« 이전계속 »
in his friendship, and unbounded in his at somewhat abated, when we call to mind tachment to the principles of true honor, the jealousy and envy which exists in the Col. Conway is a man at all times easy East-Indies between certain officers of of access; and that his frank, courteous his Majesty's army and those of the and gentlemanly demeanor towards those Company's forces : nor is this officer the officers and others who have public bu first by many who has had cause to comsiness to transact with him, forms a plain of the effect of this mischievous striking contrast to the conduct of some and degrading spirit, its evil tendency is, members of the staff, whose supercilious too obvious to require a single comment; airs upon such occasions only tend to it has, on more occasions than one, been, produce the smile of contempt from many productive of the worst consequences to a worthy and meritorious individual, those officers who have been so illiberal whose lot it may be to dance attendance and imprudent as to imbibe it, while it on persons who are far more their in has proved highly detrimental and inferiors in ability than their superiors in jurious to the service in which they have rank.
been jointly engaged. Illustrative of the Having offered this just tribute to the pernicious effect of this unmanly and character of a man who is an honor and' ungenerous spirit is the following circuman ornament to his profession, the reader stance, which the writer recollects to have will feel less of surprise than regret at taken place at Madras a very few years the circumstance of Colonel Conway, in ago. Certain officers of rank, belonging common with every other man similarly to the Company's service, suggested the gifted and endowed, having his enemies to propriety of convening a general meeting contend with ; and though we may exult of the oificers of both services then at ingly adopt the lines of the poet, who ob the presidency, to consider of the erectserves that
ing a monument to commemorate the
victories of WELLINGTON. Colonel ConEnvy will merit as its shade pursue, And, like the shadow, proves the sub
way, as on all occasions of a similar 2
ture, was the foremost in promoting an stance true.
object so congenial to a military spirit, Still it could most cordially ve wished
and was supported by several highly res. that his enemies were those of a frank, pectable general officers of the same seropen, and manly character, instead of the
vice. But certain officers of rank of his insidious and lurking class, who holding Majesty's service (and those too, very situations and having interest, and per
near the person of the commander-inhaps some degree of influence at “ Head chief), whose duty it was to have checked Quarters.”
the least symptoms of this jealous and Possess the power too deeply to instil illiberal temper on such an occasion, The angry essence of their deadly will. much to their discredit, fell into the
Persons of this description have, it is same error, and accordingly represented apprehended, been exercising illiberal and to the officer commanding the army that sinister arts to depreciate the reputa the meeting was principally composed of tion and talents of this gallant officer, and officers of the Company's service, and if possible to procure his removal from prevailed on him to dissolve the meeting, his elevated situation. Fortunately, how under pretext that it had not been reever, their malignity has recoiled on them- gularly convened ! From this circumselves: his honorable employers, we are stance a stain has been cast on the Ma. persuaded, are too well aware of the bene dras army for not doing that which is fits which the service derives from the ex must have been their ardent wish and deertions of such a man as Col. Conway, sire to have done, in honor of a warrior to be induced by any invidious repre who imbibed the first principles of his sentations to remove him from a seat profession when commanding a portion of which he fills with such reputation and their own body. On this occasiou, one distinguished ability.
general officer in particular, holding a The degree of our astonishment that high command, distinguished himself by these machinations should have been put his intemperate and over-bearing conin practice against Col. Conway will be duct; but his courage was soon cooled
by the spirited and determined behaviour of the globe, and a commanding officer of Conway, who on this, as on all oc. who has not been accustomed to the sercasicns, proved himself to be the friend vice requires in an especial manner the of discipline and good order ; exemplify- aid of practical and local kuowledge and ing, at the same time, by bis conduct, the experience. Nor can it be expected that character of the gentleman, the man of a general, however skilful and expert in honor, and the true soldier.
