele-
in described, or whether it was gance of the Ionic, but the rich-
gradually formed from an imita- ness of the Corinthian order pow-
tion of the Egpytian through the erfully struck their fancy. The
Tyrians, Phenicians and Etrus. Corinthian they best understood,
cans, the fact is indisputable that and most delighted in. The Doric
the philosophic origin and natural and Ionic became degraded in
type of the Grecian style is in the their imitations ; but the Corinthian
wooder construction, and as this was cultivated by them with con-
type is violated the art is injured; siderable advantage and effect.
and where its features are not vio The Romans also introduced the
lated, but only partially suppressed, arch and the dome, which, having
Is it not a lamentable consideration, that the

no part in the original type of this
Athenian name connected with the glorious beanie
ty of the sublimest efforts of the arts, should be

style, it is no wonder that the dis-
stained with the fact, that Athenian tyranny, and cordant principle has not succeed-
fire from Athens, destroyed the temples and schools
of the physicians at Cooj, and with them the re ed in its connection with Grecian
cords from which Hippocrates, it is said, compo. architecture.
Asiatic Journ.No. 25.

Voz. V. D

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sed his works -Ed.


(Continued from page 547, Vol. IV.)

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It is to be recollected, that the site of princes of that royal line,] the INHABIPalibothra, now only a subject for specu TANTS OF THE GANGETIC PROVINCES lation, was once a matter of fact; and were denominated PALI-BOTHRAS, and that the information derived from eye 66 PALI-POTRAS. I". In accordance with witnesses, however disjointed the particu- these authorities, the passage in Pliny lars might stand in the reports of uncon which has been the innocent cause of so nected travellers, could involve no contra much perplexity may be thus represented diction. The repugnance which we find in English: “the river Jomanes runs in some of the aucient authorities must “ through the Palibothri, [i. e. the terhave arisen either from erroneous con “ ritory of the Palibothri] into the binations by the authors using the first “ Ganges, between the towns Methora materials, or from mistakes in transfusing “ and Clisobora.” Here is an intelligible the intelligence from one language to ano reason for subjoining the names of the ther. In some cases, a double transla two towns, if they be regarded as definite tion from some Indian authority to the local points, marking what district of the Greek, and from the Greek to the Latin, TERRITORY was intersected : whereas if may not only have conduced to the miscon- Pliny had meant to say, that the Jomanes struction of equivocal words, but given a divided or washed the CITY of Palihomistaken confirmation by its own echo. thra, the addition of those towns were

The second passage in Pliny is ; Amnis absurd.g If this translation be admitted, Jomanes in Gangem per Palibothros de the accounts in Pliny are divested of recurrit, inter oppida Methora et Clisovo

pugnance; and Robertson's assumption ra.* Could a writer of common sense, of Allahabad loses its only collateral supafter stating that it was 425 miles from

port, or rather its only support; for the contluence of the Jomanes and Gan- though the quotation from Arrian is adges to Palibothra, fall into so palpable a duced as the foundation of his opinion, contradiction as to say that the “ Jomanes entered the Ganges by Palibo Asiatic Researches, 4to. vol. ix. EssaysII, on thra?”f The key to the true meaning of

the Kings of Magadha Ioid. p. 100. Pliny's words is furnished by Pliny him It is remarkable, that a similar difficulty in

the Peutengerian Tables, has caused Major Wil. self, in a contiguous part of the same

ford to abandon, as inexplicable, a specific route chapter. Sed omnium in India prope, recorded there, After determining several stanon modo in hoc tractu, potentiam cla

tions in those itineraries by the aid of an intimate

acquaintance with the old name- of places preritatemque antecedunt Prasii, amplissi

served in the elder native writers, he comes to ma urbe ditissimaque Palibothra ; unde one from Tahora to Paina. " There is," he ob. quidam ipsam gentem Palibothras vocant, serves, “ another route in the Peutengerian Ta. imo verum tractum universum a Gange.

