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complied with it, and that he, the the affront offered to the embassy, Emperor, saw it done. This imperial and that next year another emassertion it was not, of course, pru- bassy, backed with English ships of dent for Sir George to take further war of immense size, would enter the notice of, than to plead his ex- gulph of Pe che lee to enforce more treme youth at the time, and a respectful treatment. It is quite treacherous memory.

certain that after the refusal of The family now on the throne Lord Amherst to perform the cerehave never been popular with the mony, all ranks of people from Pekin Chinese; it well known that it is to Canton seemed to contemplate of Tartar origin, and the continual the members of the embassy as beattempts to engraft the customs of ings of a far superior order to what that nation on those of China have they were before considered. The never ceased to vex the prejudices haughty insolence of the Mandaand mortify the national pride of rins was changed to the most assithis haughty people. The pre- duous and respectful attention; the sent Emperor is a man of a edicts of the Emperor were more weak understanding, with all than literally obeyed; and had his the caprice and insolence which Imperial Majesty conferred the weak men in so high a situa- highest and most conspicuous hotion may naturally be suppos- nors on the embassy, he would, in ed to possess. It is painful to all probability, have failed in proreflect, that through all ranks of curing it that universal and markthis great empire, a well ma- ed respect, which the dignified renaged deception is considered as jection of the degrading Ko tou so the perfection of education, and evidently obtained for it. that to deceive with address is the

The decisive, gallant, and juonly touchstone of polite manners dicious conduct of Capt. Murray and good breeding. His imperial Maxwell, whose broadside at once Majesty has taken goud care that silenced the batteries and insolence the court of Pekin should pecu- of the Viceroy of Canton, must not liarly excel in this truly national as here be lost sight of. On the final well -as courtly accomplishment. departure of the embassy, that Kia king is merely respected by person was the very first to pay his his subjects as their emperor, but

court to Capt. Maxwell, and acneither beloved as the father of his tually ordered out the same men people nor considered in any other who fired at the Alceste, on that light than a link in the imperial vessel attempting to pass up the chain, which from the remotest river, to present arms to Capt. M. periods has bound them to the and his officers, as well as to make doctrine of perfect and passive the forts salute the embassy. The obedience to the “ Celestial Dye conduct of Capt. Maxwell * was nasty."

well known at Pekin ; but the same The recollection of the rebel- haughty court, which could not lion of 1810, the substance of dispense with a single tittle of which is recorded in your first vo- ceremony, gravely pocketed the lume, is still rankling in the minds open affront of a British frigate of the Emperor and his favourites, battering about at pleasure the as well as of the remains of the party imperial

forts ; and the very man who fostered it, and who are at this who was the cause of the insult, time possessed of considerable in. seemed to be sent from China Auence at Pekin. Some of them

as him whom the “ Emperor deloudly expressed their opinion, that the Prince Regent of England

• Captain Maxwell fired with his own hand was too powerful a prince not

interesting Narrative of the Voyage of the Alceste to take revenge on the Emperor. for

the tirst gun in this affair.

See Nr. Macleod'.

to Chiua aud the Yellow Sea.

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tion of sages.


lighted to honor." That after literature which have come into our this the Chinese are to be ac- hands, present us with no fresh counted the high-minded and noble materials to form a more favorable nation which many writers are judgment of this part of their na found of describing them, will, I tional character ; and till other think, be scarcely conceded. proofs arise, we must be compelled

The established religion of io take the number of their books China is that of Baudhism, but a as the only attainable standard of toleration of all religions is per- the quantum of their literary merit. mitted; so long as the sectarian But the Chinese cover a thoudoes not intermeddle with the af- sand defects by the decorum of fairs of the state, he is perfectly their manners and a strict prosafe in the exercise of his profes- priety of public behaviour; in apsion. The disciples of Buddha in pearance they are indeed a China are of course subject to the

The populace or same absurd dogmas and deplorable mob of China have no characdelusions as his followers in India: teristic vices, or even indiscrebut Baudhism is inculcated in a tions; the same continuous line, much milder manner in China; both of physiognomy and of acand though the Chinese are in tion, marks their proceedings on all general attentive to the offices occasions; there is no of devotion, yet they give them- in China, all are the subjects and selves

very little trouble in strict- the property of the “ Son of Hea. ly practising its precepts. The ven. This acquired command of religion of a Chinese does not af- passion and of feeling prevents, fect his heart, nor does he suffer in a great measure, the frequent his understanding to startle at its occurrence of flagitious crimes, mysteries or question its ortho- , and to that may be ascribed the doxy; it is enough for him that it general mildness of their laws. was the faith of his forefathers, But the Chinese code is not that of and it is his glory to resist innova- a free people : despotism, in its pution and change, whether in mat- rest meaning, is the letter and ters spiritual or temporal. Vol- spirit of every act of the legisla. taire and his followers have been ture, supported by one single, fond of holding up this people as though mighty pillar, viz. that an example to Europeans, pro- progressive submission which rises bably from the great indifference from the bosom of the meanest fa: they shew in matters of religion, mily to the imperial throne. and what is a most natural conse Those who have written on the quence, the tolerant spirit of their character of this people, especialgovernment towards all sects; and ly Voltaire and the Abbé Grozier, this alone was sufficient to ensure have been disposed to think more them the encomiums of the infidel favorably of them than perhaps philosopher.

