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Mantchous, and assisted them in the conquest of the empire. The fourth corps, which is the least esteemed, though the most numerous, is also Chinese: it is stated to amount to 500,000 men, who are dispersed in garrisons in the interior of the empire. If we add to these 125,000 Chinese militia, the whole Chinese army will make 740,000 men, of whom 175,000 are cavalry. There is, besides, a Mongol cavalry, which, with respect to its organization and the nature of its service, may be compared to the Russian troops from the Don and the Ural. Its amount is not accurately known, but is stated by some at 500,000 men. All the Chinese soldiers are married ; and their children, who are entered in the lists of the army from their very birth, recruit the corps to which they belong. Besides arms, a horse, a house, and a quantity of rice, each soldier of the first, second, and third corps, receives a monthly pay of three to four lanes, (six to eight silver rubles,) but must provide himself with clothing. The troops of the fourth corps are furnished by the government with lands, which they must cultivate for their subsistence. Notwithstanding the immense sums which the maintenance of this force costs, and which is said to amount to 87,400,000 lanes, the spirit and discipline of the troops are at an inconceivably low ebb.
Aleppo, Aug. 12.-The Sultan has issued the following firman:— “ Know, I have learned that books, such as the Bible, Psalter, the Gospels, and the Epistles of the Apostles, have been printed in - - Europe
Europe to the number of two or three thousand copies of each, together with a treatise in the Persian language, and that two or three hundred copies of each kind, with four or five of the Persian treatise, have come to my capital. Now, as it is my duty entirely to prevent the arrival of such things in the empire under my government, you have to order these books back to Europe; and if such should in future arrive at the custom-house, to make a strict examination, and to take care that none of these books be sold in my capital. You will also see that no Mussulman obtains such books: and if there should be any copies of them, that they be taken away and thrown into the fire to be consumed by it; and above all things, let none of them be sold or bought in any country belonging to my empire.” This firman was sent also to the cadi of this city, who, thereupon, called together the chiefs of the several Christian communities, and commanded them to enjoin such of their brethren as had any of these prohibited books in their possession, to deliver them up, threatening to hang all those who should be found to have retained the books. It is affirmed, however, that yesterday evening not a single copy had been delivered up. All those persons who speak on the subject, the Roman-catholics as well as the other Christians, believed that this firman had been issued at the instance of the Roman-catholic clergy.
Gele. At BriTAIN.
State of Newgate.—A summary statement of the various offences
with which the prisoners for trial severally stand charged:—murder 4, burglary 6, housebreaking 5, horse-stealing 7, highway robbery 8, cutting and maiming 1, rape 1, sodomy 2, forgery 9, stealing in dwelling houses 27, maliciously killing horses 1, embezzling 8, assaulting with intent to rob 1, bigamy 4, manslaughter 3, stealing from the person 13, receiving stolen goods 4, found stealing from letters while employed in the Post-office 2, uttering counterfeit coin 3, larcenies 247—total 411. Of the above number, there are 82 prisoners charged with crimes alleged to have been committed in the city of London, and 329 in Middlesex. At the corresponding sessions of last year, there were only 318 prisoners for trial, making an excess this year of 91. Prisoners under sentence of transportation for life . . Under sentence of transportation for 14 years . . . 8 Under sentence of transportation for 7 years . . . . Under sentence of imprison
ment for felony, &c. . . . 12 Insane . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Committed under the bankrupt laws . . . . . . . . 1
Whose judgments are respited . . . . . . . . . . 1 Remanded . . . . . . . . . 1
For trial at the ensuing sessions. . . . . . . . . . . . 411 Total . . 493
London Mechanics' Institute.— A quarterly meeting of this institution was held at the theatre, Southampton-buildings. The report was read, by which it appears that 525 new members have been admitted during the last quarter, making the total number 1488; Y Y 2 that that the erection of the theatre cost 8700l., the whole of which was advanced by Dr. Birkbeck; and that on the other buildings and improvements 1170l. have been expended. The state of the accounts was then submitted; by which it appeared that, after all their expenditure, the finances of the institution were in a most flourishing condition, there being an i.P. balance in their bankers' hands amounting to upwards of 1000l. — A resolution was passed enabling the committee to admit professors who would deliver a course of lectures gratis, and distinguished foreigners as honorary members.--Thanks were then unanimously voted to Dr. Birkbeck, the founder, who, in making his acknowledgment, expressed his gratification that among the benefits produced by the London Mechanics' Institution was the rapid formation of similar institutions all over the country; and it was truly gratifying to observe, that the establishment of Mechanics' Institutions was uniformly attended with increased order and respectability of the important class of society of which they were composed: in every particular realizing the expectations of those who advocated the improvement of mind as the best means of improving the conduct, and promoting the happiness of Iman,
A battle was fought at Deenackie, near Samarang, on the 2d September, between ten thousand native troops and the European forces; the latter is estimated at only three hundred, of which sixty were English, chiefly sailors. The
Dutch troops were totally defeated.—30,000 packets of coffee were burnt, and the enemy destroyed all the coffee trees and sugar-canes.
A dreadful hurricane has been experienced, particularly in the French islands. Basseterre has been completely devastated, five hundred houses having been swept away, or wholly unroofed.
The King of the Netherlands has lately caused to be erected, on the building of the academy of Leyda, a small observatory, for the reception of a telescope which was made by three peasants, named Roeloss, Sieds, and Rieuks. The mechanism of this instrument is so well arranged, that it can be directed to any point by the hand of one person only. It is twelve feet long and one foot in diameter, and the lenses are consequently about a foot in thickness. The body and stand of the instrument are of fine mahogany, admirably worked and polished, and the whole is a fine specimen of workmanship, unassisted by any previous knowledge of the subject.
