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persccutors. Religious unity was to be We were pleased to observe, in obtained at the expense of humanity, the sixth chapter, that the author The making charity to man depend on
had attended to our hints on the speculative opinions, has given an haughty and stern demeanour to the Moslems subject of the Alexandrian library, in their communion with the rest of the and they have led him to the conworld. It has prevented all free inter clusion we anticipated. We praise course with other nations, and preserved him for his readiness in acknowthrough all ages Muhammedan Asia in its pristine state. That war is an ordinauce ledging the common lot of authorof God, and that success is a mark of ship: it would be equally creditadivine favour, are the natural priuciples ble to him if he would sometimes of people whose religion was founded by point out the sources of his correcthe sword.* One circumstance runs
tions. He has enriched this chapthrough the whole course of Muhamme
ter with many curious facts, and it dan history. Submission has been accounted a religious virtue, till a successful is altogetber very much improved. war proves that violence lias been approved We think that the history of the of by heaven; but in all the shocks of literature of the Saracens is an inempires, which ambition or fanaticism teresting rather than an important have occasioned, the forms of have remained unaffected. Any change in subject. Historical accounts of scithe political or social condition of the ence are often necessary to the inworld is contrary to a religion which is vestigation of truth. Error must thought to be a perfect system of theology, be exhausted before light appears. morals, and jurisprudence. Impiety
“ Thus," as Bailly truly says, would attach to him who suggested any improvement; who wished, for instance, system of Ptolemy is founded on a to put an end to polygamy, and to soften prejudice so natural, that it be
may the character of men by restoring woman considered an unavoidable step in to her proper station in society. In the
the progress of astronomical scidespotic governments of the East, the gradations of public and domestic life pre
ence; and if it had not been prosent only the two characters of tyrant and posed in ancient times, it would slave. Little, low pass; ons must be en- infallibly have preceded, among the gendered, and noble virtues destroyed. moderns, the system of CoperniInjustice and oppression will be opposed cus, and retarded the period of its by falsehood and cunning, and habits of deceit are gained. Justice can never be discovery.” In this view, then, the well administered in a suciety where force literature of the Saracens is not an is paramount, and revenge and other bad important subject. What did their passions of our nature are unavoidably knowledge amount to? or, rather, called into action. Lordly pride, savageness, and ferocity,
what was peculiarly their's ? In scimust be the strong and prominent features
ence they were children ; in mediof the character of men who are influenced cine they were little better than by a religion which breathes war and per- empirics ; they somewhat enriched secution. The stamp of divinity and eternity, which Islamism fixes on every insti- though they gave
the herbal of Dioscorides, and tution, has preserved the principles of scientific form, their knowledge
chemistry a Asiatic despotism, and the evils consequential to such a state of society are
of the subject went no great way. sufficiently numerous and dreadful to pre- It was the fashion among the vent, or at least to check, the practice of literary men of the sixteenth cenmorality, however pure and beautiful such morality may be.
tury to attribute the origin of
every thing to the Arabs; in many * Some superficial writers on the subject of the Muhammedan religion have commended Muham
cases gratitude overstepped truth. med for his toleration ! A few passages in the
In mathematics the Saracens Koran might indeed make bigotry blush; but such passages do not accurately represent the
went but few steps beyond the elech racter of the religion. The truth is, that ments;
for their warmest admirers (like all other reformers) while Muhammed was an humble preacher he granted liberty of conscience, but when he became a powerdi, princes than that they had a good know
cannot say much more for them, offered, was submission or tribute, Those por. ledge of trigonometry; we questions of the Koran, therefore, which were revealed at Mecca, breathe the language of toleration, while those which were revealed at Medina, ledge equalled that of the Hindus.