“ bles, leading from Tahora (or Tahaura in Ma

jor Rennell's Map,) to Elymuide, or Patna. 66 But the first in eminence for power From Tahora to Palipotra 250 cos. ; to the Gan“ and fame, not in this district only, but ges, 500; to Elymaide, 250 ;-in all 1000 cos. or cs of all well nigh in India, are the Prasii,

“ 1228. Brit. M, Here we see that Palipotra can

not be, either Paina, or Rajamahl: besides o the city of Palibothra being the largest

“ the distance is tou great in a direct line. [Asi" and the richest; hence some call the atic Researches vol, ix. Essay II. Anu-gangam, NATION ITSELF PALIBOTHRA, yea in..

or the Gangetic Provinces, p. 61.)” Major Wil« deed ALL

ford then proposes an arbitrary substitution in THE REGION FROM THE

the numerals, which at last is pronounced by him. « GANGES." As brief a notice occurs in

self inadequate to explain this route. a treatise of Major Wilford ; which, as Perhaps this kuot is a counterpart of the other, information derived from Indian sources,

and to be untied by a correspondent tension of

the depending cord ;-thus, from Tahora to (the is a valuable corroboration of our classic

frontier of] Palipotra 250 coss; 10 the Ganges guide. ." From the Baliputras, [i. e. the [Allahabad] 500; to Ely maide (Patna) 250;--in

all 1000. This mode of explaining the route sup# Plin. Nat. Hist, lib, vi. chap. 22.

poses the territory of the Palibothri to have ex+ See the above quotation from Major Rennell, tended in part beyond the Jumna, perhaps 50 or the usual construction of the passage in any coss westward, or to the district embraced by the modern author.

Sadi river.

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Yet when Pliny's aid is withdrawn, there

“ (others have cclxv mill.) Hence to is nothing to indicate the confluence of the " the confluence of the rivers Jomanes Jumnah and Ganges as the place.

" and Ganges, 225 mill. (most accounts Although we have occasion to use only “ add 13 mill.) To the city of Palibothra, that part of the Itinerary in Pliny which “ 425 ; to the mouth of the Ganges, 638 traverses India, and but a small part of

" mill. passuum.that, as bearing immediately on the point;

Au examination of the first part is only yet it may be useful to extract the whole, proposed as enlarging the test of general as shewing his authorities for the dis correctness. Much will depend on the tances, and extending the fixed positions true meaning of itinerum ejus mensores, by which their general correctness may

which I have translated SURVEYORS OF be assayed.

HIS EXPEDITIONS, rather than surveyors “ That our description of the earth

of his marches. I suppose, that these may be understood, let us attend the geometers measured the high or king's “ footsteps of Alexander the Great.

roads on the great line of his expedition, Diognetes and Bæton, THE SURVEYORS

after he was in undisputed possession of OF HIS EXFEDITIONS, have written,

the country, and that they threw out all " that from the Caspian Gates to Heca

the military detours made in pursuit of tompylos in Parthia, it is as many miles

collateral conquests; and therefore, that as we have stated ; [said above to be

Alexander's route from the Caspian Gates “ 133] thence to Alexandria in Aria,

to the Indus, as described in Pliny, has “ which city this king founded, 566

no other deflections than those prescribed mill.* Thence to Prophthasia in Dran- by the nature of the ground; and that it

giana, 199 mill. Thence to the capital corresponds with the inverted route of " of Arachosia, 515 mill. Thence to Or

Mr. Forster between the same points, as “ tospanum, 250 mill. Thence to Alex

the most material part of it is laid down « andria L M. (in some copies differ

in the map to Elphinstone's Caubul. The ent numbers are found); this city

most southern point in Alexander's route, v stands at the foot of Caucasus. From

must therefore not go further south than “ that to the river Cophetes, and the In- Candahar, which a grand curve, taken to “ dian city Peucolaotis 227 mill. Thence

avoid a region of mountains, compre“ to the river Indus and the city of Tax

hends. The previous distances will tally “ila, 60 mill. To the celebrated river sufficiently, if we place the capital of Ara" Hydaspes 120 mill. To the Hyphasis chosia near Candahar. Moving thence to “ not less famous, xlix. cccxc; which Pliny's Ornospanum, 250 Roman miles in was the limit of Alexander's expedi

a north-east direction, will carry us to

Ghizni. L M. to Alexandria under Cau“ tion ; vevertheless, he passed the river, “ and devoted altars on the opposite bank.

casus in some copies the numbers are • The conqueror's own epistles acknow

different, say c-brings us to the vicinity

of Caubul.

