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gether with the coals, merchandize, and carriages, would amount to nearly ninety tons. After some little delay in arranging the procession, the engine with her load arrived at Darlington, a distance of eight miles and three quarters in sixty-five minutes, exclusive of stoppages, averaging about eight miles an hour. A trial was made at Lyme, of a boat, furnished with copper airtight cases, according to the plan recommended by Capt. R. Spencer, R. N. in order to obviate the great expense of the regular life-boat. The boat was of small dimensions, and borrowed for the purpose: under the thwarts were placed the air-tight cases of thin copper, enclosed in boxes of three-quarters of an inch Norway deal, for greater security; outside the boat, and attached to the gunwale, were also two similar cases, five feet in length and eight inches square. Capt. Spencer found three seamen volunteers to accompany him; when, having pulled out the plug, and filled the boat with water, they rowed out where the sea ran the highest, and laid her broadside to the surf, which broke over her so violently as to render it difficult for the men to prevent themselves from being washed out of the boat. Having fully ascertained that she was perfectly safe when filled with water, they baled her out, and rowed out in the heaviest sea to the S. E. point of the Cobb, where she was placed in every direction to receive the shocks of the sea, which were sustained in a manner such as the most sanguine could not have anticipated.
The Emperor has ordered all the Jews in his empire to settle
fifty wersts from the western frontier, and they are entirely prohibited from residing in the provinces of Astracan and Caucasus.
The first stone of the new bridge at Kingston upon Thames was laid by the Earl of Liverpool.
A court-martial has been held at Sheerness, on Captain Hoppner, for the loss of the Hecla on the northern expedition, from which he has recently returned. The accident being proved to have occurred from circumstances beyond the control of human foresight, the Captain was honourably acquitted.
A marble statue to the memory of Dr. Jenner has been erected in Gloucester Cathedral. It is placed at the west end of the nave, immediately before the first pier on the south side. The execution of this public monument reflects credit upon the sculptor Sievier. The Doctor is represented in the gown of his Oxford degree, which gives a fine display of drapery, so arranged as to render unobtrusive the ungraceful forms of modern costume, and at the same time to impart to the figure a degree of height and dignity which it might otherwise have wanted. In his right hand, which crosses the body, and supports a fold of the gown, he holds a scroll; and in his left, which drops carelessly on the side, the appropriate academical cap. The figure is beautiful, distinguished by a classical elegance and simplicity; and, through the skill of the artist, seems to convey to the mind of the
Lyons.—A young and beautiful girl, 17 years of age, committed suicide, by throwing herself into the Rhone. The cause of this dreadful deed is as follows:—The unfortunate lady belonged to highly respectable parents, but whose fortune being small, she was sent to a convent in this town, and every means were used to induce her to take the veil. She expressed her extreme aversion to become a nun. She was told that unless she complied, the parents had no other alternative than to send her to service; this she was aware was a measure totally uncalled for, their fortune being sufficient to support her in a becoming way. It has since appeared that she had formed an attachment to a young gentleman, who, when he became of age, intended to marry her. This would have taken place in less than eight months.
A fine falcon, of the blue-grey kind, better known as the Falco
Ciareus, or blue falcon of Canada, was lately caught at Zwolle (in Holland). This beautiful and extraordinary bird inhabits Africa and Europe, as well as America. The velocity of its flight enables it, within the space of twelve hours, to fly across a quarter of the globe. The distance between the ends of the pinions of this . wonderful bird, when flying, is upwards of 100 Dutch inches, whereas the mere weight of its body is only about eight ounces.
