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Though sluggards deem it but a foolish chase, And marvel men should quit their casy chair, The toilsome way, and long, long league to trace,

Oh! there is sweetness in the mountain air, And life, that bloated Ease can never hope to share.

XXXI. More bleak to view the hills at length recede, And, less luxuriant, smoother vales extend; immense horizon-bounded plains succeed ! Far as the eye discerns, withouten end, Spain's realms appear whereon her shepherds tend Flocks, whose rich fleece right well the trader

knows Now must the pastor's arm his lambs defend :

For Spain is compass'd by unyielding foes, And all must shield their all, or share Subjection's


Where Lusitania and her Sister meet,
Deem ye what bounds the rival realms divide ?
Or ere the jealous queens of nations greet,
Doth Tayo interpose his mighty tide ?
Or dark Sierras rise in craggy pride ?
Or fence of art, like China's vasty wall ?
Ne barrier wall, ne river deep and wide,

Ne horrid crags, nor mountains dark and tall,
Rise like the rocks that part Hispania's land from Gaul:

XXXIII. But these between a silver streamlet glides, And scarce a name distinguisheth the brook, Though rival kingdoms press its verdant sides. Here leans the idle shepherd on his crook, And vacant on the rippling waves doth look, That peaceful still 'twixt bitterest foemen flow; For proud each peasant as the noblest duke :

Well doth the Spanish hind the difference know 'Twixt him and Lusian slave, the lowest of the low. I

Of Moor and Knight, in mailed splendour drest :
Here ceased the swift their race, here sunk the strong;

The Paynim turban and the Christian crest
Mix'd on the bleeding stream, by floating hosts oppress'd.

Oh, lovely Spain ! renown'd, romantic land !
Where is that standard which Pelagio bore,
When Cava's traitor-sire first call'd the band
That dyed thy mountain streams with Gothic gore? 4
Where are those bloody banners which of yore
Waved o'er thy sons, victorious to the gale,
And drove at last the spoilers to their shore ?

Red gleam'd the cross, and waned the crescent pale,
While Afric's echoes thrill'd with Moorish matrons' wail.

Teems not each ditty with the glorious tale ?
Ah ! such, alas! the hero's amplest fate!
When granite moulders and when records fail,
A peasant's plaint prolongs his dubious date.
Pride! bend thine eye from heaven to thine estate,
See how the Mighty shrink into a song !
Can Volume, Pillar, Pile, preserve thee great ?

Or must thou trust Tradition's simple tongue, When Flattery sleeps with thee, and History does thee wrong?

Awake, ye sons of Spain ! awake! advance !
Lo! Chivalry, your ancient goddess, cries,
But wields not, as of old, her thirsty lance,
Nor shakes her crimson plumage in the skies :
Now on the smoke of blazing bolts she flies,
And speaks in thunder through yon engine's roar :
In every peal she calls --" Awake! arise !"

Say, is her voice more fecble than of yere,
When her war-song was heard on Andalusia's shore ?

Hark! heard you not those hoofs of dreadful note ?
Sounds not the clang of conflict on the heath ?
Saw ye not whom the reeking sabre smote,
Nor saved your brethren ere they sank beneath
Tyrants and tyrants' slaves ? - the fires of death,
The bale-fires flash on high :- from rock to rock
Each volley tells that thousands cease to breathe;

Death rides upon the sulphury Siroc, 5 Red Battle stamps his foot, and nations feel the shock. ancient popular poetry, unequalled in Europe, - which must ever form the pride of that magnificent language. See his beautiful version of one of the best of the ballads of the Granada war - the “ Romance muy doloroso del sitio y toma de Albama"]

* Coumt Julian's daughter, the Helen of Spain. Pelagius preserved his independence in the fastnesses of the Asturias, and the descendants of his followers, after some centuries, completed their struggle by the conquest of Grenada, (* Almost all the Spanish historians, as well as the voice of tradition, ascribe the invasion of the Moors to the forcible violation by Roderick upon

called by the Moors Caba, or Cáva. She was the daughter of Count Julian, one of the Gothic monarch's principal lieutenants, who, when the crime was perpetrated, was engaged in the defence of Ceuta against the Moors. In his indignation at the ingratitude of bis sovereign, and the dishonour of his daughter, Count Julian forgot the duties of a Christian and a patriot, and, forming an alliance with Musa, then the Caliph's lieutenant in Africa, he countenanced the invasion of Spain by a body of Saracens and Africans, commanded by the celebrated Tarik; the issue of which was the defeat and death of Roderick, and the occupation of almost the whole peninsula by the Moors.

