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protection, has ever met with succour and security, beneath the arm of the Roumeliot Klefti. “In the Morea, a closer connexion with the Turks, and various minor causes, have produced a character less amiable and exalted. The greater weight of their chains has rendered them crouching and servile; and no where are the traces of slavery more visible, or more disgusting, than in the cringing, treacherous, low-spirited Moreot; who is, nevertheless, not totally divested of affection, gratitude, and a hospitable wish to share his matand humble meal with the stranger. In the Messenians, or natives of the south-western coast, the traits of debasement are peculiarly perceptible. It would appear that, from the earliest period, these unfortunate people had been doomed to be the scape-goats of the Peloponnesus, formerly ravaged by the Lacedaemonians. They have, in latter times, fled to the mountains of Sparta, for protection from the Turks. Slothful and indolent by nature, they treat their wives with a want of feeling unequalled in Greece: and, while the sluggish master squats at his ease, to smoke his pipe and sip his coffee, the unfortunate females perform all the drudgery of agriculture, and all the weightier domestic duties. Two singular exceptions are, however, to be found in the Morea; the inhabitants of the district of Lalla, in Elis, and those of Maina, in the south-eastern promontory. The former are a colony of the Schypetan, or bandit peasantry,

'of Albania; who, for many ages,

have been settled in this spot, and, during the reign of the Venetians, rendered them important service against the Turks: but in general were as prejudical to the Greeks After the failure of the Russian expedition in 1770, they were joined by a fresh party of their countrymen, who had likewise abjured Mohammedanism; and, though they turned their attention in some degree to agriculture, were principally maintained by their ravages on the properties and crops of their neighbours; with whom they never mingled, either in marriage, or even in common interest. Thus, to the present hour, they have lived a pure Albanian colony in the very heart of the Morea; retaining all the ferocity and predatory habits of their forefathers, and a valour which has been , often conspicuously proved in the scenes of the present revolution. . “Of the Mainotes, the descendants of the ancient Spartans, much has been written, and yet but little is known; the difficulty of penetrating into a country inhabited by a bandit peasantry, pirates by profession, has opposed an insuperable bar to the investigation of travellers. Those, however, who have succeeded in becoming acquainted with their habits, represent them as possessed of the common virtue of barbarians— hospitality, and an unconquered bravery; but disgraced by numerous vices; and all, without exception, robbers by sea or land.”

as the Mussulmans.

* Of their internal disputes, the following story is still related in the islands:—Two

Mainotes, who had long shared, in common, the produce of their plunderings, chanced

at length to quarrel about the division of the booty of a Venetian brig. Burning with

resentment, both dreamed but of mutual vengeance; and one, (Theodore), seizing on 4 &

“As to the Grecian army, the habits of the body who compose it, and the system by which it is regulated, are equally singular. Its commanders or capatani are such landholders, or others who possess a sufficient sum to maintain from 10 to 150 soldiers, and adequate interest to procure a commission for embodying them. These leaders, however, are in general the most despicable and the worst enemies of their country; making their rank and interest merely the instruments of their avarice. The number of troops in the Morea, for whom the government issue pay and rations, is stated to be, in general, about 25,000; but I do not believe, from all that I can learn, that in any instance they have equalled the half of that number; the capitani making their returns to the extent of their credit, and in general pocketing one-half of the demanded sum. So that a man who claims pay for 150 soldiers, cannot, perhaps, bring 80 into the field. Of this system of fraud the government are well aware; but, in the present state of affairs, they are so much in the power of the capitani, that no compulsive measures dare to be taken to produce a reform. Each sol

