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to receive the twenty-five rupees, which Niti we should make a round, to which would have arisen out of the transaction our finances were unequal. He said that as it at first stood, in the light of a nazar. the heads of the Seyánas, who had beI declined giving five Sirinagar Timáshas come sureties for us, should answer for in lieu of a rupee, as I had been inforined our leaving the country by any other road. that the Déba alone refused them, and I urged every argument that occurred to probably through the influence of the me; but he was inflexible. He said his Latáké merchants. During the argu own head would be forfeited if he gave ments on this subject, the young Wazir his consent to our returning by any other spoke to the Débu several times in an pass, and that our lives were held by under voice, held down his head, seemed him in equal estimation with his owns confused, abashed, and ashamed of the but that the case was without remedy. trick played by the Déba. The latter, ob- This blow was unexpected and heavy, as viously pleased with having carried his it places us in the alternative, either of point, said, that heretofore no shawl being exposed to be stopped by the wool had ever been sold except to Lataki Gorkhálls, or of losing the benefits of merchants ; that there was an order of the connexion we had formed with the government inflicting the loss of his head governor of the Undés. Amer Singh says on any man that should sell this wool to that as the Marchas were our security any other person ; but that in conse here, so will they guarantee our passing quence of our having come from a great by the Baschar road. To effect this, he distance, being as he was fully aware, says it is only necessary to go one day persons of consideration, and as he was along the Niti road when we leave Dubá, pleased with our conduct, he had depar. and then striking to the west with a good ted from the general rule and had put us guide, we shall reach the Baschar withon the saine footing with the Latákis ; out inquiry or molestation ; or if we disthat we should in future be placed on the like this plan we may go to Nitl and make same terms as they ; and he would en an arrangement with the Mana Marchas, gage that no third person should enter near Bhadrináth, to give us a guide. My into competition with the two parties for companion thinks it will be best to go as this article. I expressed my satisfaction far as Tapoban, and there striking over with his promises ; and begged that he the great showy Tunfásí range, gain the would give me a list of the things he provine of Budun and push vigorously for might be likely to want from Hindustan, Chilkea. I prefer this, because we can as the Europeans sent many articles of see our cattle safe to Niti, and make an great utility and beauty to that country. arrangement then for passing our cattle He said, that a sword, and large pearls and goods through the Gorkha territory. of a rose colour, pear shape, and free The old pundit opens for Baschar road; from flaws or irregularities, would be and says we shall neither be seen or heard most acceptable. He gave me a drawing of by the route which he shall chalk out, of one, wbieh probably would be worth until we reach a country in which we shall two thousand rupees, and which he va not be noticed, I rather apprehended that lued at three or four hundred. After our the prohibition has been caused by the commercial affairs were thus settled, he inquiries which the old man has been said that we could not have permission to frequently making from Baschar people go out of the usual road from Ghertope respecting the state of the road'; hut, be to Mánasaróvar, or to stay more than it as it may, it is clear to me, that if we one or two days at that place. Thence wish not to furnish to the governor of we were to proceed to Gangri, after- Ghertope a substantial reason for rejectwards to Hienlung, to take up our wool, ing future communication with us, we then to return to Dábá, and enter the must abide by his order in respect to quitterritories of the Gorkhas by the Nitt ting his country by the Niti pass. pass. I answered that we were ready to Mr. H. went to the Cashmirian, and obey, to the utmost of our ability, the found that he was a Wakil or agent of orders which he had prescribed ; but the Rájá of Laták for the purchase and that it had entered into our pilgrimage to sale of wool. He said that the amount visit Juálámuchi, and that by the road of of wool annually bought by the Rájá was

