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believe of his divine authority, command the assistance of the faithful in checking the progress of heresy, by any means not likely to produce loss or danger to the Roman-catholic church? and can that church acknowledge the validity of any engagement to disobey the pope in such cases?” Mr. White details, from undoubted sources, the folly, blasphemy, cruelty, and vice of that community to which he was so long the slave—whose institutions murdered his two sisters, and turned away from him the current of affection, which a fond mother had ever felt—that church which he describes as HAviNG BEEN His CURSE. His eldest sister died in a convent, at the age of twenty-two, and, of the youngest, he says, “Misled into the wilderness of visionary perfection, at the age of twenty, she left an infirm mother to the care of servants and strangers, and shut herself up in a convent, where she was not allowed to see even her nearest relations. With a delicate frame, requiring every indulgence to support it in health, she embraced a rule which denied her the comforts of the lowest class of society. A coarse woollen frock fretted her skin; her feet had no covering, but that of shoes open at the toes, that they might expose them to the cold of a brick floor; a couch of bare planks was her bed, and an unfurnished cell her dwelling. Disease soon filled her conscience with fears; and I had often to endure the torture of witnessing her agonies at the confessional. . I left her, when I quitted Spain, dying much too slowly for her only chance of relief.”

Interesting as portions of the history of mankind, though such information, may be, it is peculiarly in the political effect, -in influencing government, in affecting the constitution,-in lessening the safety or the happiness of a free protestant people,_that, in days like these, any question connected with the Roman-catholic church is interesting to England; and it is to be feared, that too many of those who have to decide upon such questions, are not perfectly informed upon every point of them.

9. Antediluvian Phytology, illustrated by a Collection of the Fossil Remains of Plants, peculiar to the Coal formations of Great Britain. By Edmund Tyrell Artis, F.S.A. F.G.S. 4to.

The study of the remarkable branch of geology of which this volume treats, has been carried to a far greater extent upon the continent, than in this country. Indeed, with us the inquiry is in its earliest infancy; whereas among foreigners it has been pursued with diligence and zeal till several very curious results have been made out, and the phytology of the world before the flood illustrated by some extremely interesting discoveries. “It will be seen(says Mr. Artis) in the course of this work how easy it would be to imagine even parts of the same specimen to be different species, when they happen to be broken and dispersed. The author may confidently assert, that in at least a thousand different specimens which he has in his possession, he does not apprehend that more than a hundred different species can be recognised. Furthermore,

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thermore, still fewer indeed can
be referred to any living species;
for it is not the fern-like leaf of a
plant, the palm-like cicatrix, or
the cane-like joint of a stem, that
will suffice to identify them with
those tribes of the vegetable king-
dom. The whole anatomy of the
plant must be studied. The sub-
ject has indeed been begun by
Professor Martius, in his com-
parison of certain fossil stems of

plants growing in the Brazils; but the study is as yet too new to afford certain results. Accordingly, several of that professor's opinions are at variance with those of M. Adolphe Brongniart, who has also compared the recent and fossil vegetables together on this plan. But by following up this comparison, which has been so successfully adopted by Baron Cuvier in the study of fossil ani