dier, or palikari, on joining his capitani is expected to come furnished with his arms and capote: the former usually consist of a pair of pistols, an ataghan, a tophaic, or long gun, and sometimes a sabre. They are, however, bound by no laws or military regulations, and merely follow or obey a leader, as long as well paid or comfortable in his service; he having no power to enforce obedience during his almost nominal command, or to compel his soldiers, beyond the limit of their pleasure, to remain under his orders. It is no unusual thing for the company of a capitan to assemble round his quarters, for the purpose of tumultuously demanding, and enforcing by the bastinado, an increase or arrears of pay; or, on the eve of an important movement, to find that his soldiers have gone off during the night, to attend to the safety of their families, or the celebration of a festival. As to their conduct in the field, they will never oppose an enemy, unless obliged by necessity, without the shelter of their tambours or low trenches; or without crouching behind a rock, from whence they can have a protected aim at their foe. The Turks too, have something of the same system in their irregular warfare; and before the introduction of regular troops into the Morea, a battle must have presented a novel spectacle, where not a soul of either army was distinctly visible. Thus, screened behind a stone, they lie in wait to catch the first moment when an enemy shall expose himself, or placing their scalpae, or skull-cap, on an adjoining rock to decoy the Turk, take an advantageous aim at him whilst he is wasting his powder on the empty head-dress of his enemy. When the Greek has thus thinned all within his range, and wishes to change his position, he watches for the favourable movement, when, snatching up his gun, he nimbly skips to the adjoining rock, flashing his shining ataghan before him in the sun-beams, to dazzle the aim of his surrounding enemies; and here, crouching on the ground and placing his cap as usual, he recommences his operations. Amongst the Turks who resided in the Morea, all were not so desperately bad as are supposed, and some few have even gained the affections of the Greeks. It not unfrequently occurs that two old neighbours meet in one of those singular encounters, when, rising from their screens, they hold a parley on their own affairs; and again part to resume, at their posts, their mutual slaughter of their friend's companions. Such scenes serve to keep in countenance Homer's description of the dialogues of his contending heroes; but, in fact, instances of ancient manners are to be met with every hour, and at every step something occurs to remind us that we are in Greece.” The discipline of the navy, and

the wife of his companion, (Anapleottis), carried her on board a Maltese corsair, stationed in the bay, for the purpose of selling her, to make up his defective share of the plunder. The Maltese, after long intreaty on the part of the Greek, refused to purchase her at so high a price, as, he said, that he had just procured another at a much cheaper rate; whom, at the request of Theodore, he produced for his inspection. She was brought forward, and, to the confusion of the Mainote, proved to be his own wife, his accomplice having anticipated him, and disposed of his spouse two hours before. He, however, concealed his chagrin, and gave Anapleotti's wife for the proffered price of the Maltese, and returned on shore; where he met his quondam ally, apprized of his loss, and thirsting for vengeance. The worthy friends were not long, however, in coming to an understanding. Without arousing suspicion, they went together on board the Maltese, and, without much ceremony, forced him to restore the wives of both. This complied with, and satisfied with their mutual revenge, which had proved a mutual gain, they again returned; and, as firmly united as ever, continued, in common, their former desperate


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money-making system of most of its commanders, are exactly similar to those of the army, in which there are about three hundred speculating generals, and from 12 to 15,000 men!!! Of the moral condition of Greece, in a most important relation, we select the following example. Mr. E. writes as follows:– “In the beauty of the Grecian females I must confess that I have been disappointed: they have beautiful black hair, sparkling eyes, and ivory teeth, but they seem to have lost the graceful cast of countenance which we denominate Grecian; and their figures are peculiarly clumsy, occasioned by their sedentary habits and slight attention to dress: a delicate and even sickly air, and an inanimate expression, seem their most striking characteristies; these, however, differ in various districts. The Moreot ladies are far inferior in personal attractions to the Roumeliots; who again yield the palm to the Hydriots and Spezziots: these are in turn excelled by the Sciots; and the Smirniots, by their more civilized manners and graceful dress, are much more beautiful than all the others. Their costume varies in point of richness and fashion in every island, but is always tastelessly large, and by no means calculated to display a good figure. With the exception of Hydra and the Ionian Isles, their husbands have nothing swerved from the barbarous customs of the Turks in the treatment of their women. Secluded in their own apartments, occupied in embroidery, or other mechanical employment, they are never allowed to cross their thresholds except on festivals, or some other particular particular occasion; and even then as if it were by stealth, and closely veiled. Under these circumstances, however, the buoyancy and lightness of their spirits are displayed to peculiar advantage: continually gay and never repining, their days pass in a round of trifles; singing, music, and a few amusements, in which the male part of the family have no share, serving to wile away the tedious hours of their monotonous existence. Like the men, they are strongly influenced by superstition, and no undertaking, either before or after marriage, is entered on without consulting a charm or a fortune-teller. Dreams and their interpretations are rigidly attended to, and faithfully followed. For the purpose of ascertaining the quality of their future husbands, the young girls are accustomed to perform numerous ceremonies; one is to eat, just before retiring to rest, a supper composed of certain herbs, collected at a particular season, and under the direction of a skilful diviner; then, on laying down, to attach to their necks a bag containing three flowers, a white, a red, and, a yellow. In the morning, whichever of these flowers is first drawn from the bag, denominates the age of the destined husband. If white, he is of course young; if red, middle-aged; and if yellow, old; whilst at the same time the dreams procured by the herbs, declare whether their days, during marriage, shall be happy or the reverse. In both sexes, the total want of personal cleanliness is peculiarly remarkable; a clean shirt on a Greek, being only to be met with on a festival; and his junctanella, instead of being the ‘snowy camise' of Childe