I am not ignorant that Alexandria Pa.
TOR. To the Hesudrus, 168 mill. To

ropamisus" is a point which all geo“ the river Jomanes, as many (some copies

“ graphers have placed in the neighbour

" hood of Candahar :" but this cannot « add five mill.) Thence to the Ganges, “112 mill. . To Rhodopha, 119 mill

be the Alexandria of Pliny, distant only “ (others give cccxxv mill. in this in

227 +60 Roman miles from the Indus. “ terval ;) to the city Calinipaxa, 1672 ;

Whether the identity of Candahar with

this Alexandria, can be supported on • The notation in the original is either by Ros other classic authorities, or on native tra-, man numerals, or words at length, and seldom

ditions, is a distinct subject for consithe latter, I have preserved the numerals where any difficulty occurs which cannot be solved deration.* But I will just observe, while without some conjectural change or supplement passing on, that in Major Rennell's map The conversion of the original measures into the

of the Countries between the Source of Roman mile of 5000 feet is a possible avenue to Add to this, the various readings of some

* The ancient city is sometimes said to have i of the figures, the lacune and other casualties in

been founded by Lohrasp, a Persian king who cident to MSS. and we cannot indulge the affecta

flourished in times of very remote antiquity, and tion of making every interval of the Itinerary to whom also the founding of Heraut is attribu. correspond with the actual distances as far as they

ted. It is asserted by others, with far greater have been ascertained.

probability, to have been built by Sekunder Zvol:




the Ganges and the Caspian Sea,* the of this. From Peshawer to Attock is 45 relative situation of Candahar to Attock British miles. Pliny says, “ Thence to on the Indus, is nearly that of Caubul to “ the river Indus and the city of Taxila, the same place in Elphinstone's map. of “? 60 mill.Was Taxila then on the Not that Candahar, in the former, is out Indus? The words do not necessarily imof its true position more than 53 mi- ply this ; they may intend no more than nutes; yet, in respect to Attock, which that the Indus was crossed in going to it, is also misplaced, it is full two degrees and that the whole distance was 60 miles too high. Now if the object be to identify = 57 British. This would leave about local stations, and not fugitive names,

12 miles between Taxila and the Indus. the site of Caubul may succeed, in the Major Rennell infers that Attock must ultimate judgment of geographers, to stand on, or near the site of Taxila. some of the relations which had been Major Wilford, on an appareut resemfalsely assigned to Candahar. From Alex blance of names, founds an argument for andria under Caucasus, Pliny makes it placing the same city on the Sawn river, at 227 Roman miles to Peucolaitis. The least 60 miles from the Indus. " “Taxila," travelling distance from Caubul to the he says, is called, in Sanscrit,

66 Tacshila; next considerable place, I do not find ex “ and its true name is Taesla-Syala, pressed any otherwise than in coss; and “ according to the natives, who call as the length of a coss varies, even under “ themselves Syalas ; its ruins extend the same government, 95 coss cannot be the villages called RÚBBAUT and converted with certainty into British iniles;

Pekken, in Major Rennell's map of the but I should think 227 Roman miles not “ countries between-Delhi and Candahar.. greatly to exceed the interval, and then “ The royal residence is pointed out by we may halt at Peshawer. The Antients “ the natives, at a small village near attributed to India a narrow tract west of “ Syala, to this day, and is a little to the the Indus; and Pliny, under this arrange

c6 north of Rubbaut.”+ The validity of ment, calls Peucolaitis an Indian city. this speculation has had a practical assay Major Rennell identifies Peucolaitis with from the most competent. judges. ' “ The Pukholi, I a province east of the Indus,

as heaviness of the rain prevented our. the capital of which is thirty miles beyond

“ marching from Rawil Pindee on the that river, but then he supposes the do

“ day after we reached it; and as we minion of Pukholi to have extended an were near the place which Major Wilciently to the westward as far as the Co “ ford supposes to have been the site of phetes or Attock river. This amounts to « Taxila, a party determined to set out. the same thing ; but provincial divisions,

“ in quest of the ruins of that city. In. and the local masses of population, have un

"s the course of a circuit of about 40 dergone so many changes since the time of “ miles, we saw the ruins of some Gucker, Alexander, that it is perhaps safer to identi touns, and of some others still more. fy places rather than names, unless where ancient, which had suffered the same those names have descended to the pre fate from the Mussulmans; we also, sent time by uninterrupted tradition. The saw one or two caravanseras here call., next stage furnishes a remarkable example “ ed RABAUTS ; and we heard of an

" obelisk of a single stone, fifty or sixty kurnyne, that is, by Alexander the Great. [El.