directing the operations of two or three The Madras army is now in the field, thousand men in one of our West-India and though no one can doubt the bravery Islands, should with the same facility of British troops under whatever cir- wield a vastly superior force over an imcumstances they may be placed, yet the mense tract of country marked by cirsuccess of the commanding officer in his cumstances of an altogether different military operations must in a great mea character and description. Under these sure, if not entirely, depend upon the circumstances, the assistance to be deadvice and assistance which he receives rived from such a man as Conway must from the officers of his staff. It is there- be a desideratum with any commanding fore of the first importance that these officer appointed to watch over and proshould be persons who have served in the mote the British interests in the Eastcountry, possessing a knowledge of the Indies. In the formation and arrangelanguage, habits, and manners of the na ments of his plans, the commanding offitives, who are moreover well acquainted cer will always find it to his interest to with the mode of conducting and every be guided by the advice and assistance of circumstance connected with an Indian officers of rank in the Company's sercampaign, together with a variety of im- vice; and we heartily congratulate Sir portant points of information, altogether Thomas Hislop that he is fortunate enough of a peculiar and local description. The to have attached to his staff a man of system of warfare, and much of the ge such distinguished talents as the officer to neral plan of military operations, as car whose high character the writer has ried on in the East-Indies, is extremely found a peculiar pleasure in paying this different from the practice in other parts honest tribute of applause.
ON THE SITE OF PALIBOTHRA.
(Continued from page 210.)
The obscure notices left by the to the mouth of the Ganges, 638 ancients respecting the site of Pa- mill passuum. libothra may be compared to the Major Rennell was the first to equivocating legacy of hidden assign Patna as the site of the treasure, in one of Æsop's fables, capital of the Prasii. After the which the proprietor of a vineyard passage which has been adduced at desired his son to dig for: in this the commencement of the THIRD instance, as well as in the fable, POINT ASSUMED, he thus prothe explorers have been cultivators, perhaps beyond their inten
“ Palibothra, by the account of Metions ; if they have not found any
gasthenes, who resided there, was of remains which can be certainly identified with the antiquities « in length and 15 broad.
very great dimensions, being 80 stadia
If we reckon sought, the pains with which they
“ these measures to produce 9 miles in have turned up every part of the “ length and 14 in width, it does not field have been rewarded with the “ exceed the dimensions of some of the fruit of much positive knowledge. .“ capitals of the Indian viceroyalties. The
Pliny's Itinerary thus concludes: “ ruins of Gour in Bengal are more ex" To the city of Palibothra, 425; 6 tensive; that of ancient Delhi mush Asiatic Journ.-No. 29.
more so. The plans of the Indian cities “ The conflux of the Ganges and Jum“ contain a vast proportion of gardens “ nah ON THE MAP is 990 of Pliny's miles “ and reservoirs of water, and the houses “ from the Beyah (Hyphasis,) and 1032 “ of the common people consist of one “ above the mouth of the Ganges; and “ floor only, which may account for “ the ITINERARY makes the length of the " their enormous dimensions.
“ first interval 959, the other 1063. “ As Pliny's Itinerary enumerates the “ Palibothra he places 425 miles" “ particulars of the whole distance be [from the conflux of the Jumna and the “tween the Indus and the mouth of the Ganges),-" or so many parts in 1063 “ Ganges, and particularizes the site of a of the distance from that conflux to the “ Palibothra, it could hardly be doubled “ mouth of the Ganges ; and this is the “ that some very large city stood in the “ point we are to attend to. Patna in
position assigned to it; but I had al « deed is only 345 of Pliny's miles below
ways a doubt of its being the capital of " the present conflux; and this difference " the Prasii visited by Megasthenes. 6 of 80 of Pliny's, or about 44 geogra“ Late enquiries, made on the spot, have, phical miles, howerer considerable it “ however, brought out this interesting may appear to those who expect nice “ discovery, that a very large city, which
« coincideuces in such matters as these, “ anciently stood on or very near the site “ does not, in my idea, lessen the general “ of Patna, was named Patelpoot-her, (or “ authority of the Itinerary; because if “ Pataliputra, according to Sir William we admit only what is literally proved, '" Jones) ; and THAT THE RIVER SOANE,
“ Palibothra must still have been situated 66 whose confluence with the Ganges is
" within 44 miles of Patna. And as the NOW at Moneati, 22 miles above Pata “ people there have a tradition that Patna
na, ONCE JOINED IT UNDER THE WALLS “ stands on, or near, the site of Patel**6 OF PATELPOOT'HER, This name agree's poot-her, it rather proves to me EITHER
so nearly with Pálibothra, and the in " that there is an error crept into the
telligence altogether furnishes such po. copies of the Itinerary, - which, how“ sitive kind of proof, that my foi mer ever, proves in general as much as is re“ conjectures respecting Canoge must all quired, or that the point of the conflux “ fall to the ground ; notwithstanding of the Jumna with the Ganges has under“ that Canoge was unquestionably the gone a change .. It would be unneces“ capital of a large kingdom from very sary to enter so far into a discussion of “ early times.