The Spaniards, in detestation of Florinda's memory, are said, hy Cervantes, never to bestow that naine upon any human female, reserving it for their dogs." — Sir Walter Scotr.]

Blue columns soar aloft insulphukr tas we leath,
Fragments on fragments in confusion knock."-


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convent, and most superb church. The six organs are the most beautiful I ever beheld, in point of decoration: we did not hear them, but were told that their tones were corre. spondent to their splendour. Mafra is termed the Escurial of Portugal. (“. About ten miles to the right of Cintra," says Lord Byron, in a letter to his mother, " is the palace of Mafra, the boast of Portugal, as it might be of any country, in point of magnificence, without elegance. There is a conveni annexed: the monks, who possess large revenues, are courteous enough, and understand Latin; so that we had a long conversation. They have a large library, and asked me if the English had any books in their country." -- Mafra was erected by John V., in pursuance of a vow, made in a dangerous fit of illness, to found a convent for the use of the poorest friary in the kingdom. Upon inquiry, this poorest was found at Mafra; where iwelre Franciscans lived together in a hut. There is a magnificent view of the existing edifice in " Finden's Illustrations."]

As I found the Portuguese, so I have characterised them. That they are since improved, at least in courage, is evident. The late exploits of Lord Wellington have effaced the follies of Cintra. He has, indeed, done wonders ; he has, perhaps, changed the character of a nation, reconciled rival superstitions, and ballled an enemy who never retreated before his predecessors. - 1812. ? (“But ere the bounds of Spain have far been pass'd,

For ever famed in many a noted song." – MS.) 3 [Lord Byron seems to have thus early acquired enough of Spanish to understand and appreciate the grand body of

XLIV. Enough of Battle's minions ! let them play Their game of lives, and barter breath for fame : Fame that will scarce re-animate their clay, Though thousands fall to deck some single name. In sooth 'twere sad to thwart their noble aim Who strike, blest hirelings ! for their country's good, And die, that living might have proved her shame;

Perish'd, perchance, in some domestic feud, Or in a narrower sphere wild Rapine's path pursued.

XXXIX. Lo! where the Giant on the mountain stands, His blood-red tresses deep'ning in the sun, With death-shot glowing in his fiery hands, And eye that scorcheth all it glares upon ; Restless it rolls, now fix’d, and now anon Flashing afar, - and at his iron feet Destruction cowers, to mark what deeds are done;

For on this morn three potent nations meet, To shed before his shrine the blood he deems most sweet.

XL. By Heaven! it is a splendid sight to see (For one who hath no friend, no brother there) Their rival scarfs of mix'd embroidery, Their various arms that glitter in the air ! What gallant war-hounds rouse them from their lair, And gnash their fangs, loud yelling for the prey ! All join the chase, but few the triumph share ;

The Grave shall bear the chiefest prize away, And Havoc scarce for joy can number their array.

Full swiftly Harold wends his lonely way
Where proud Sevilla 4 triumphs unsubdued :
Yet is she free — the spoiler's wish'd-for prey !
Soon, soon shall Conquest's fiery foot intrude,
Blackening her lovely domes with tracés rude.
Inevitable hour! 'Gainst fate to strive
Where Desolation plants her famish'd brood

Is vain, or Ilion, Tyre might yet survive,
And Virtue vanquish all, and Murder cease to thrive.