Harold, is in general any thing but snowy. Of the ladies too, a French traveller has remarked, with some justice, that their linen, which is so frequently sprinkled with otto of roses, and other costly perfumes, would be much more benefited by an aspersion of clean water. Vermin, of the most nauseous description, are found in myriads on their persons, especially on those of the soldiers, and make but a sorry figure amongst the embroidery of their laced jackets. “The degraded state into which we find religion sunk amongst the Greeks, is solely attributable to the infamous conduct and characters of the priesthood; for the population, though they but too closely imitate the practice of their pastors, still retain their veneration for their creed untainted.”

7. Journal of a Residence and Travels in Colombia, during the years 1823 and 1824. B Capt. C. Stuart Cochrane, R.N.

The rising importance of South America to British capital, enterprize, and commerce, has often been alluded to. Captain Cochrane, a warm admirer of Colombia and its independence, appears to have gone out to survey its capabilities for increased intercourse, trade, and mining, pearl fishing, and other projects. His work touches upon several of these ; and we hear a good deal, not only of pursuits which may be adopted, but of undertakings actually planned, appropriated, and commenced. Thus we are told of

the congress of 1824, “In the last sitting there was a law passed, granting the exclusive right of the pearl fishery of Colombia, for ten years, to Messrs. Rundell, Bridge, and Rundell, of London, being the most valuable grant which the government has yet bestowed, and which I considered inferior to none, except the cutting the isthmus of Panama, so as to form a communication, by steam vessels, between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans; which I have ascertained, from accurate survey, to be perfectly practicable, and have in consequence formed a company in Bogota, who are to lay before the ensuing congress proposals to that effect. “Colonel Johnston, and Mr. Thompson, have jointly obtained a grant of the most famous salt mines of the country, which they intend working on the most improved European method. This will add considerably to the revenues of the state, and yield them, I trust, a handsome reward for their exertions.” Near Chiquinquera.--"We now used all our interest to procure good fresh mules, in order to visit the celebrated emerald mines of Muso, but could not succeed; we, however, were introduced to a very intelligent friar who had lately seen them, who informed us, that formerly, in the time of the Spaniards, they were most productive, and easily wrought, some being on the surface, and others worked by horizontal excavations; the chief mine worked in the latter manner had caught fire from not being properly ventilated, and continued burning for two years. This, together with the commencing of the revolution, put an end to the work of the mines. Small emeralds are so plentiful, that it is a common thing to purchase

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poultry merely to kill them in search of emeralds, which they are fond of; several are often found in the entrails of a large fowl, and sometimes in a very pure and perfect state, though most generally flawed and very small, consequently of no intrinsic value, and only kept as curiosities. The very favourable account we received, determined us to endeavour to procure from the government a grant of the whole of the mines, and to have them immediately put in work. Senor Rivero and myself elected our friend Pepe Paris, from his influence with the government, to carry the same into effect.* . . . . “There is a still more desirable plan of uniting the two oceans through the Isthmus of Panama, where two rivers may be connected by a canal, cut through a level valley, about a league and a half. This junction would enable steam vessels to pass from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean;and previously to quitting Bogota, I formed a plan for a company to be established in England for effecting this, which will be laid before the ensuing congress.” These, however, are only a few of the designs for settling agricultural districts; working gold, silver, copper, and platina mines; draining lakes, and other improvements which attracted his observation: there is hardly a point which he does not view as susceptible of being made to yield a prodigious increase of wealth to industry and proper cultivation. At first, one great drawback seems to exist: it is described in the

* “ These mines have since been secured by my friend.” subjoined

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