" these differences, had not Pliny assured “I consider the above information as
“ us, that the distances were measured, “ too clear and positive to require any
" and that by order of Seleucus Nicator. proofs from ancient authors; and
“ Strabo gives the distance of Palibo" therefore the following examination of
" thra above the mouth of the Ganges at “ Pliny's Itinerary is intended rather to “ 6000 stadia ; and though we cannot fix “shew his great accuracy in geographical
" the exact length of the stade, we can “ subjects, than as a proof of the above “ collect enough to understand that 6000
position ; although it may serve that stades, laid off from the mouth of the purpose also.”*
Ganges, would not reach fär, if at all
beyond Patna; 1050 to a degree is the Major Rennell's examination of the previous distances as far as
proportion fixed upon by D'Anville.
“ Nor must we forget the passage of Arthe Hyphasis, offers no satisfactory “ rian in Indicis, in which Palibothra, solution of the difficulty in the se “ the chief city of the Indians upon the cond stage. This review will there “ Ganges, is said to lie TOWARDS THE fore omit it: but the following remark of itself contributes a practi
MOUTHS OF THAT RIVER.”+ cal standard of the accuracy of Pli
Major Rennel then makes a ny, with a comparative scale for the transition to Canouge, as an alterapplication of his numbers :
native probable in the next degree to Patna ; which
already quoted under the FIRST * Memoir on a map of Hindostan, edit. 1788. 4to, pp. 19-51.
+ Memoir, pp. 52–54.
POINT ASSUMED. But such a sup- travelling distances, nothing can be position is inconsistent with the gained towards making up the deslightest reliance on Pliny's Iti- ficiency, by converting either into nerary:
horizontal distance. I am aware, Pliny's Palibothra, however, is clear. indeed, that D'Anville and others ly PATNA; and it is probable that HAVE ASSUMED that Pliny turned "Strabo meant the same place, by the the Greek stadia into Roman miles, * distance from the mouth of the Ganges. at 8 to a mile, and upon
this “ Patna is the chief city of Bahar, and ground have turned Pliny's miles " is very extensive and populous, built into stadia, and then made another
along the southern bank of the Ganges, conversion of the stadia, some« about 400 miles from Calcutta and 500 times into coss, sometimes into “ from the mouth of the river. Having British, and sometimes into geo“ been often the seat of war, it is fortified graphical miles, upon principles “ in the Indian inanner, with a wall and equally arbitrary. Others have
a small citadel. It is a place of very ASSUMED that Pliny found part of “ considerable trade. Most of the salt- the distances expressed in coss,
petre imported by the East-India Com- and then have gratuitously deter
pany is manufactured within the pro- mined by what scale he reduced “ vince of Bahar. It is a very ancient them to Roman miles. If we look
and probably its modern name back to the primary authorities, it may be derived from Pataliputra, which may indeed be conceded, as next to we have supposed above to be the an
certain, that the first part of the "cient Palibothra.* The latitude of Pat- Itinerary taken from Alexander's na is 25° 37' north.”
surveyors was originally expressed It seemed due to Major Renneł in stadia ; but, on the other hand, to cite very fully the foundations from the limit where India comwhich he was the first to lay for mences, it is probable that they this hypothesis. In reviewing might adopt the standard measures these, it has occurred to me that in coss, either in all the parts of the minute objections may be offered royal road which they found alto his details in the construction of ready measured, or
at least in Pliny: points on which a differ- those parts which they had not ence of judgment may be sustain- time to survey. The same may reaed, but which I am neither desi- sonably be supposed of the rest of rous to advert to as materially af- the line, from the Hyphasis to the fecting his conclusions, nor to ac mouth of the Ganges, said to be quiesce in silently as perfectly ac- measured by Seleucus Nicator. curate.