XLI. Three hosts combine to offer sacrifice; Three tongues prefer strange orisons on high ; Three gaudy standards fout the pale blue skies; The shouts are France, Spain, Albion, Victory! The foe, the victim, and the fond ally That fights for all, but ever fights in vain, Are met-as if at home they could not die

To feed the crow on Talavera's plain, And fertilize the field that each pretends to gain. 1

XLVI. But all unconscious of the coming doom, The feast, the song, the revel here abounds; Strange modes of merriment the hours consume, Nor bleed these patriots with their country's wounds; Nor here War's clarion, but Love's rebeck 5 sounds; Here Folly still his votaries inthralls; (rounds; And young-eyed Lewdness walks her midnight

Girt with the silent crimes of Capitals, Still to the last kind Vice clings to the tott'ring walls.

XLII. There shall they rot - Ambition's honour'd fools ! 2 Yes, Honour decks the turf that wraps their clay! Vain Sophistry ! in these behold the tools, The broken tools, that tyrants cast away By myriads, when they dare to pave their way With human hearts - to what ? - a dream alone. Can despots compass aught that hails their sway?

Or call with truth one span of earth their own, Sare that wherein at last they crumble bone by bone ?

XLIII. Oh, Albuera! glorious field of grief ! As o'er thy plain the Pilgrim prick'd his steed, Who could foresee thee, in a space so brief, A scene where mingling foes should boast and bleed ! Peace to the perish'd ! may the warrior's meed And tears of triumph their reward prolong! Till others fall where other chieftains lead

Thy name shall circle round the gaping throng, And shine in worthless lays the theme of transient

song. 3 See APPENDIX, Note A. *{* There let them rot - while rhymers tell the fools

How honour decks the turf that wraps their clay!

Liars avaunt!" - MS.] [This stanza is not in the original MS. It was written at Newstead, in August, 1811, shortly after the battle of *L* At Seville, we lodged in the house of two Spanish un. married ladies, women of character, the eldest a fine woman, the youngest pretty. The freedom of manner, which is general here, astonished me not a little; and, in the course of further observation, I find that reserve is not the characteristic of Spanish belles. The eldest honoured your unworthy son with very particular attention, embracing him with great tenderness at parting (I was there but three days), after cutting off a lock of his hair, and presenting him with one of her

Not so the rustic — with his trembling mate
He lurks, nor casts his heavy eye afar,
Lest he should view his vineyard desolate,
Blasted below the dun hot breath of war.
No more beneath soft Eve's consenting star
Fandango twirls his jocund castanet :
Ah, monarchs ! could ye taste the mirth ye mar,

Not in the toils of Glory would ye fret ; The hoarse dull drum would sleep, and Man be happy yet!

How carols now the lusty muleteer ?
Of love, romance, devotion is his lay,
As whilome he was wont the leagues to cheer,
His quick bells wildly jingling on the way ?
No! as he speeds, he chants “ Vivā el Rey !".
And checks his song to execrate Godoy,
The royal wittol Charles, and curse the day

When first Spain's queen beheld the black-eyed boy, And gore-faced Treason sprung from her adulterate

joy. own, about three feet in length, which I send, and beg you will retain till my return. Her last words were, Adios, tu hermoso ! me gusto mucho.'_. Adieu, you pretty fellow ! you please me much.'" Lord B. to his Mother, Aug. 1809.]

5 [A kind of fiddle, with only two strings, played on by a bow, said to have been brought by the Moors into Spain.]

6 “ Viva el Rey Fernando !" Long live King Ferdinand ! is the chorus of most of the Spanish patriotic songs. They are chiefly in dispraise of the old king Charles, the Queen, and the Prince of Peace. I have heard many of them : some of the airs are beautiful. Don Manuel Godoy, the Principe de la Paz, of an ancient but decayed family, was born at Ba. dajoz, on the frontiers of Portugal, and was originally in the ranks of the Spanish guards ; till his person attracted the queen's eyes, and raised him to the dukedom of Alcudia, &c. &c. It is to this man that the Spaniards universally impute the ruin of their country.


XLIX. On yon long, level plain, at distance crown'd With crags, whereon those Moorish turrets rest, Wide scatter'd hoof-marks dint the wounded ground; And, scathed by fire, the greensward's darken'd vest Tells that the foe was Andalusia's guest : Here was the camp, the watch-flame, and the host, Here the bold peasant storm'd the dragon's nest;

Still does he mark it with triumphant boast; And points to yonder cliffs, which oft were won and lost.