tion whether in algebra their know
The most interesting point of view count of the Wahabees, brought in which Saracenic literature. has down to the latest time. This will ever appeared to our minds, is in be read with interest, as we do not its connexion with European let- know whether these enthusiasts ters. The wild and romantic lite may not yet make a dreadfully rature of the middle ages may be splendid figure on the theatre of traced to a two-fold source, but ambition. If their arms had within both these sources were of the same the last few years been as successquality. On the one hand, the bar- ful as those of the Saracens were in barians of the north tinctured the the seventh century, they would have minds of central Europe, and the carried their religion along with sentiments of these barbarians had them, and Socinian Islamism would their origin in the east. Thus, the have triumphed over the orthodox Edda, or book accounted sacred by Moslem faith. The account of the the northern nations, can be traced pilgrimage to Mecca appears to to Asia ; to mention one proof out much more advantage in the preof a thousand, the Loke of the sent than iu the preceding edition. Edda is the Ahriman of the Zend In a subsequent part of this chapAvesta. The tribes of the Scandi. ter we were glad to see that the navians proceeded from Caucasus, author had qualified his panegyric or the north of Persia, and the of Volney, or rather shewed bis Normans' theology and their's was meaning more distinctly than bethe same. The Normans and other fore ; in the first edition he called Danish nations inundated the south, him the “ incomparable,” in the and therefore by a circuitous course, second “the best of all travellers ;”' eastern opinions were introduced whether he be so or not we shall into the west. In the south of Eu not stay to inquire, or to examine rope the Spanish and Italian Sara the merit of Mr. Gibbon's wish cens made a direct and immediate that Volney would travel all the impression of oriental sentiments world over; it is sufficient for us on European learning, and hence that our author's expression, "init is that Spanish literature is so comparable," wanted explanaremarkable for the beauty and va tion even in his own opinion, and riety of its fables. Calderon's works that it does not apply to the other are a perfect storehouse of thea- works of Volney. The account of trical plots : and the best French Muhammedanism in India and in and German writers of the six the Eastern Isles has been re-writteenth and seventeenth centuries, ten. This is a well executed part and even of later times, have gone of the work, and highly deserves to Spanish authors for their stories attention. In speaking of the chaand tales. The Italian muse is un racter of the Indian Moors the auder greater obligations to eastern thor is correct in saying that their fancy than is generally imagined. disposition to turbulence and irriIn markiog the history of thought, tation is partly occasioned by the it is usual to be satisfied with trac- warlike principles of their religion, ing the narrative to Boccacio. The and partly from the circumstance inquiry might be pursued still furs that in the revolutions of India ther, and we should find that the within the last fifty years, the Mumost enchanting Italian songsters hammedans have been the people were as much indebted to eastern who have principally suffered. They genius, as it is acknowledged on have lost much of their authority, all hands that the Provençal poets and are consequently discontented. were.
Many have been deprived of their To the seventh and last chapter usual employments in the court and we are arrived. There is in it a in the field (the scenes which they highly spirited and well written ac- generally filled), and no wonder,
therefore, that the evils have en
The expression “ornari res sued which are incident to the let ipsa negat, contenta doceri,” is no ting loose upon the world a large longer applicable. The story resbody of men, ignorant of the peace- pecting the lost MS. of Apolloful arts of social life. The author nicus Rhodius is one of the most thinks that the number of Musel- curious with which we mans in India is between ten and quainted, and is a striking proof fifteen millions. A general calcula- of the utility of the precise lantion indeed! The supposed census guage of the mathematics. The varies only five millions : the total system of the Muselman nations is population of England and Wales not a subject of air-built fancy, or an hundred years ago. Such vague of ages and people which exist estimates are perfectly useless. Most only in the mind of the poet.
It gentlemen conversant with India relates to a race of men not far decline forming any opinion on the short in number to the Christian matter. If the old idea be correct, world ; a people who, more than that the Muhammedan population any others, have injured and inis to that of the Hindu as one to sulted the true religion of Christ, ten, the number of Muselmans
and prevented the influence of his cannot exceed six millions.
peace. It is not an unWe now take our farewell of important affair to an English mind, Mr. Mills. His book has given us for several millions of British submuch pleasure and instruction. It jects in Asia profess it, and to the has gained a distinct and decided
eye of the politician the Turkish character, and the second edition crescent is as interesting as the eawill be the textus receptus. From it gle of Russia. The schism wbich the learned may refresh their know- separates the east from the west is ledge, or give the particulars of it no light concern to the Christian, a new arrangement; and the un. the philosopher, or the statesman ; learned may gain a valuable stock it fills their minds with great, seof useful and elegant information. rious, and awful thoughts on the The new edition is enlivened with inexplicable ways of Providence, many notes, containing anecdotes and the destinies of the human highly interesting in themselves, race. and illustrative of oriental man
DEBATE AT THE EAST-INDIA HOUSE.
