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vouring withazestalmost unknown before, the fresh fish, soft bread, and excellent wine of Lebanon set before me for my evening repast. An excelkent apartment was given up to my exclusive use, containing a good bed, a sofa, table, chairs, and drawers, with a dressing-room and closet adjoining, and a window opening into a paved court below, in which was a fine clear fountain and several orange trees, besides a passage leading to an open terrace, whereon I might uninterruptedly enjoy the morning and evening air. I had scarcely ever before enjoyed so sudden and complete a transition from all the sufferings and privations of a barbarous and almost savage mode of life to the pleasures and abundance of a civilized and social state of existence. I was, indeed, so deeply impressed with the feeling of enjoyment, that it absorbed all other considerations, except the wish that I could surround myself with those friends who were dearest to me in the world, and live with them in peace and retirement at Damascus for ever.
6. A Picture of Greece in 1825: being the Journals of James Emerson, Esq., Count Pecchio, and W. H. Humphreys, Esq.; written during their recent visits to that Country.
“Trade seems totally destroyed at Napoli: before 1821, it was the depôt of all the produce of Greece, and carried on a most extensive commerce in sponges, silk, oil, wax, and wines; it now possesses merely a little traffic in the importation of the necessaries of life. The shops, like those of Tripolizza, are crowded with arms and
.." apparel, and the inhabitants all carry either the Frank or Albanian armed costume. The climate is bad, and the place has been frequently ravaged by the plague, which, in one instance, towards the latter end of the last century, reduced the population:
from 8 to 2000. “The unusual filth of the streets, and its situation, at the foot of a steep hill, which prevents the air from having full play to carry the effluvia arising from it, together with the habitual dirty habits of an overstocked population, constantly attracted round the seat of the government, subject it to almost continual epidemic fevers; which, both in the last winter, and at this moment, have committed dreadful ravages. Its climate is, in fact, at all times thick and unhealthy, and far inferior to that of Athens, or of many of the towns: in the interior of the Morea. . . . . “On walking out of the gates: towards the Palamede, I was struck with a spectacle which I did not expect to have met with in a country possessing the religion and professing the charity of christians. In the outer passes of the fortification, lay the bodies of two. Arabs, putrifying under a burning sun, and within one hundred yards of the inhabited part of the town; the religion or prejudices of the Greeks not even permitting them to cast a little earth over the bones of their infidel enemies :—such is one of the many thoughtless causes of the unhealthy climate of Napoli di Romania. Such instances show the wide field for the friendly exertions of their fellow christians, in the amelioration of the degraded character of the Greeks; and show but too clearly the malignity of a E. War war where vengeance, does not even cease with life; whilst they prove the utter impossibility of any accommodation between the two nations, or of ever again uniting them under the same government, whilst such a repulsive hatred breathes in either breast. . . . . . “Perhaps the most singular character amongst all the Greek legislators is the minister of the interior. His name is Gregorius Flessa, by profession a priest; and having, in the early part of his life, been steward of a monastery, (8-kaioc) he is now generally known by the two names of Gregorius Dikaios, and Pappa Flessa. A naturally vicious disposition had early given him a distaste for his profession, and, on the commencement of the revolution, he joined the standard of his country as a military volunteer. Having manifested his bravery on many occasions, he was at length promoted to a command, and in several actions conducted himself with distinguished courage. He now totally abandoned the mitre and the robe for the more congenial employments of the army
and the state; and, at length, after.