between two and three lakhs, the greater tent, taking with me two small bottles part of which was resold to the Cashmiri of essence of peppermint and of volatile an merchants, who waited for the return caustic alkali. He received me with great of the Wakil and paid for it immediately. respert, spoke in the highest terms of the Merchants from Amrilsir took off the rest. regard shown to medical characters in the In speaking of articles of merchandize West, and of the pleasure he had in our which were marketable at Lalák, he meeting, which he now regretted had not mentioned coral beads, which formerly taken place before. His name was Ahmed were brought from Dehli and Benares, Khan Kazalbash, about forty-eight years and though exceediugly dear, were resold of age, and of a respectable appearance. into Tatary at a great profit. But within He placed before me some fine sugarthe last three years their value has fallen candy and a paper of saffron. Lookinggreatly, fro:n the great numbers which glasses of large sizes were, he said, much have come through Yárkund. These have in request in Cushmír. He was particu.. been brought by the (Ooroos) Russians, Jarly desirous to have a lancet of the who have long been in the habit of same make with one that I had given to trading with that country, and in the the Garpan, but in this I could not incourse of the last three years have pushed dulge him. I drew him on to converse on a lively traffic into Cushmlr through about the Russians, but could learn no agents. The Wakil said, that the Ooroos more than what has been stated, save had not yet been at Lutak; but the Déba that a few have before been in Cashmir. of Dáhá asserted, that kafilahs of five or He brought with him shawls of various six hundred Ooroos on horseback bad kinds for sale; and said that his people, come to the fair of Ghertope. Now if who were not come up, had some of great this latter intelligence be true, the Rus value in charge. No body, he said, could sians must reach Ghertope by another trade at Latak without the direct permisroute than that of Yárkund. The Wakil sion of the Rájá. We first supposed that said that the horses of Laták were much the Cashmirians came to Undés for part larger than those of Undés, but that the of the wool they used; and learning that best were bred in Yárkund, thirty days they did not, were disposed to blame them journey from Laták, and that Bokhara for want of enterprise. However it apwas fifteen days journey from Yárkund : pears that they have not been permitted Laták is ten or twelve days journey to trade directly with Undés by the Latá. from Ghertope, the same distance from kís.-A state of warfare had long existed Cashmír, and twenty-five from Amiritsir. with intervening periods of peace, or Thus the road to the N. W. of the

rather truce, between these two states, in Himalaya from Delhi would stand thus :

the reign of Mahmud Shah. The Chinese from Amritsir to Laták twenty-five days, Tatars then invaded Laták, whose inhaYárkund thirty, Bokhara fifteen ; mak- bitants applied to the Casmérians for assising a total of seventy days ; a much shor tance. These represented their state to ter distance than that by Cabul. In this

the Emperor, who ordered them to send route there are two days journey in some infantry to their aid. By their help which no water is to be met with ; and the Latákés repulsed the assailants; and and for thirty days there is a tract with a treaty of amity was made between the out inhabitants : but the road is safe. I conflicting parties, of which one article must here remark, that the river, which was, that the shawl-wool raised in Undés goes from Ghertope to Laták, does not pro should be sold to the Latakis alone. This ceed to Bokhara as before stated, but falls has since been little infringed upon, exinto the Attock, or more properly speak- cept two years ago, when the Jouári ing, is the main stream of that river. Nei- Marchas purchased a small quantity on ther is it a fact, that Cashmir furnishes account of Mr. Gillman of Barelly. The Laták with grain, as was at first repor- Latákės apprised of the transaction, comted to me; the latter country having plained to the government of Ghertope, sufficient land in cultivation for producing who issued the rigorous edict before menbarley and other grains, except wheat and tioned, forbidding the sale of any except rice, which it obtains from Baschar. I to the Latákls, on pain of death to the went this evening to the Cashmirian's party selling.

July 23d.-Leave Gherlope ; thermo- from amongst the best collection of cattle meter 38° at sun rise. The night has of every kind I had seen, I rambled been frosty. Having taken leave of the through the whole, and made choice of Déba or Garpan in the afternoon, and of several female yaks and calves, as also of the Wazir at night, we prepared to start. young goats, which however were not The Wazir treated us with much cordiali- equal in quality to the yaks and sheep. ty. He said that in a very short time he The horsemen, whom I discovered too should go to Lassa to remain. In his late to be intoxicated, said that they had apartment, which was a much better one no orders to allow me to pick out of the than that of the Déba, were many trunks, flock, but would send for instructions on and in the right hand angle was a small that point. platform with benches in front, on the July 24th.—Thermometer 44o. At an top of which was a brass image, before early hour ordered the puodit, sircar, which a lamp was burning, and grain of and interpreter to proceed to Ghertope, various kinds was served on salvers of and represent to the Déba and Wazir wood. On the lowest step were several how we had been treated; as also to meuplain wine glasses reversed, which from tion that the horsemen had said, that as their clumsiness I supposed to be of they had received only four days pay, Russian manufacture. He shewed us the we must travel day and night. We had picture of the late Lama, executed in scarcely determined upon this measure silk, but both the form of the person and when the horsemen sent word, that a the countenance announced more of the message was come from the Déba, imporfemale than of the other sex. This cha- ting that he would send another draft of racter I have remarked to have prevailed each kind; and, if I did not approve of in every portrait of the many different them, I might take back the articles he Lamas which I have seen, and, were it had purchased. I directed them to offer not that no mention has been made of a higher price for the power of selection : this personage having been emasculated, but rather to take such cattle as he should I really should have imagined to have offer, than on our part to break the origibappened. However, taken out of the nal bargain. In the evening my messenhands of his parents in infancy, educated gers returned with eight cows, and the in the entire subjection of the passion of same number of calves, of which four sex, and kept in a state of little less than

were bulls. entire confinement, with full feeding, it July 25th.—Thermometer 41°. March is not surprising that the features of the at 8h 101. The river we have left comes face should have little of the virile charac. from N. 850. E. The mountain in this ter, and that the whole contour of the thoroughfare for the most part covered body should contract a feminine softness with snow. The breadth of the valley undistinguished by the bold variety of in which the stream runs, is about 3 swell and fall belonging to a muscular miles. Thermometer at 1 P. M. 82o. frame accustomed to exercise.