L. And whomsoe'er along the path you meet Bears in his cap the badge of crimson hue, Which tells you whom to shun and whom to greet: 1 Woe to the man that walks in public view Without of loyalty this token true : Sharp is the knife, and sudden is the stroke ; And sorely would the Gallic foeman rue,

If subtle poniards, wrapt beneath the cloke, Could blunt the sabre's edge, or clear the cannon's


LIV. Is it for this the Spanish maid, aroused, Hangs on the willow her unstrung guitar, Ard, all unsex'd, the anlace hath espoused, Sung the loud song, and dared the deed of war? And she, whom once the semblance of a scar Appallid, an owlet's larum chill'd with dread, Now views the column-scattering bay'net jar,

The falchion flash, and o'er the yet warm dead Stalks with Minerva's step where Mars might quake to tread.

LV. Ye who shall marvel when you hear her tale, Oh! had you known her in her softer hour, Mark'd her black eye that mocks her coal-black veil, Heard her light, lively tones in Lady's bower, Seen her long locks that foil the painter's power, Her fairy form, with more than female grace, Scarce would you deem that Saragoza's tower

Beheld her smile in Danger's Gorgon face, [chase. Thin the closed ranks, and lead in Glory's fearful

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LIII. And must they fall? the young, the proud, the brave, To swell one bloated Chief's unwholesome reign ? No step between submission and a grave ? The rise of rapine and the fall of Spain ? And doth the Power that man adores ordain Their doom, nor heed the suppliant's appeal ? Is all that desperate Valour acts in vain ?

And Counsel sage, and patriotic Zeal, The Veteran's skill, Youth's fire, and Manhood's heart

of steel? 1 The red cockade, with “ Fernando VII.,” in the centre.

? All who have seen a battery will recollect the pyramidal form in which shot and shells are piled. The Sierra Morena was fortified in every defile through which I passed in my way to Seville,

3 Such were the exploits of the Maid of Saragoza, who by her valour elevated herself to the highest rank of heroines. When the author was at Seville, she walked daily on the Prado, decorated with medals and orders, by command of the Junta. – [The exploits of Augustina, the famous heroine of both the sieges of Saragoza, are recorded at iength in Southey's History of the Peninsular War. At the time when she first attracted notice, by mounting a battery where her lover had fallen, and working a gun in his room, she was in her twentysecond year, exceedingly pretty, and in a soft feminine style

LVIII. The seal Love's dimpling finger hath impress'd Denotes how soft that chin which bears his touch: 4 Her lips, whose kisses pout to leave their nest, Bid man be valiant ere he merit such : Her glance how wildly beautiful! how much Hath Phæbus woo'd in vain to spoil her cheek, Which glows yet smoother from his amorous clutch !

Who round the North for paler dames would seek ? How poor their forms appear ! how languid, wan, and

weak ! of beauty. She has further had the honour to be painted by Wilkie, and alluded to in Wordsworth's Dissertation on the Convention (misnamed) of Cintra ; where a noble passage concludes in these words :-“ Saragoza has exemplified a melancholy, yea, a dismal truth, - yet consolatory and full of joy, - that when a people are called suddenly to fight for their liberty, and are sorely pressed upon, their best field of battle is the floors upon which their children have played ; the chambers where the family of each man has slept ; upon or under the roofs by which they have been sheltered ; in the gardens of their recreation ; in the street, or in the marketplace; before the altars of their temples, and among their congregated dwellings, blazing or uprooted."] 4 " Sigilla iu mento impressa Amoris digitulo

Vestigio demonstrant mollitudinem." AUL, GRL.

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* This stanza was written in Turkey. * (* Beauties that need not fear a broken vow." - MS.]

[ Long black hair, dark languishing eyes, clear olive Complexions, and forms more graceful in motion than can be | conceived by an Englishman, used to the drowsy, listless air of his countrywomen, added to the most becoming dress, and, at the same time, the most decent in the world, render a Spanish beauty irresistible.” B. to his Mother, Aug. 1809.]