plants with those of the living mals," similar results may be ex

* Having mentioned the name of Cuvier, the author cannot refrain from observing that by Cuvier's extensive comparisons between the skeletons of recent and fossil animals, he has shewn the analogy which exists between them; that animals very similar to the present races existed in a former world, and that, even in this island, evident traces have been left of their residence here, though at a more remote period than has been imagined. The various caverns which have been explored throughout Europe, have shewn that elephants, hippopotami, rhinoceroses, and hyenas, were natives of this part of the world; and at a period probably not far distant from the time of that desolating current which excavated the vallies and bore away the forests. The fossil remains of some animals, however, which have been collected in the British Islands, as well as in the other parts of Europe, are in all probability of postdiluvian origin, although the living animals of some species of them are no longer to be found— as those of the gigantic Irish elk, and several other species of deer, the horse, ox, boar, wolf, fox, and beaver. Of these animals, four are no longer known to exist in the British Islands, namely, the Irish elk, the wolf, the boar, and the beaver. Although we have scarcely any other evidence of the existence of the Irish elk as a postdiluvian animal than the skeletons which have been found in the alluvial soils that have been formed since that catastrophe, in which they are even discovered very frequently in an upright position; yet it is easy to conceive that from its bulk and weight, it might have met with frequent accidents, in crossing lakes on the ice, or being mired in soft grounds. And an animal, which at all times was probably scarce, and very conspicuous as an object of the chase, would speedily be destroyed even by a thinly scattered population of hunter tribes. The existence of the wolf in these islands is a matter of historical record; and that of the beaver rests partly on tradition, partly on the fact of there being a name appropriated to this species of animal in two of the languages of the country, namely, the Cymric or Welch, and the Gaelic or Highland Scotch, which names are formed by derivation, and not adopted from other countries where these animals now exist. The wild boar certainly contributed to the sports and feasts of the Romans along with the stag. In the course of the extensive researches which the author has made in the Durobrivae, in making which he has caused numerous excavations to be made, and over a space of country nearly eight miles in circumference, he has been fortunate enough to . the bones of various animals, particularly the tusks of the boar, and the antlers of e stag. The various discoveries which these excavations have afforded the author in respect to antiquities, are now in course of description by a publication, in parts, under the title of “Roman Antiquities, or the Durobrivae of Antonius identified in a series of plates, illustrative of the Excavated Remains of that Roman station, in the Parish of Castor, Northamptonshire.” pected;

pected; and a knowledge of the extinct plants be at length attained.” To this general view of the subject, we will add Baron Schlotheim's classification of antediluvian plants, and thus enable our readers to see the state at which their examination has arrived.

“His specimens are first divided

into five sections; or perhaps their more proper names would be orders. “1. DEND RolitHEs, containing the remains of trees, which are subdivided into three subsections. “A. Lithoxylites, of which no characters are given, but from the specimens mentioned by him, he evidently arranges in this place the wood-stone and wood-opal of the mineralogists. “B. Lithantracites. In which the Baron places the bitumenized stems, and other parts of trees. “C. Bibliolithes. Fossil leaves, mostly of the later formations. “2. BotANoLITHEs. Comprising those kinds of fossil plants which cannot be considered either as trees or shrubs, nor belonging to the plants of the old coal formation. “All the specimens belonging to the preceding sections are merely enumerated, and not distinguished by generic and trivial names, as is the case with the following. “ 3. PHYToTYPolith Es. Fossil plants of the stone coal formation. These the Baron divides syste

matically into genera and species. The genera are these six:—

a. Palmacites, containing fifteen species. b. Casuarinites . . . . . five. c. Calamites . . . . . . . ten. d. Filicites . . . . . . . twenty-three. e. Lycopodiolithes . . . . five. f. Poacites . . . . . . . four.

“In the whole sixty-two specles. “4. CARPolithes. Of which Baron Schlotheim enumerates fifteen species as present in his collection. This division is considered as a genus, as is also the next. “5. ANTHoTYPolithes. The cabinet contains only one species, namely the Anthotypolithes ranunculiformis.” After alluding to the other continental authors, and giving their arrangements, Mr. Artis says:— “Great Britain is so fertile in the remains of the plants existing at the moment of that great catastrophe which has preserved them for our inspection, that it would appear nearly every species of fossil plants mentioned by these authors is to be found in it; although at present our knowledge of them is very limited. “This work is intended to ex

tend these limits; and to exhibit a

comprehensive illustration of these stupendous relicts of the early vegetable creation.

“The progress of this inquiry has led to the formation of several new genera, and the introduction of species which were unknown before.”

CHAPTER II.

DISCOVERIES AND INVENTIONS,-FACTS IN ARTS, SCIENCES, AND PHILOSOPHY.

Magnetic Equator.—The magnetic observations made by Capt. Duperrey, of the Coquille sloop of war, which sailed from Toulon on a voyage of discovery in August 1822, and returned to Marseilles in April last, are numerous and interesting. Every body knows that there are, on the surface of the globe, a number of spots where the compass ceases to point, and that a line drawn through those spots is called the magnetic equator. This equator must not be confounded with the terrestrial equator, round which it winds, as it were ; sometimes passing to the north of it, and sometimes to the south, to a greater or less extent. In the course of his voyage, Duperrey crossed the magnetic equator six times; and the result of his observations renders it extremely probable, that the whole line is moving parallelly from east to west, with such rapidity, that since the year 1780, when its position was ascertained by scientific men in a very satisfactory manner, it has advanced no less than 10 degrees towards the west.—French Paper.