a series of active and valuable services, he was appointed by the government to be minister of the interior. Here, with ample means, he gave unbridled license to his natural disposition. His only virtue is an uncorrupted patriotism, which has all along marked his character, and has gained him the confidence of the government, whilst they despise its possessor. Such a character, though in an office of trust, is by no means a popular man. The scandal which the open commission of the most glaring immoralities has brought
upon his original profession, has entailed upon him the contempt of all parties, though his diplomatic abilities, if artifice and cunning may deserve that name, added to his patriotism and bravery, have secured him the good will of the government. “Of the minister of justice, Teotochi, little more is known, than that he was obliged to abscond from the Ionian islands, for some fraudulent practices. The name of the minister of the police I have never heard, and from the abominable filth of the city, and the dilapidated condition of its streets, I fancy the office must be a sinecure. 10th April, (Sunday.)—To-day being the festival of Easter, Napoli presented a novel appearance, viz. a clean one. This feast, as the most important in the Greek church, is observed with particular rejoicings and respect. Lent having ceased, the ovens were crowded with the preparations for banqueting. Yesterday, every street was reeking with the blood of lambs and goats; and to-day, every house was fragrant with odours of pies and baked meats. All the inhabitants, in festival array, were hurrying along to pay their visits and receive their congratulations: every one, as he met his friend, saluted him with a kiss on each side of his face, and repeated the words, Xpwrotoc avearm ‘Christ is risen.' The day was spent in rejoicings in every quarter; the guns were fired from the batteries, and every moment the echoes of the Palamede were replying to the incessant reports of the pistols and tophaics of the soldiery. On these occasions the Greeks (whether from laziness to extract . - ball, ball, or for the purpose of making a louder report, I know not) always discharge their arms with a bullet: frequent accidents are the consequence. To-day, one poor fellow was shot dead in his window, and a second severely wounded by one of these random shots. In the evening a grand ceremony took place in the square: all the members of the government, after attending divine service in the church of St. George, met opposite the residence of the executive body; the legislative, as being the most numerous, took their places in a line, and the executive passing along them from right to left, kissing commenced with great vigour, the latter body embracing the former with all fervour and affection. Amongst such an intriguing factious senate as the Greek legislation, it requires little calculation to divine that the greater portion of these salutations were Judas's kisses.” The notices of Hydra and the Greek fleets are well worthy of attention. Hydra, Saturday, May 21st.— Three fire-ships, which have been lately fitted up, were this morning to sail to join the squadron, which is now cruising off Cape Matapan. Anxious to see something of the economy and management of the celebrated Greek fleet, I accepted the offer of one of their captains, to conduct me to the ship of Miaulis, for whom I was furnished with letters from his family. Before starting, I obtained permission from the government of Hydra, to visit the rebel chiefs confined on the island. They have lately been brought down from their residence in the lofty monastery to a house in the town, where they
are confined under the care of a guard of Roumeliots. “The generality of them exhibit nothing peculiar in their appearance, being, like the rest of their countrymen, wild, savagelooking soldiers, clad in tarnished embroidered vests, and dirty junctanellas. Colocotroni was, however, easily distinguished from the rest by his particularly savage and uncultivated air: his person is low, but built like a Hercules, and his short bull-neck was surmounted by a head rather larger than proportion warranted; which, with its shaggy eye-brows, dark mustachios, unshorn beard, and raven hair falling in curls over his shoulders, formed a complete study for a painter. “He had formerly been in the service of the English, in the Ionian islands, as a serjeant of guards; and spoke with peculiar pride of his acquaintance with several British officers. By some circumstance he had become acquainted with the character of Sir Hudson Lowe, and took occasion to speak of him, not in the most flattering terms of eulogy. He was in high spirits at the prospect of his liberation; a measure which is not, as yet, abandoned; his ideas of the state of the war, and his means of liberating the country, were, however, rather wild. He totally discountenanced the organizing of regular troops, a measure which, he said, could never be successfully accomplished in Greece; since, not only the prejudices, but the inclination of a people strongly attached to their own customs, were opposed to it. His plan was, in the first place, by the most vigorous measures (which he declared at length) to dispossess E 2 the the enemy of the few holds which they still retained in the country, and regularly as they should fall into the hands of the government to destroy every fortress, preserving only one of the most important, which was to be kept as the residence of the senate. By this means the enemy were to be deprived of all power of remaining, or retaining any position in the country; whilst the Klefts and their followers, as heretofore, would still be able to hold the mountains, and rout every force which could successively be sent against them. On objecting, however, that this means of retaining the country would be a dead weight on the progress of civil improvement, he said, that, political security was first to be attended to, and civilization would follow in time; that this would make the nation warriors, and serve to maintain their dauntless spirit in its native vigour. Tactics might render them Frank soldiers, but this would retain them Greeks. He seems very confident of his ability to drive out the Egyptians, if only set at liberty, and again placed at the head of his Arcadians.