4 These stanzas were written in Castri (Delphos), at the foot of Parnassus, now called Arazvese (Liakura), Dec. 1809.

$("Upon Parnassus, going to the fountain of Delphi Casiri, in 1809, I saw a flight of twelve eagles (Hobhouse says they were vultures -- at least in conversation), and I seized the omen.

On the day before, I composed the lines to Parnassus (in Childe Harold), and on beholding the birds, had a bope tha: Apollo bad accepted my homage. I have at least had the name and fame of a poet, during the poetical period of life (from tweuty to thirty); – whether it will last is another matter : but I have been a votary of the deity and the place, and am grateful for what he has done in my behalf, leaving the future in his hands, as I left the past." B. Diary, 1821.]

$(“ Casting the eye over the site of ancient Delphi, one cannot possibly imagine what has become of the walls of the numerous buildings which are mentioned in the history of its forner magnificence, – buildings which covered two miles of ground. With the exception of the few terraces or supporting walls, nothing now appears. The various robberies by Sylla, Hero, and Constantine, are inconsiderable ; for the removal of

the statues of bronze, and marble, and ivory, could not greatly affect the general appearance of the city. The acclivity of the hill, and the foundations being placed on rock, without cement, would no doubt render them comparatively easy to be removed or hurled down into the vale below; but the vale exhibits no appearance of accumulation of hewn stones ; and the modern village could have consumed but few. In the course of so many centuries, the débris from the mountain must have covered up a great deal, and even the rubbish itself may have acquired a soil sufficient to conceal many noble remains from the light of day. Yet we see no swellings or risings in the ground, indicating the graves of the temples, All therefore is mystery, and the Greeks may truly say, · Where stood the walls of our fathers ? scarce the mossy tombs remain !"" - H. W. Williams's Travels in Greece, vol. ii. p. 254.]

7 " And walks with glassy steps o'er Aganippe's wave." MS.)

8 [“ Some glorious thought to my petition grant." - MS.] 9 Seville was the Hispalis of the Romans. 10 [“ The lurking lures of thy enchanting gaze.' MS.) !! [“ Cadiz, sweet Cadiz !-it is the first spot in the creation. The beauty of its streets and mansions is only excelled by the liveliness of its inhabitants. It is a complete Cythera, full of the finest women in Spain; the Cadiz belles being the Lancashire witches of their land." - Lord B. to his Mother, 1809.]

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LXVII. From morn till night, from night till startled Morn Peeps blushing on the revel's laughing crew, The song is heard, the rosy garland worn; Devices quaint, and frolics ever new, Tread on each other's kibes. A long adieu He bids to sober joy that here sojourns : Nought interrupts the riot, though in lieu

Of true devotion monkish incense burns, And love and prayer unite, or rule the hour by turns. I

LXXII. The lists are oped, the spacious area clear'd, Thousands on thousands piled are seated round; Long ere the first loud trumpet's note is heard, Ne vacant space for lated wight is found : Here dons, grandees, but chiefly dames abound, Skill'd in the ogle of a roguish eye, Yet ever well inclined to heal the wound;

None through their cold disdain are doom'd to die, As moon-struck bards complain, by Love's sad archery

LXVIII. The Sabbath comes, a day of blessed rest : What hallows it upon this Christian shore ? Lo! it is sacred to a solemn feast : Hark! heard you not the forest-monarch's roar ? Crashing the lance, he snuffs the spouting gore Of man and steed, o'erthrown beneath his horn; The throng'd arena shakes with shouts for more;

Yells the mad crowd o’er entrails freshly torn, Nor shrinks the female eye, nor ev'n affects to mourn.

LXIX. The seventh day this; the jubilee of man. London ! right well thou know'st the day of prayer: Then thy spruce citizen, wash'd artisan, And smug apprentice gulp their weekly air : Thy coach of hackney, whiskey, one-horse chair, And humblest gig through sundry suburbs whirl ; To Hampstead, Brentford, Harrow, make repair ;

Till the tired jade the wheel forgets to hurl, Provoking envious gibe from each pedestrian churl.