East-India House, June 18, 1817. hon. gentleman's statements; and in the ALLOWANCES TO SHIP-OWNERS.
next, lie must declare his opinion, that if (Continued from p. 609, Vol. IV.)
any injustice was likely to be done, it
would be by the hon. gentleman's own Mr. Freshfield said it was not his inten- conduct, in bringing forward his present tion to have troubled the court with anymotion; because if any thing was more observations upon this subject : and he calculated to prevent that liberal view of should have contented himself with giv the subject which the court of directors ing a silent vote, but for some statements and the committee of the House of Comwhich had been made by the hon. gentle mons had been desirous of taking, it was man who brought forward the motion, the manner in which the hon. gentleman which appeared to him to be without had submitted this question to the court. foundation. The hon. gentleman had For his own part, he must think that the ventured upon statements from which, report of the committee did contain as if correct, it would appear that the com complete and as liberal a view of the mittee of the House of Commons and the
rights and claims of the owners as it was court of directors had been acting most possible to take, by any, body of intelligent unjustly. In the first place, he must ut
men, upon so interesting a subject. The terly deny the correctness of some of the hon. gentleman had complained of the re
port, by saying, “ that no evidence had those losses. It was true that the combeen offered to the commintee, but that mittee had received information respectof the ship owners themselves.” Now ing the extraordinary losses sustained by he (Mr. Freshfield) admitted that upon a particular individual, who had suffered the face of the report it would not appear to the amount of £167,000; but the that any evidence had been offered but hon. gentleman might have gained from that of the owners: but the hon. gentle. the same private information a complete man had drawn 100 large a conclusion knowledge of the sentiments of the comfrom what the committee had said, when mittee upon that particular case. The he contended that no other evidence, hon. gentleman must know, by comparing whatever, had been offered. The fact the evidence in his hand with the report, was that the committee stated expressly that it was not on account of any partiin their report, that almost the whole of cular individual loss, however grievous the accounts or estimates of the expenses it might be, that the committee would of the shipping had been received from be justified in recommending the interthe owners; but they did not say that no position of the legislature to adopt a ge. evidence had been offered to them but neral measure of relief, more particularly that of the owners. If the hon. gentle- if the case in question and the terms of the man would take the trouble of looking at contract iuto which that individual had the printed evidence in his hand (and entered, did not fall precisely within the which, by the way, had not been printed scope of the act of Parliament; and therefor the general use of the house, but for fore, whether the committee were at lithe use of the members of the committee, berty to recommend relief or not, in such only; but a copy of which the lion. particular case, it was not upon the ground gentleman seemed to have procured, some of partiality, but from necessity, that they how or other,) he would find that other abstained from taking that case into their evidence than that of the owners had been consideration. The committee, in their in. adduced before the committee of the quiries, were guided with a view to a House of Commops, the tendency of which general measure, by the examination of was to shew that very great and serious such evidence and documents as afforded losses had been sustained by the ship them the necessary grounds for coming to
It was true the committee had a general conclusion upon the case substated that they had no other means af mitted to their notice. forded them of examining into matters of The hon. gentleman who spoke last, accounts and figures, but through the me. taking lis information from the gentledium of the evidence of the owners them. man who made the motion, had fallen selves, who had produced their own ac into an error which it was very natural counts, and who must necessarily have for him to do, from the manner in which been more conversant with that branch the motion had been brought forward, of the subject than any other persons. namely that the owners were to receive The committee, however, drew their own £8 per ton under all circumstances. Wheconclusion from such evidence as they had ther the hon. gentleman's calculation probefore them, but not from any partial or ceeded upon that ground or not, he (Mr. ex-parte view of the question. They did F.) did not know (Mr. Hume said, No.) not confine themselves to any detached Certainly the hon. gentleman who spoke consideration of the subject; but, in form- last seemed to understand that the coming their opinion, they examined into the mittee had calculated upon paying every causes which had occasioned the distress owner £8 per ton, in addition to what of the owners, and those causes were dis he received already. Now, the court tinctly stated in the report. The com would see that that was the maximum, mittee did not found this statement upon and that in no case could an owner receive the evidence of the owners alone, for the above £26 per ton. Therefore, where an hon. gentleman must know, from the evi. owner already received £20 per ton le dence now in his hands, it was clearly as would not receive£8 in addition, but that, certained in the evidence before the com at the most, the court of directors would mittee, that whether the loss to the own only give him £26. ers turned out to be more or less, yet to The hon. gentleman then spoke to that them it was a serious grievance, and fur part of the evidence which related to the nished strong ground for the interposi- insurance upon small ships. It might be tion of the legislature on their behalf. true that the rate of insurance at Lloyd's From the same private information the was the same on small as large ships ; hon. gentleman would learn that no doubt but it was well known that the additional remained that great and serious losses, risk which was attached to a large ship (whether £20 or £100 more or less was was the reason why the same rate of inpot necessary to inquire,) were sustained surance was charged on a large as on a by the owners, and that it was found to small ship. The reason of this was obbe a measure of imperious justice to re vious. The underwriters took a larger lieve them from the peril of sinking under risk for the same rate of premium upon
