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the rest, as a necessary and essential part of the Law. So that never any Government had fo particular regard for Strangers, or was so peculiarly contrived for their encouragement to live under it. Other Governments, as those of Sparta and China, have been so jealous of Foreigners, that, by their Original Constitution, they have forbid any Dealings with them, and would not suffer them to abide in their Cities. And the Romans P had fome Laws to the fame effect; which Tully indeed says was an inhuman thing, and it was the cause of the Bellum Sociale, or the War raised against the Romans by the several States of Italy. The Freedom and Privilege of a Citizen of Rome was purchased at a great Price, Aits xxii. 28. Of this 9 Dio, as well as St. Luke, informs us, speaking of the Times of Claudius ; and in their Leagues with r divers Nations, the Romans inserted this express Condition, That none of them should be made Free of the City. And it appears from Platarch, that the Freedom of the City of Rome, was not obtained in Ciceru's time, but by great Favour, and with much Difficulty. Foreigners were sometimes expelled. And Augustus left it in charge to Tiberius and the Senate, Not to be too easie in granting the Freedom of the City: Pliny, as a Reward to his Phyfician Harpocras, by whom he had been cured of a dangerous Illness, besought Trajan to grant him the Freedom of Rome: To which the Emperor conserited. But Harpocras, being an Ægyptian, it was necessary that he should be first Free of Alexandria : which was also granted, but with this Declaration, That the Emperor had resolved, according to the Custom of former Princes, but seldom to bestow the Freedom of
p Tull. Offic. 1. 3. 4 Dio. 1. 60. r Tull.
Balbo. Plut. in Cat. Min.& in Cic. + Sueton. in August. C. 42. v Dio, l. 56. w Epift. lib. 10. Ep. 6, 7,
Dio. 1. 37.
that City. At last, by a Constitution of * Caracalla, Freedom was granted to all within the Roman Empire. The Greeks were backward, particularly the y Athenians, in granting the Freedom of their City. z Marriages with Stranges were forbidden by the Athenians; and they had a Tax callid Mejoixion, to be paid Yearly by all Foreigners, both Men and Women; and they were so severe in exacting it, that those who a were unable to pay it, were sold or imprison’d. The b Thebans, as well as the Athenians, rarely granted to Strangers the Privileges of Citizens, but sometimes expell'd all Foreigners. The Corinthians thought it a proper Compliment to make to Alexander the Great, after he had conquer'd the East, to present him with the Freedom of their City; and that he might be sensible of the high Respect shewn him in it, they acquainted him, that none but himself and Hercules had ever been made Free of Corinth. Plutarch relates this Compliment to have been made Alexander by the People of Megara. The d Albani made none Free of their City, but the Greeks and Latins : And it seems to have been the general Custom and Practice of Cities, to be very cautious and sparing in admitting Strangers to Incorporate with them.
But the Jewish Government, on the contrary, was so adapted and contrived for the reception of foreign Nations, that if they would but comply with their Laws, they made little or no distinction between the Natives and Strangers; and the owning the True God, and professing to obey and serve him, entitled them not only to all the Rights of Humanity and Kindness, but to a more peculiar Care and Providence of God himself.
* H. Valef. Not. in Excerpt. ex Dion. Ez: Spanh. Orb. Rom. Exerc. 2. C. 4.
ý Deinosth. adv. Aristocr. 1 Adv. Neær. a Adv. Ariftogit. Diog. Laert. in Xenocr. cum Obf. Menag. o Dion. Halic. 1. 2. & Sen, de Benef. l. 1. C. 13. d Dion. Halic. I. 3
If the Jews did not always shew so much Humanity to Strangers as their Law required, this is to be ascribed wholly to their own fault; and 'tis not the only Law which they were top prone to disobey Maimonides and some other Rabbins have affirmed, that Profelytes of the Gates were permitted to live in the Land at no other time but in the Year of Jubilee ;; and that Proselytes of Righteousness only were to be received, as perpetual Inhabitants. But this is: contrary to the Tenour of the Law, and particularly to Deut.xiv. 21. where Profelytes, or the Strangers dwelling within the Gates, are supposed to be constant Inhabitants, and distinguish'd both from Proselytes who had obliged themselves to the Observation of the Ceremonial Law, and from Aliens. Indeed, when the Jews became subject to the Romans, and by that means, had no Power to constrain the Profelytes of the Gates to observe what they had f undertaken, it was determined, that they should hold no Conversation with them ; yet, in the corruptest state of the Jewish Church, the Gentiles had a Court to worship in at the Temple: And the Jews always taught, That it was their Duty to relieve the Heathen with their Alms 8, and that it was lawful to converse with the Gentiles if they did not eat with them, nor go into their Houses. And this was the Charge brought against St. Peter, Thou wenteft in to men uncircumcised, and didit eat with them, A&s xi. 3. But what Effect this abundant Provision of the Law, for the Converfion of other Nations, had, falls under the next Head. It is more proper to consider, in this place, an Obje&tion which comes in our way; That the Isrcelites were to make no Marriages nor Covenants with the
e Maim. de Idolol. c. 10. § 7. f Vid. Hammond. ad Matth. xxii. 15. & Selden. de Ture Nat. & Gent. I. 2. c. 5.