Paste for sharpening Razors.Take a quantity of slate, wash it well, pound it in a mortar, and pass it through a very fine hair sieve; mix some of this powder, first with well-water, and afterwards with olive-oil, to the consistence of fat. Put some of this

paste upon a common razor-strap

after it has been properly cleaned, so as to remove all foreign bodies from it. Pass the razor from right to left, as usual, ending with raising the back a little, and a perfect edge will be obtained.—Jameson's Ed. Phil. Journal. Cooling of Glass. – Bellani finds, that after glass has been exposed to a great heat, on cooling, it never regains its original volume.—Ib. Artificial Cold. Brugnatelli informs us, the spirit of wine, aether, &c. mixed in certain proportions, with snow, afford temperatures as low as those produced by sea-salt.—Ib. New mode of securing Anatomical Preparations in Spirits.— Dr. Macartney, of the university of Dublin, has employed a thin plate of Indian rubber, as a covering for preparation jars, in place of the former laborious and offensive one, by means of putrid bladder, sheet-lead, &c. It is essential, that the Indian rubber should be painted or varnished; after which, not the slightest evaporation of the spirits takes place. The material, by its elasticity, adapts itself to the variations in the volume of the contents of the jar from different temperatures, and this removes the principal cause of the escape of the spirits. It is probable, that leather, coated with Indian rubber, and painted, would answer as well as the rubber it

self, self, by which the expense would be greatly diminished.—Ib. Antidote to Poison.—It is said, that a dessert spoonful of made mustard, mixed in a tumbler of warm water, has proved a successful antidote where a gentleman had taken a full ounce of poison in mistake for salts. It acts as an instantaneous emetic. Rein Deer.—The attempt to naturalize Rein-deer in this country appears to have failed. In the autumn of 1823, a Norwegian, with five of the deer imported by Mr. Bullock, arrived at the seat of a gentleman in this county; here they remained during the winter, and were fed with the " lichen rangiferinus (the moss upon which they feed in Lapland). They continued healthy until the following April, when they were removed to Clee Hill, on the highest part of which the lichen grows in great abundance; soon after this, one of them died with maggots in the head; this is no uncommon disease in Lapland, while the horns are in a tender state. Two others also died, having gradually declined. The two survivors appeared to thrive until autumn, when they were suddenly seized with diarrhoea, of which they died. From the enquiries we have made, we are led to believe that the deer sent to Ireland succeeded no better. — Berron's Worcester Journal. Silk.-It has just been proved, by M. Bolzani, that silk may be produced in the greater part of the Prussian states with as much facility as at Milan and in Piedmont. Notwithstanding the obstacles offered by the continual rains which have this year fallen in Prussia, and the general igno

rance that prevails on the subject, he has succeeded in procuring a thousand pounds weight of silkballs perfectly spun ; from which he will probably obtain a hundred pounds weight of fine silk, not inferior to the best silks of Upper Italy. Poisonous effect of White Bread upon Dogs.--Dr. Magendie is said to have found, that when he fed dogs with white bread and water, they all died within 50 days. When the bran was left in the bread, no bad effects ensued. Electrical Gale.—On the 6th Dec. 1823, about 100 miles to the west of the Fiord of Drontheim, the Griper, commanded by Capt. Clavering, experienced a severe gale which lasted three days, and during which period there was no intermission of its violence. This gale was remarkable for the small amount of the effect produced on the barometer, either on its approach, during its continuance, or on its cessation; and by the indications which were afforded of its having originated in a disturbed state of electricity in the atmosphere. It was accompanied by very vivid lightning, which is particularly unusual in high latitudes in winter, and by the frequent appearance, and continuance for several minutes at a time, of balls of fire at the yard-arms and mastheads. Of these, not less than eight were counted at one time. (Sabine's Pendulum Experiments.) —Dr. Brenster's Ed. Journal of Science. Indian Remedy for Fever.—The inflammatory fever called tabardillo is common in the hot as well as cold climates. The curative method adopted by the Indians may, in its prognostic, be considered

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