Warsovia.-The following information is extracted from the report of the minister of the interior, Count Mostowski, as to the state of affairs since the second diet, that is, during the last four years. In consequence of the number of reformers, sixteen extra parishes have been created, and they have already commenced building houses for their Lutheran ministers. The organization *: the the Jews has been meliorated, and 327 inspectors have been established, to watch over the affairs of the ecclesiastics. The funds allowed for public instruction, have amounted to 6,536,509 florins, and the profitsarising out of the schools amounted to 896,784 florins; which sum has remunerated the temporary class-masters, and purchased a great addition of books, mathematical instruments, &c. &c. The botanical garden belonging to the university is beginning to vie with the best in Europe - containing 10,000 species of plants. The university library, which is always increasing, contains 150,000 volumes, among which are many very rare and curious works. The university has two buildings added, for the purpose of museums of natural and experimental philosophy, A printing-office and lithographic presses are established near the university. There is an elementary society formed for the examination of the candidates for professorships, masters, &c.; which situations are generally ably filled by Poles. The Institution for the Deaf and Dumb supports twelve poor beings, who are taught various works. Sunday schools are open in various parts of the kingdom. Limits have been made to civil procedures ; so that, in the last four years, 15,908 causes have been determined by justices of peace. Iron rail-roads have been constructed from Kalish to Brezesc, sixty German miles, in uninterrupted length. High-roads have been constructed in the palatinates of Cracovia, Lublin, Plock, and Angustow, and 523 bridges. The country has ceased to be tributary to foreign nations, in many important points. Their manu
factory of cloth is sufficient for the wants of the people. More than 10,000 foreign manufacturing families have peopled new towns. The mines of Poland produce, independently of silver, copper, and lead, the exportation of which might be made very considerable, 100,000 quintins of iron, equal to that of Sweden; more than 40,000 quintins of zinc ; and 5000 of pitcoal. The report, in every other particular, shews an increase and improvement in the manufactures and general prosperity of the country that is truly satisfactory.
OCTOBER. GREAT BRITAIN.
A quarterly general court of Bank proprietors was held for the purpose of considering of a dividend. The chairman declared that the court of directors, after a full consideration of the affairs of the bank, agreed to recommend a dividend of four per cent, for the half-year next ensuing. Mr. Young asked a number of questions of the chairman—the first, as to the amount of bank-notes in circulation; to which the reply was, 18,200,000l. being about 400,000l. less than the issues of last year.— The second, the amount of advances on exchequer bills; the reply, 670,000l.-The third question was as to the amount of advances on mortgages; to which the chairman answered, 1,400,000l. : and that he was in error when he stated at the last quarterly court that the advances on stock had
been from 5 to 600,000l.-they
were not more than 480,000l. and there had been little increase on them ; and that as to the late violent change which had been
produced produced in the money market— that had not been produced by any conduct on the part of the court of directors, which pursued such measures as were deemed beneficial, without listening either to good or evil report. — After some conversation as to the expediency of giving notice to parties on the execution of warrants of attorney, in order to prevent forgery, when the chairman stated that no new precautionary measure had yet been found expedient, the resolution for declaring a dividend of four per cent, for the next halfyear was carried unanimously; and the court adjourned. A statue has just been erected in the cathedral of St. Paul to the memory of Lord Heathfield, who, under the more celebrated name of General Elliott, annihilated the power of Spain before the fortress of Gibraltar. A riot most disreputable to the city of Oxford occurred. A Mr. Mulock preaching some heterodox doctrine in the estimation of certain persons there, had attracted much attention. His principal followers were the son of a most opulent and respectable banker; a chemist, in a very extensive business in the High-street; and the son of one of the managers of the Clarendon printing-office. This afternoon, two of these gentlemen were furiously attacked by a mob in St.Thomas's parish; they gained admission into a house, and locked the doors; but they were forced open, and the two gentlemen then became exposed to the fury of the assembled crowd, who drove them out of St. Thomas's through the wharfs, and into St. Giles's, in which place they took refuge in a house, and
remained for some time. About seven in the evening, in returning home, they were again attacked upon Carfax; they ran into the Town-hall-yard, and the doors were locked. Some time after they ventured out, and appeared in a strange pickle, being covered with mud and filth of every description; their hats knocked off and lost. With some difficulty they reached the house of the chemist (opposite to St. Mary's church); several windows were broken, and a riot ensued. Durham.—The Darlington and Stockton railway was opened for the use of the public. lt is a single railway of twenty-five miles in length, and will open the London market to the collieries in the western part of Durham, as well as facilitate the obtaining of fuel to the country along its line, and the northern parts of Yorkshire. A train of carriages was attached to a locomotive engine of the most improved construction built by Mr. George Stephenson, in the following order: — Locomotive engine with the engineer and assistants; tender, with coals and water; six waggons loaded with coals and flour; a coach, with the committee; twenty-one waggons, fitted up for passengers; and lastly, six waggons loaded with coals; making altogether a train of thirtyeight carriages exclusive of the engine and tender. Both loaded and empty carriages were instantly filled with passengers, and the engine started off. In some parts the speed was twelve miles per hour; and in one place, for a short distance, near Darlington, fifteen miles per hour; and at that time the number of passengers were counted to 450, which, together