g Dr. Lightfoot on Acts x. 28. and Hebrew and Talinud Exercitat, on Matth. vi. 2.
Seven Nations of the Land of Canaan , nor to shew them any Mercy , but utterly to destroy thein, or drive them out, Exod. xxiii. 31. Dent. vii. 2.
To which I Answer, That this was a peculiar and excepted Case, and therefore suppofes that they were not thus to deal with any others, except the Nations there expresly named, but they might enter into Marriages and Covenants with all other Nations: And belides what has been already observed, of the great Mercywhich God vouchsafed to these Nations, in sending the Patriarchs to sojourn amongst them; and that wonderful Judgment upon Sodom and Gomorrah, to bring them to Repentance, and prevent that Destruction which was at last brought upon them: after so long and great Provocations, these Nations were not unavoidably to be extirpated; but the Israelites were, in the first place, to proffer Peace to them; and if they refused to accept of Peace, then they were to proceed against them in the utmost extremity; which appears from Deut. xx. 10, c. For after a general Command to offer Terms of Peace to the Cities which they should go to fight against ; and if they refused it, to fmite every male thereof with the edge of the sword, ver. 13. it is added, ver. 15. Thus fhalt thou do to all the cities that are very far from thee, which are not of the cities of thefe nations. But of the cities of these people, which the Lord thy God doth give thee for an inheritancey thou shalt save alive nothing that breatheth; but thou shalt utterly destroy them, &c. where it is evident, that what concerns their making Proposals of Peace, was to be understood in general of all Nations with whom they should at any time have War. But then in their dealings with them upon a Vi&ory, after their refusal of the Peace offered, they were to distinguish between the Canaanites and other Nations: for the h Canaanit?
h Quod fi pacem abnuerent in Bellis quidem voluntariis, que ifraelita suscipiebant adverfus reliquas Nationes, omnes gladio perime
were to be utterly destroyed, if they should reje& Terms of Peace; but all, except the Males, were to be spared of other Nations, though they were overcome, after they had refused to make Peace with them: And the Terms of Peace to be proposed, were, That they should become Tributaries, and Proselytes, so far as to own and worship the True God, and then the ream son for their extirpation ceased; which was, That these Idolatroụs Nations might not teach the Children of Israel to do after all their abominations, which they had done unto their gods, Deut. xx, 18,
When the Men of Israel tell the Gibeonites, Perad, venture ye dwell among us, and how shall we make a league with you? Josh. ix. 7. this is to be understood of a League with them upon equal Terms, not of a Peace, whereby they might become Tributaries, Deut. xx. 11, and therefore the Gibeonites immediately anfwer'd and faid touhua, We are thy fervants, Josh.ix. 8. that is, Do with us as you please, at least grant us our Lives, though not upon any other Terms of a League, yet on Conditions of Servitude: and we find the Peace and the League distinguished, Top. ix, 15. But this fraudulent way of getting into a League with the Ifraelites, if it had not been for the Oath, which secured their Liyes to them, had forfeited that Right which otherwise they might have had to their Lives, by a Peace fairly obtained ; and they lost all other Advantages of the League, but only the securing their Liveș, În the i Jerusalem Gamara it is written, that Hofhua made Three Proposals to the Canaanites, viz, That they might either leave the Country, or be admitted into a League upon Conditions of Peace, or prepare themselves for Battel; and that the Girgashites being terrify'd by the mighty Works, which God had þantur exceptis mulieribus ex parvulis: at in iis, qua gerebantur cum septem Nationibus, etiam hi occidebantur, Menali. Ben. lsr. Con: ciliat. in Deut. Qu. 8. Selden, de Jure Natur. & Gen. I. 6. c. 13.