" feet high, at a place called Rawjee, phinstone's Caubul, p. 423.) These two traditions ave at variance; and as the illustrious envoy de

« which was too distant to visit ; livers but an incidental opinion respecting their “ met with no ruins of such antiquity as comparative probability, I trust I may adduce

to have any pretensions to a connection the two following passages from himself, for comparison with the accounts, in classic histo.

with Taxila."! We may therefore rians, of the localities of the Alexandria in halt about 12 miles from the Indus. question : “ The country round Candahar is le.

(To be continued.) “ vel," p. 394. “The district of Cohdaumun," [immediately dependent on the city of Caubul,

* Memoir, p. 02. Again ; " Taxila must have and edging from it north, J “ lies, as its name “ been very near the Indus, to allow of its being " implies, on the skirts of the mountains." “ 190 miles from the Hydaspes." Ibid, note. P. 435.

And previously; " Taxila, and the Indus, are * Memoir, p. 102, edit. 1788.

"mentioned as one and the same place by Pliny." † Account of the Kingdom of Caubul, and its P. 51, note. Dependencies, by the Hon. Mountstuart Elphin † Asiatic Researches, Essay 11. Anu-gangam,, or stone, Resident at Poona. 4to, London. 1815. the Gangetic Provinces, p. 51. Mémoir, pp. 116, 118, 119, 121.

* Elphinstone's Caubul, p, 78.

but we



During His Imprisonment by the Japanese in the Years 1811-12-13.

(Continued from page 559, Vol. IV.)

The Japanese, both persons of rank and lamented that being unacquainted with common people, had on valuable silk the object of our visit, they had fired on dresses, and were armed from head to us, and inquired why we had not sent a foot ; each had a sabre and dagger in his boat to the one dispatched from the fort girdle, but the Kuriles were quite un on our entrance into the harbour, as then armed. I merely wore a sword, and had we certainly should not have met this three pair of pistols concealed in my disagreeable reception ? Í assured him pockets and bosom. The Ojagoda re that we had not seen any boat, which ceived me in a very polite and friendly was probably occasioned by the darkness. manner, and requested me to wait on the I besides remarked, that he endeavoured shore for the commander, who would soon to find reasons for excusing his conduct, appear.

I had him questioned - what and spoke falsely, as, at our entrance was meant by placing all the things we into the harbour, we looked round so had left behind in the cask again, and sharply, that not a bird, much less a exposing it in the water ? --He answered, boat, could have escaped our sight. He to have them given back again, as he afterwards inquired if I was the comhad believed that we should not engage

mander of the ship, or if a senior had the in any more transactions with them,


over me? and repeated this and they dared not receive any thing un question several times.

He also inquired til their termination, I immediately re from whence we came, why we had land. membered the description of Laxmann's ed on their coast, and to what place we embassy, wherein it was said that the intended sailing ? To avoid exciting either Japanese would not receive any present fear or suspicion, by stating the true reatill the close of the negociations, but did son of our visit to their island, I said not reject any thing that was given them that we were returning from the eastern afterwards ; I was therefore quite dran extremity of our empire to St. Petersquil on this subject.

burg; that much contrary wind had deThe commander did not keep me wait- layed our voyage, and we suffered the ing long, and appeared completely armed, want of wood and water, which we deaccompanied by two soldiers

Lone carry

sired to procure in a safe harbour. I con. ing his long spear, the other, his cap or tinued--that we had fortunately found á helmet, on which the moon was painted; Japanese garrison on the island Itorpu, in other respects it resembled the crown whose commander had given us a letter worn at marriage festivals among us. No to Urbitsh, which I would send to him thing can be imagined more laughable than from the sloop. We had come here for the gait of these men : their eyes were di this purpose, and should now sail by the rected towards the ground, their hands shortest route to Canton, to recruit our resting on the sides; they scarcely advanced stock of those articles. He here remarkforwards in walking, and their feet were as ed, that at Itorpu we had said we came far apart as if divided by a channel. I to traffic, but told him differently. To saluted him in the European fashion, this I replied, that if he had been 'inwhich he returned by raising his left formed so, it must be ascribed to the hand to his forehead, and bending his

Kurile's mistake, who understood very head and whole body forward. Our con

little Russian, and whose language had no versation then began. I excused myself expressions for money or buying, but defor occasioning them so much uneasiness, noted both by the words barter or traffic. by stating that the greatest necessity had He further inquired the name of our Emurged me to it. They, on the contrary, peror? if I knew Resanow, who came as

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