Mr. E. states—“Having this morning removed, with Count Gamba, to apartments assigned us by the government in the palace of the late Pacha, we had, shortly after a visit from an old Roumeliot, Captain Demetrius, who had been attached to Lord Byron. On seeing Gamba, he embraced him with sincere affection; and immediately, on mentioning Byron, burst into tears, saying, that in him he had lost a father, and Greece her truest friend. His language, in speaking of him, was at once feeling and poetical.
the hopes which Byron's fame had created in the heart of the Greeks, he said, that as soon as they understood that a great English effendi was coming to assist them, they awaited his arrival like young swallows for their mother; “and he came, and he gave his counsels, and his fortune, and his life; and when he died, we felt like men suddenly struck with blindness, when the only thing that could equal our sorrow for his loss, was our perplexity for the future.’ “Such are universally the terms in which I have heard Byron mentioned, which proves that the Greeks have, at least, the merit of thankfulness to their benefactors; though their enemies will say that, on this occasion, their regret arises rather from disappointment than from gratitude.” What their characterisin another respect we are grieved to show by the two following quotations:— “It was late on the night of the 5th instant, (says our author, while relating the circumstances of his cruise with the Greek fleet) that we came to anchor at Milo, and six days elapsed ere we again sailed for Candia. This annoying delay was occasioned, partly by two days of stormy weather, but chiefly by the indolence and ill conduct of the seamen, who, once on shore, and freed from any restraint, were in no hurry to return to their respective vessels, but remained on the island; where they committed such excesses, that complaints were daily reaching the admiral, and on the night before we started, a large demand was made by some unfortunate shopkeepers of the town, for the injury sustained by the pillage of their goods. Another circumstance occurred during our stay, which, while it strongly depicts the ferocious character of the Hydriots, inherent to their Albanian blood, and their invincible hatred to the Turks, may serve also as an instance of the anarchy and insubordination of the captains. “Zacca's ship, whilst cruising off Candia, had overhauled a French brig sailing from one port of the island to another, on board which they found three Turks, with a little Greek boy, who had been made a slave to one of the party. They were instantly made prisoners, and their property divided amongst the crew; whilst they were brought on board Zacca's ship to Milo. On Sunday morning the captain came on board Miaulis' brig, and, calling me aside, told me he had got a treat for me; that, at twelve o'clock, he meant to take his prisoners ashore, and put them to death, and, if I chose, I might make one of the party in this execution. I immediately declared my abhorrence and detestation of such a proceeding, and urged every argument to induce him to spare their lives, at least till condemned by the government at Hydra: my words, however, were of no avail, and only served to irritate him, by my attempting, as he said, to interfere in his right to treat his prisoners as he pleased. “I then applied to the admiral, who declared his disapprobation of such barbarous proceedings, and his determination to prevent it. He, accordingly, spoke to Zacca, and ordered him to desist from his savage intention. Zacca made
some hasty reply, and, after finish
ing his business on board, returned
to his own ship. Confident that
their lives were to be spared, I accompanied Miaulis' secretary when he went, by the admiral's orders, to interrogate the prisoners as to the state of their country. They consisted of a venerablelooking old man, at least sixty years of age, and with a snowy beard flowing on his breast; the others, a young man of ordinary appearance, and an Albanian of immense stature and commanding air. They declared that they were merchants, as their goods would prove, and were proceeding on their affairs, from Candia to Suda, at the time they were captured. “On announcing to them that they were to be sent to Napoli, and not massacred immediately, as the sailors had intimated, the poor creatures could scarcely express their joy; and would have kissed my feet in their transport, Zacca did not make his appearance, and we immediately afterwards went on shore. The following morning I received a note from Mr. Allen, the American gentleman who had been in Psamado's ship at Navarino, and was now on board the same vessel with the prisoners. It was to inform me that shortly after our departure, Zacca came upon deck, and gave orders for the execution of the Turks: which was performed in the most savage manner. They first bound the poor wretches to the mast, and beat them to mummy with knotted ropes; then slinging them over the side, so as not to soil the decks, stabbed them to death from the boats, the conduct of the sailors and captain, during the
whole affair, being too diabolical
for description. “On its coming to Miaulis' ears, he immediately gave the business an