the present or future ages will do; The literature of the Chinese,* but those writers spoke from very so highly vaunted by former wri- deficient sources of knowledge, ters, bas lately, and with reason, they judged entirely from the apbegun to be questioned. Imperial pearance of things and from re. libraries, composed of millions of vo- port, and in no place are appearlumes of illustrations of Confucius ances more deceitful than in China. and books on religion and divina: The experience of the embassies tion, may bespeak a nation of wri- of Lords Macartney and Amherst ters, but is no proof of sound learn- begin now to open the eyes of the ing. The late specimens of Chinese world at large ; and though there

is much hidden from our view, specimens of Chinese poetry.

we plainly see that the inhabitants

• See Asiatic Journal,

Vol. 1, No. 1., for


of the “ celestial empire” are out the mission at all has been neither so great, so wise, or so questioned; I certainly conceive it powerful, as themselves and their to have been a measure highly ex-, eulogists have pretended. To a con- pedient The causes which led to templative mind the state of China it are so accurately described in will ever be most interesting. The the first volume of the Asiatic obstinacy with which she rejects Journal, page 24, that I need not every opportunity of improvement here enter into them. The imthat offers ; the pride and self- pression on the public mind is, sufficiency with which she arro

that it was

a scale rather gates to herself the pre-eminence too magnificent ; this is perhaps above all nations, while she is correct. But, upon a review of all in reality debased below them, the circumstances which have ataffords à melancholy picture of tended it, the conclusion may justly the vanity of human nature. The be drawn, that, though its effects notion that the earth is a plain, may be remote, yet they will be in the centre of which China is beneficial, and that the objects situated, and that all other na which the embassy had in contions, kindreds, and tongues sur- templation are in a train of being round her as tributaries, is still duly accomplished. religiously believed in, from the

YEN KWANG. Emperor down to the lowest subject.

From the " retired Stone Although the policy of sending on the Brook.

To the Editor of the Asiatic Journal. · SIR,-The speeches contained India, consequently well suited for in your two last numbers on the the situations they respectively ocsubject of the Mandamus, Co- cupy at the India-House. My lonel Bryce, and Captain Earle, reason for addressing you, Sir, is doubtless proceed, in the worthy with the ardent hope that all minor proprietors, from an ardent desire considerations may give place to to save the money of the Com one of great importance, and afpany; but I conceive there are fecting the vital interests of the often periods when economy be- Company ; I allude to the great comes cruelty and bad policy. With deficiency of European officers respect to Capt. Earle, I know with our native cavalry and inhim to be a most worthy and un- fantry, the latter in particular, it fortunate man, who served with being without ensigns, so that, for great credit all the severe cam. the three establishments, it appaigns of General Goddard ; and pears no less than four hundred like too many other meritorious cadets are required to complete officers, would gladly have return- the several corps with junior offied to the service, had he not I wish to impress this cir. been precluded by the new re cumstance upon the minds of my gulation of 1796 ; and so far from brothers and sisters of the pronot allowing him €300 per annum, prietary, as being of far more imI would vote for that sum being port than the creation of two new continued to his wife. As for Co. officers, which, to my own knowlonels Bryce and Salmon, they ledge, were long wanted at thc were both * Auditor Generals in India. House. Every officer who

knows the service, must lament

that our Sepoy regiments should Military Auditor General in Bengal. -Ed. be thus incomplete with European


We believe Col. Bryce never held the appointment of Auditor General, Col, Salmon was

officers, and nothing but severe sent upon furlough. Compared with disasters in India, arising from im- the vast extent of territory they politic economy at home, can open are to cover, the wonder is that the eyes of many proprietors. In our forces have hitherto protected fact, our native military establish- il : but the time is now come when ments are incompetent for the ex

we must no longer follow the old tensive country under our own regime ; for the wider we extend government, not reckoning the

our territory, the more we shall large detachments with the Ni- find it expedient to maintain a zam, the Peishwa and the Berar chain of posts from Agra to Poona. Rajah. New corps should be raised Messrs. Hume, Lowndes, and other in their stead ; for I maintain, with- gentlemen, will, I hope, see the out fear of contradiction, that propriety of an immediate increase unless two regiments of cavalry, of our native troops in the moand four of infantry for Bengal; derate proportion I recommend; two of cavalry, and four of in- for if not done, I venture to prefantry for Madras; two of cavalry, dict, my worthy brothers and amiand four of infantry for Bombay, able sisters will soon be without be speedily raised, the India go- dividends. Our officers ought to vernments will soon find that their receive a new brevet promotion, respective territories will be more so that active men may be emdevastated by the incursions of ployed to command divisions with Pindarees, and from their repeated suitable rank. These points are success, by inevitable war with all of far more importance than twothe Mahratta states, and will conse- penny savings, and will, I hope, quently suffer greater loss of re obtain the notice of the provenue than the maintenance of this