London University.—A meeting of the shareholders of this joint stock company was held at the Crown and Anchor Tavern, for the purpose of electing 24 gentlemen to form a Council in the room of the Provisional Committee. The Provisional Committee recommended to the notice of the shareholders the following 24 noblemen and gentlemen: — Hon. James Abercrombie, M.P.; Right Hon. Lord Aucland; Alexander Baring, Esq. M. P.; George Birkbeck, M.D.; Henry Brougham, Esq. M. P. F. R. S.; Thomas Campbell, Esq.; Right Hon. Lord Dudley, and Ward; Isaac Lyon Goldsmid, Esq.; Olinthus G. Gregory, LL. D.; George Grote, jun., Esq.; Joseph Hume, Esq. M. P. F. R. S. ; Most Noble the Marquis of Lansdown, F. R. S.; Zachary Macaulay, Esq. F. R. S.; Sir James Mackintosh, M. P. F. R. S.; James Mill, Esq.; Most Noble the Duke of Norfolk; Lord John Russell, M. P.; Benjamin Shaw, Esq.; John Smith, Esq. M. P.; William Tooke, Esq. F. R. S.;
F. R. S.; Henry Waymouth, Esq.; John Wishaw, Esq. F.R.S.; Thomas Wilson, Esq. Steam-Gun Earperiments. - At length this formidable weapon, destined, if ultimately adopted, to change the whole system of modern warfare, has been so perfected by Mr. Perkins, that the effects of its projectile power, from a musket bore and with a lead ball of the usual weight, may be fully judged. A trial was made at Mr. Perkins's manufactory in the Regent's Park, before the Duke of Wellington and staff, together with the field officers of the engineers and artillery from Woolwich, most competent to judge from their scientific knowledge. Some preparatory experiments having been made, about the hour of nine, A. M. Mr. Perkins commenced his discharges separately, but at short intervals, against an iron target at the distance of 35 yards, being the utmost length the court-yard of the manufactory would admit. The bullets were rendered perfectly flat with the lowest pressure employ
ed; and on increasing it they were:
shivered to small pieces. Twelve one-inch deal planks, framed in grooves an inch apart, were then opposed to the gun at the same distance, and the ball passed through eleven of them. It was also discharged at a block of wood, against which the utmost force of gunpowder had projected bullets, and it was found equal to all that gunpowder could do. Musket balls were also sent through an iron plate one-fourth of an inch thick, on which the utmost force of gunpowder had been tried; while that of the steam was not
half as high as it was possible to carry it. The pressure used was about 900lb. to the square inch, or 65 atmospheres, while it might be carried as high as 200, atmospheres with perfect safety. Hitherto steam had shown its equality with gunpowder in force, and at 100 times less expense. For example, it would require 250 musket discharges to project the same number of balls as the steam gun at a slow rate, say 250 discharges per minute, or 15,000 per hour, which would demand 15,000 charges of powder every hour. The steam gun would do this with five bushels of coals. The difference of cost of 15,000 charges of powder and of five bushels of coals is easily calculated. It next became needful to show wherein this terrible weapon of destruction left all that gunpowder could do far beyond competition. To discharge single balls a hopper had been filled with them, and they were dropped one by one into the barrel at the breech as quick as the hand could move a small winch. This winch, with its valve, was now unscrewed, and the barrel communicated with the steam through an apparatus resembling the nave of a wheel, into which it was screwed. A tube, projecting like a single spoke, was screwed into this nave (numerous radii of the same kind were shown in a model applied to one nave, so that in one revolution each would stand in turn perpendicularly over the gun): close to the gun it had a valve, above which were fifty-two musketballs, and a screw closing the orifice of the tube at the top. This tube being perpendicular, the bullets, on opening the valve, fell into the
gun by their own gravity, and were projected one by one, at intervals barely perceptible to the senses, at the rate of 1000 per minute. The roar of the discharge resembled that of the loudest thunder; and the contents of one tube discharged in three or four seconds, afforded the most awful evidence of the power of this “mighty fluid,” that imagination can conceive. After a discharge or two of this kind at the target, in which the balls were shivered to atoms, and the ground strewed with their fragments, a plank of deal about two feet wide, placed horizontally against a brick wall, was fired at, giving the gun a trifling lateral motion at the same time. The bullets perforated the board from end to end, regularly, at a few inches only apart from each other, and with astonishing regularity, the gun being capable of motion like the pipe of a fire engine, in any direction. Thus one musket-bore barrel would, in a second or two, annihilate a company of infantry opposed to it in line, and discharge nearly three times as many balls at once, as a company of ninety men could do with muskets previously loaded:—to recharge their pieces before such a weapon would be impossible. What then could not fifty such guns effect? . The astonishing precision with which the balls are projected, each hitting within an inch of its predecessor, was exemplified by a discharge against a brick wall 18 inches thick. One discharge literally dug out a hole nearly a foot in diameter half through its entire thickness, and this with common lead balls only, iron ones would have gone through it.