The road, on which we are proceeding, At three thousand nine hundred and seems a great thoroughfare ; many Baseighty-five paces reach two piles of char and Joudré merchants having passed stones, the uppermost of which were to-day with loaded sheep, goats, and yaks engraved with a character that appears towards Ghertope. different from that in common use, and July 26th.—Rain. Thermometer 43o. appropriated, I presuine, to religious pur- The changes of temperature in this cliposes. The valley here narrows and is

mate are extremely sudden. Last night bounded by mountains, whose tops are the mountains to the right were bare ; more or less covered with snow, and it this morning they were covered with takes a winding direction to the left. At

Thermometer in tent 74o, at live thousand four hundred and seven three P. M. rain : alternate sun-shine, paces arrive at our ground of encamp overcast sky, wind, and thunder. meut near some tents, and a considerable July 27th.-Thermometer 39o. At herd of yaks with a flock of the finest noon all our baggage being dry, comsheep I have seen in Tatary. Pleased mence our march. The river from this with the prospect of having my choice spot runs N. 70° w. about 1} miles,

snow.

and then takes a turn S. 80°. W. and small heaps of stones, over which is a joins the river along which we went to line covered with slips of rags, and supGhertope. At four thousand four hun. ported by two sticks. At nine thousand dred and sixty paces cross the river three four hundred and sixty paces cross a rivufeet deep, rapid, with large slippery let formed by fresh melted snow. This stones ; water very clear. At six thou rises on the left and runs to the right. sand two hundred and sixty, thirteen Reach our ground, ten thousand and wild horses grazing to the left. At seven sixty-six ; at 5h 207 very cold, windy and thousand nine hundred and fifty-seven, cloudy. A storm rises in the N. W. afcame to bank of river, which cross, about tended with thunder and small hail. 25 feet deep, eighty yards broad, and Thermometer 47. Hail changes to rain, very rapid. At eight thousand two hun

which falls steadily till 7 P. M. dred, reach our ground and encamp. The To-day I heard a strange sharp and valley well furnished with grass ; several

loud noise proceeding from the side of a Tatar tents, and cattle grazing; much hill, at the bottom of which the road furze on the adjacent hills. River comes

ran; it seemed between a bark and howl, from N. 75 E. and runs N. 50 W. for

and expressed much anger. For some about 14 mile when takes a turn to the time I could not make out whence it S. 75 W. and forms one of the principal came, but, whilst casting my eyes on a branches of the Ghertope, supposed to furze bush, an animal about the size of belong to the Attock-Wind very cold, a middle sized dog sprung from a hole raining all round. The river rose rapidly, underneath it, about fifty yards up the aud the Tatar horsemen refused to cross hill, and after surveying the passengers their horses, in order to bring over some and repeating his yelping, retreated with of the people who had stayed to conduct precipitation into his cave, as soon as he our goats and sheep across the river; the

saw me jump from the back of a Chowny yaks were sent in, who stemmed the cur

-His general colour was a yellow brown. rent. Some clung to the tails of the His head was round with small ears, his animals and came over easily; the others, face burned light and dark-yellow and his more timid, preferred retreating to some

tail long. huts at a distance, where the Tatars gave them milk and lodging—A few drops 9h 452 began to hail, which soon changed

July 29th.--Thermometer 379. At of essence of peppermint on sugar to

to rain, and lasted until 10h. We began the Hindus, and a dram of brandy to the

our march at 10h. 45'. Mountains on the Musselmans, with strict injunctions, that

left covered with snow; many wild horthey should run about and not approach

ses grazing on the high table-land. At the fire till warm, prevented any of the

sixteen thousand six hundred and fiftypersons who had been much exposed to

two paces reach a branch of the Satúdró. the cold from suffering by it.

river which I forded here, and again at July 28th.-Thermometer. at sun-rise

sixteen thousand eight hundred and sixty 44°; obliged to wait until ten o'clock, eight, much against my will, as it was before the river had sunk sufficiently to admit of the men and a few goats, which

extremely cold : but my yak had played

some tricks, which in my weak state of were left, passing over. At lh 20?