prietary. That fine corps, the increase of our military establish- Bengal native artillery, should alment. Let us no longer hesitate so have its full complement of on the score of economy, but send officers in like proportion as the out the required number of cadets infantry, in order to act with to fill up actual vacancies, and to efficiency on service. make


for the vast number of officers necessarily employed upon

I am, Sir,

Your devoted servant, the general garrison, and cantonment staff, in addition to those ab A BENGALEE AND PROPRIETOR.

To the Editor of the Asia!ic Journalı

SIR,-- In the eloquent sentencesin extent and magnificence of the which your last number announc- park and house. ed to our countrymen in India the On the death of the Duke the death of the Princess Charlotte, al. domain was again to be disposed lusion is made to Claremont having of, and Colonel (afterwards Lord) been built by the first Lord Clive Clive, who was then on the point soon after his return from India. of returning for the last time to

The original site was built by Sir India, purchased it, and under the John Vanburgh who inhabited direction of the celebrated archiit himself; it was afterwards pur- tect Browne, the house was comchased by the Duke of Newcastle, pletely rebuilt, and the park and în 1715, who added much to the grounds new modelled under his

superintendance at the cost of edged by a winding bank, with scattered £100,000.

trees, that led to a seat at the end of the On his final return from India, pond. On a mount in the park he erected Lord Clive passed many of his so a building ju the shape of a castle, and kitary moments at this magnificent called it Claremont, from his own name, place; but the charms of its exqui- by which the place has been known ever site scenery, the caresses of his since. Sir Samuel Garth has mentioned friends, the acquirement of high it in a poem printed in his works. Mr. rank and of almost unbounded Whateley, in his “Essay on Gardening,” riches, had no effect in relieving speaks of part of it with much approbahis mind from the fatal effects of tion--" where you may wander with se. despondency and gloom, and the

cure delight," and saunter with perpetual

amusement. conqueror of India suddenly enshrouded his glories and his name

After the death of the Duke, it was on the 230 Nov. 1774.

purchased by Lord Clive, the conqueror Claremont afterwards passed

of India. When setting out on his last into the several hands of Lord

voyage, he gave directions to Mr. Browne,

so well known for his taste in laying out Galway, the Earl of Tyrconnel, and Mr. Charles Rose Ellis, from grounds, but who used to consider him

self as of still greater skill in architecture, whom it was purchased in 1816,

to build him a house and model the by the country, for Prince Leo

grounds, without any limitation of expold and his illustrious Consort.

pense. He performed the task much to Since writing the above I have

the satisfaction of his lordship, who did looked into a History of the Coun

not regard the cost, which is said to ty of Surry by Manning and Bray, have been more than £100,000. Browne and am induced to send you an

had been often employed to alter houses, extract from that work, which ex

but this is said to be the only complete actly agrees with my account of

one he ever built. It forms an oblong Claremont, but enters more into

square of forty-four yards by thirty-four. detail.

On the ground-floor are eight spacious Claremont Park is situated near the vil. rooms, besides the hall of entrance and Jage of Esher, about five miles from the great stair-case. In the principal Kingston and seventeen from London. front, a flight of thirteen steps leads to Sir John Vanburgh, so well known for the great entrance, under a pediment his particular style of architecture, bought supported by Corinthian columns. The some land here, and built a low brick situation is well chosen, commanding va. house, for his own habitation, upon it.

rious views of the water and plantations The spot he chose was in low ground, in the park. Whilst Lord Clive was owwithout the advantage of prospect. Thos. ner, he was at the expense of varying the Holles Pelham, Earl of Clare, bought it line of the turnpike-road, in order to add of Sir John, and was created Duke of a few acres to the park, in effecting which Newcastle, August 2, 1715. He made he cut through a hill to the depth of thirit his habitation, and added a magnificent ty-feet, or more, the doing of which helproom for the entertainment of large com

ed to raise a high causeway over some panies, when he was in administration. low ground, to take off what would have He increased the grounds by further par. been a steep ascent. This ends near the chases, and by inclosing parts of the ad. seventeenth mile stone from London, joining heath, and it now contains about "The ground so gained has been planted, four hundred and twenty acres ; the and the trees and shrubs grow luxuriantother part of the estate contains about ly. Lord Clive died in the year 1774, sixteen hundred acres in several farms. after which this estate was sold for, per"The Duke adorned the park by many haps, not more than one-third of what plantations, under the direction of the house and alterations originally cost. Kent. One of Kent's most

It was purchased by Viscount Galway, an designs at Claremont was a small lake, Irish Peer, of whom it was bought by


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