PR IN CIPAL OCC U R R E N C E S. [December,
riages, 1,158—births, 4,243– deaths, 4,446—in the hospitals, 2,002—in the prisons, 1,020– “heretics,” turks, and infidels, (exclusive of the jews), 217-increase of population since the preceding year, 220.
The Jesuits of Rome have just celebrated, in a most pompous manner, the late beatification of a member of their order. There were three solemn masses, and as many vespers, accompanied by two large orchestras. The façade of their church was profusely illuminated on three successive evenings, and a large band of music placed in the area before the edifice, to amuse or edify the populace.
MARRIAGES in 1825.
Lieut.-Col. Ogilvi, to Janet Rebecca, daughter of J. A. Ogilvi, Esq. of Sanhurst.
At the Dowager Viscountess Duncan's, Lieut.-Gen. Sir J. H. Dalrymple, Bart. to the Hon. Adamina Duncan, daughter of the late Lord Viscount Duncan.
At Marylebone Church, Lieut.Colonel George Higginson, to the Right Hon. Lady F. E. Needham.
At St. George's, Hanoversquare, the Rev. W. Tower, to Maria, third daughter of Admiral Sir Eliab Harvey, G.C. B.
At St. George's, Hanoversquare, A. Dashwood, Esq., to Hester, fourth daughter of the late Sir Jacob Henry Astley, of Melton Constable, Norfolk.
At St. George's, Hanoversquare, — Duncan, eldest son of Henry Davison, Esq. of Cavendish-square, to the Hon. E. D. Bosville Macdonald, seconddaughter of the Right Hon. Lord Macdonald.
At All Souls' Church, St. Marylebone, Capt. Lewin, R.N. to Jane, widow of the late William Plumer, Esq. M. P. At Thames Ditton, Capt. G. F. Lyon, R. N. to Lucy Louisa, youngest daughter of the late Lord Edward Fitzgerald. At St. George's, Hanoversquare, Ernest Count de Gersdorff, to the Hon. Miss Twiselton Fiennes. At St. Marylebone Church, Col. Clitheroe, of the 3d Foot Guards, to Millicent, eldest daughter—and at the same time, E. J. Rudge, Esq. of Abbey Manor House, Worcestershire, to Felizarda, youngest daughter—of C. Pole, Esq. At St. Mary's, Marylebone, George James Cholmondeley, Esq. to the Hon. Mary Elizabeth Townshend. At St. George's Church, Hanover-square, Louis Edmond Méchin, eldest son of Baron Méchin, to Maria Theresa, eldest daughter of Charles Dumergue, Esq.
DEATHS in the year 1825.
At Richmond, Lady Harrington.—At Chislehurst, Right Hon. Lady Bayning.—Hon. Edward Bouverie.—George Dance, R. A. —Sir John Cox Hippisly.—The Right Hon. James Lord Glastonbury.—Earl Whitworth.-Sir J. Walsh, Bart.—The Right Hon. Sir J. Stewart, Bart.—Sir H. C. Ibbotson, Bart.—Sir W. W. Pepys, Bart.—Sir J. G. Egerton, Bart.— Lieut.-General Trent.—Lady Sophia Heathcot.—Dr. Andrewes, Dean ofCanterbury.—AnnaMaria, daughter of Wiscount Folkeston.— Mr. Brandon, of Covent-Garden Theatre.—