This would form a sufficient ground First, as to the distance of Patna for dispensing with exact agreefrom the conflux of the Jomanes
ment between the numbers of the and the Ganges IN PLINY'S MILES: Itinerary and the ascertained disthis is said to be 345 of those.
tances; but let us leave Pliny's But in Major Rennell's own tables, numbers and denominations as we the distance, passing through Be- find them, content to make any nares, is but 238 British miles by small uniform allowance which the
way of Buxar, and 248 by the can be supported on a general way of Daoadnagur ; say, includ- scale of comparison. Why should ing the main street through Bena
we suppose that he did not know res, 253 miles = 267 Roman miles, the true module of the stadium leaving a deficiency of 158 miles; employed in his original Greek auand as the measures of the modern thorities compared with the Roroad to Patna, and those in the Iti
man mile, or transmute his figures nerary to Palibothra, are both alike by two gratuitous reductions? Pat
na, then, is 158 Roman miles nearer Ibid, po 62,
the junction of the Jomanes and of conflux of the Jumna with the Ganges, than Palibothra was ac- Ganges has undergone a change. cording to Pliny's Itinerary. Has this idea the countenance
Major Rennell has said, that this of any positive information ? Is difference does not lessen the general there any tradition to that effect, authority of the Itinerary. Cer- any vestiges of a deserted channel, tainly not. Pliny's is a connected as in the cases of the Soane and account; not to be shaken, like an the Cosa rivers, to which Major isolated notice stating but one nu- Rennell refers ? Suppose, for the merical point which conflicts with sake of argument, that the junction other ancient authorities, and may was carried 150 miles higher, or therefore be wholly incorrect. up to any point between the pre
The next resource is this pos- sent channel of the rivers which sible alternative: that there is an might leave a sufficient interval, error crept into the copies. I have the previous part of the Itinerary met with a variation, in the Preface would be perfectly inexplicable, to Bertius' edition of Ptolemy," the entire scale would be dislowhich may countenance this in cated. If conjecture would supsome degree. Pliny's Itinerary is ply a lost leaf in the book of knowthere cited; giving several num- ledge, or even an obliterated line, bers differently from the current let it be founded on some evidence. copies. Among others:
In Francklin's Enquiry, the dis“ Ad oppidum Palibotra......325." tance from Allahabad to Patna,
Bertius cites no MS. for this exhibited in six stages, amounts reading, if it deserve to be so con- only to 108 coss = 216 British sidered, and not as an error of the miles ;* but possibly the main press. The preceding interval street of each intermediate town is from Calinipaxa to the confluence omitted. of the Jomanes and Ganges is
I have contested the proposition, given as 635 mill. which is a mons that “ Pliny's Palibothra is clearly trous variation from the received « Patna,” merely that the THIRD text of Pliny, and from the truth. POINT ASSUMED may rest on its As the sum in Bertius wants au true grounds. Some persons may thority, so neither does the dimi- be induced to admit its probability, nution go far enough. If we con- independent of any support de tract the distance to Palibothra by rived to it from Pliny. a gratuitous alteration of the num First, the passage in Arrian has bers, we at the same time shorten been appealed to, thus translated the distance to the mouth of the by Dr. Vincent : Ganges, and thus disturb the pro “ The largest city in Ivdia is Palimportions of the whole line, leaving « bothra, at the confluence of Erranaboas a chasm of 127 miles to be filled " and the Ganges. The Erranaboas is by some other accommodation to
IN RANK of the Indian hypothesis : of which the readiest “ rivers, and larger than those of other would be, to take quantum sufficit " countries ; but UPON of the Delta of the Ganges and GANGES, ITS NAME IS LOST.” convert it into a bay with lagunes. In a citation already given, MaIn fine, conjectural emendations jor Rennell has candidly said, “I should not be admitted, unless the. « cannot apply the name Erranainformation with which they are
“ boas to any particular river ;" made to correspond is altogether but subsequently Sir William Jones positive.
discovered, in the Amera Cosa, a By the same canon I would try classical Sanscrit vocabulary of the other alternative, that the point
• Vol. I. p. 44. * Folio, Amsterdam, 1618.
† Vincent's Ancient Commerce, 4to. P. 19.
" the THIRD