LXXIII. Hush'd is the din of tongues - on gallant steeds, With milk-white crest, gold spur, and light-pois'd Four cavaliers prepare for venturous deeds, (lance, And lowly bending to the lists advance ; Rich are their scarfs, their chargers featly prance : If in the dangerous game they shine to-day, The crowd's loud shout and ladies' lovely glance,

Best prize of better acts, they bear away, And all that kings or chiefs e'er gain their toils repay.

LXXIV. In costly sheen and gaudy cloak array'd, But all afoot, the light-limb'd Matadore Stands in the centre, eager to invade The lord of lowing herus; but not before The ground, with cautious tread, is traversed o'er, Lest augbt unseen should lurk to thwart his speed: His arms a dart, he tights aloof, nor more

Can man achieve without the friendly steed — Alas! too oft condemn'd for him to bear and bleed.

Thrice sounds the clarion; lo! the signal falls,
The den expands, and Expectation mute
Gapes round the silent circle's peopled walls.
Bounds with one lashing spring the mighty brute,
And, wildly staring, spurns, with sounding foot,
The sand, nor blindly rushes on his foe :
Here, there, he points his threatening front, to suit

His first attack, wide waving to and fro
His angry tail ; red rolls his eye's dilated glow.

LXX. Some o'er thy Thamis row the ribbon'd fair, Others along the safer turnpike fly; Some Richmond-hill ascend, some scud to Ware, And many to the steep of Highgate hie. Ask ye, Baotian shades ! the reason why ? 3 'Tis to the worship of the solemn Horn, Grasp'd in the holy band of Mystery,

In whose dread name both men and maids are sworn, And consecrate the oath + with draught, and dance till morn. )

An have their fooleries - not alike are thine,
Fair Cadiz, rising o'er the dark blue sea !
Soon as the matin bell proclaimeth nine,
Thy saint adorers count the rosary :
Much is the Virgin teased to shrive them free
(Well do I ween the only virgin there)
From crimes as numerous as her beadsmen be;

Then to the crowded circus forth they fare : Young, old, high, low, at once the same diversion share.

LXXVI. Sudden he stops ; his eye is fix'd : away, Away, thou heedless boy! prepare the spear : Now is thy time to perish, or display The skill that yet may check his mad career. With well-timed croupe 6 the nimble coursers veer; On foams the bull, but not unscathed he goes ; Streams from his fank the crimson torrent clear :

He flies, he wheels, distracted with his thrves; Dart follows dart ; lance, lance; loud bellowings speak

his woes.

"monkish temples share The hours misspent, and all in turns is love and prayer."-MS.] 2 (" And droughty then alights, and roars for Roman purl.”

- MS] 3 This was written at Thebes, and consequently in the best situation for asking and answering such a question ; not as the birthplace of Pindar, but as the capital of Bæotia, where the tirst riddle was propounded and solved.

4 [Lord Byron alludes to a ridiculous custom which formerly prevailed at the public-houses in Highgate, of administering a burlesque oath to all travellers of the middling rank who stopped there. The party was sworn on a pair of horns, fastened, " never to kiss the maid when he could the mistress; never to cat brown bread when he could get white; never to drink small beer when he could get strong," with many other injunctions of the like kind, -- to all which was added the saving clause. — * unless you like it best."']

$(". In thus mixing up the light with the solemn, it was the intention of the poet to imitate Ariosto. But it is far easier to rise, with grace, from the level of a strain generally familiar, into an occasional short burst of pathos or splendour, than to interrupt thus a prolonged tone of solemnity by any descent into the ludicrous or buriesque. In the former case, the transition may have the effect of softening or clevating: while, in the latter, it alınost invariably shocks; - for the same reason, perhaps, that a trait of pathos or high feeling, in comedy, has a peculiar charm; while the intrusion of comie scenes into tragedy, however sanctioned among us by halt and authority, rarely fails to offend. The proct was bimsel convinced of the failure of the experiment, and io none of the succeeding cantos of Childe Harold repeated it." - Moore)

6 8" The croupe is a particular leap taught in the raadge. - MS.]

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