the larger ship than they did upon the because it would be found that, in the resinaller; because the larger ship being sult, it was a fallacious calculation, and engaged sometimes in the warfare of the had no reference to the real amount of country to which it was destined, as well expense which would be incurred by the as being exposed to the perils of the seas, Company in employing such ships. the risk was greater than upon a smaller When the hon. gentleman lad said ship. Every underwriter was cognizant " that the Company ought to be just beof the extent of a contract with the East fore they were generous," he ought to India Company, for a voyage to the eastern have taken a more enlarged view of the world : for it had been held that a policy case, before he applied that observation upon an East India voyage extended even to the situation of the owners. to the perils of the Chinese seas. These peared to him (Mr. F.) that there never considerations, therefore, entered into the was a claim upon any body of men more view of the underwriter, when he under- just than this. Could it be doubted for wrote a ship for the East India voyage ; a moment, that when the gentlemen who and knowing the probable risk to which framed the act of the 39th of the King a large ship would be exposed, he would sat down to consider the different accounts charge the same rate of insurance as upon upou which the owners formed their estia small ship. The hon. gent. (Mr. Hume,) mate of expense, they did not take into then proceeded to speak of the freight at their calculation, first, that the actual which ships might be obtained, and had state of war had a tendency to increase asserted that at the rate of £13 per ton the costs of the outfit; and secondly, the Company might bring their goods that the operatious of such a war as had home. Now here again, he (Mr. F.) just been concluded must have tended to begged leave to refer the hon. gentleman increase those costs. Could it be doubted to the evidence which he held in his hand, that at the time when that act was passfor the purpose of shewing that £13 pered there was not the slightest concepton paid to the ships of the description tion in any man's mind, that at the close alluded to, would in effect be higher than of the war, the consequences of that war the £26 per ton proposed to be paid to the would be equally as injurious to the inteCompany's ships. The hon. gentleman rests of the owner as if the country were had in his hand the evidence of a gentle- in a state of actual warfare? Could it man who stated with great particularity be doubted, that if the present state of the expenses and charges necessarily inci- things was contemplated at the time of dent to a general ship, and clearly shewed the passing of the 39th of the King, care upon a fair and rational calculation, that would not have been taken to provide for when the increased expenses of such a the interest of the owner, if he happened ship were deducted from the £26 propos to be placed in such a situation as that ed to be paid to the Company's ships, they in which he now stood ? Certaiuly, these would leave a considerably less sum to be were propositions which could not be paid for the freight of the goods to be doubted, for it was reasonable that the brought home in those ships than would interests of the owners should not suffer be to be paid to the general ships which by casualties over which they had no conwere allowed £13 per ton. He (Mr. F.) trol, and which they could not foresee. alluded particularly to the evidence of Mr. Was it because the country was not in Staniforth, from whose evidence the court an actual state of war when the owners would learn what was paid by these extra entered into their contracts, that thereships, and what expense they occasioned fore they were not entitled to relief from when engaged in that service: and from the pressure of events against which that evidence it would be found that the they had made no provision ? It was proposition he (Mr. F.) had just stated clear that the state of war from which was confirmed by the calculation of that the country has just emerged, had subgentleman, who, no doubt, gave very jected the owners to a higher rate of exgood reason for his calculation, and gave pense in their outfit than could have been satisfactory data to go upon. This, previously calculated; therefore, whatever no doubt, was a question which would be was the cause, those expenses and diffidecided by the directors with the assist culties were the consequences of that ance of the court upon a rational consi war. This was not a question of generoderation of the evidence to be laid before sity, but of justice-it was not a question them. It was undoubtedly a question to be decided upon the vague foundation not to be discussed to day; but he (Mr. of liberality and of consideration-for F.) only referred to the evidence of the men who appealed rather to the feelings gentlemen in question, for the purpose of than to the judgment;- but it was a -shewing that the proprietors were not in claim of justice, and consequently of a situation at present to say decidedly that strict right, arising from unforeseen cirthe Company were to derive such consi- cumstances, and a course of events underable benefit as had been stated from the paralleled in history. The committee had employment of ships at £13 per ton.; founded their recommendation upon the