health I did not think prudent to experi. march. The mountains have the particu

ence more than once. At 70. 15' reach lar red appearance indicating the presence Misar, very cold and much fatigued. of gold ; and though adorned with little

Thermometer 460, verdure, are picturesque in their forms. Cross several small rivulets which come

July 30th.-Halt at Misar. Thermofrom the left and fall into several ponds

ineter 440. In the forenoon, eight yaks to the right: air very cold. At seven

arrived Jaden with shawl-wool accompathousand and fifty paces reach a pile of nied by two persons on horseback. One stones covered with inscriptions. At eight of these was an officer called a Nerha, thousand one hundred and sixty, road who had received orders from the Garpan crosses several dry watercourses, and to supply the quantity for which we had ascends to the summit where are two

made advances.

(To be continued.)

THE LIFE OF LUIS DE CAMOËNS.

(From the Translation of the Lusiad, by W. J. Mickle.)

When the glory of the arms of Portu- with the blood royal ; but the family of gal had reached its meridian splendour, the second brother, whose fortune was nature, as if in pity of the literary rude

slender, had the superior honour to proness of that nation, produced one great duce the author of the Lusiad. poet, to record the numberless actions of

Early in his life the misfortunes of the high spirit performed by his countrymen. poet began. In his infancy, Simon Vaz Except Osorius, the historians of Portugal de Camoëns, his father, commander of a are little better than dry journalists. But vessel, was shipwrecked at Goa, where, it is not their inelegance which rendered with his life, the greatest part of his forthe poet necessary. It is the peculiar na tune was lost. His mother, however, ture of poetry to give a colouring to Anne de Macedo of Santarene, provided heroic actions, and to express an indigna. for the education of her son Luis at the tion against the breaches of honour, in a university of Coiníbra. What he acquirspirit which at once seizes the heart of the ed there, his works discover : an intimaman of feeling, and carries with it an cy with the classics, equal to that of a instantaneous conviction. The brilliant Scaliger, but directed by the taste of a actions of the Portuguese form the great Milton or a Pope. hinge which opened the door to the most When he left the university, he appearimportant alteration in the civil history of ed at court. He was handsome,* had mankind; and to place these actions in speaking eyes, it is said, and the finest the light and enthusiasm of poetry, that complexion. Certain it is, however, he enthusiasm which particularly assimilates was a polished scholar, which, added to the youthful breast to its own fires, was the natural ardour and gay vivacity of his Luis de Camoëns, the poet of Portugal, disposition, rendered him an accomplishborn.

ed gentleman. Courts are the scenes of Different cities claimed the honour of intrigue, and intrigue was fashionable at his birth. But according to N. Antonio,

Lisbon, But the particulars of the amours and Manuel Correa his intimate friend,

of Camoëns rest unknown.

This only this event happened at Lisbon, in 1517. appears : he had aspired above his rank, His family was of considerable note, and

for he was banished from the court ; and, originally Spanish. In 1370, Vasco Perez in several of his sonuets, he ascribes this de Caamans, disgusted at the court of misfortune to love. Castile, fled to that of Lisbon, where He now retired to his mother's friends king Ferdinand immediately admitted him at Santarene. Here he renewed his stuinto his council, and gave him the lord- dies, and began his poem on the Discoships of Sardoal, Punnette, Marano, very of India. John III. at this time preAmendo, and other considerable lands; pared an armament against Africa. Caa certain proof of the eminence of his moëns, tired of his inactive obscure life, rank and abilities. In the war for the went to Ceuta in this expedition, and succession, which broke out on the death greatly distinguished his valour in several of Ferdinand, Caamans sided with the rencounters. In a naval engagement with king of Castile, and was killed in the bat the Moors, in the straits of Gibraltar, in tle of Aljabarrota. But though John I. the conflict of boarding he was among the victor seized a great part of bis estate, his widow, the daughter of Gonsalo * The French translator gives us so fine a deTereyro, grand master of the order of scription of the person of Camoens, that it seems Christ, and general of the Portuguese versally agreed, however, that he was handsome,

to be borrowed from the Fairy Tales. It is ini. army, was pot reduced beneath her rank.

and had a must engaging mien and address. He She had three sons, who took the name is thus described by Nicolas Antonio, “ Mediocri of Camoëus. The family of the eldest in

statura fuit, et carne plena, capillis usque ad croci

colorem flarescentibus, maxime in juventute. Emitermarried with the first nobility of Por

nebat ei frons, et medius nasus, cariera longus, et tugal, and even, according to Castera, in fine crassiusculus." Asiatic Journ.- No. 28.

Vol. V.

2 Z

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