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INGING of Pfalms is fo fit a part of Divine Service, so natural an Expression of our joy, and serves
to so many noble Ends, that it comes recommended to us by the Practice of all Nations, seems to be as ancient as publick Worship, and has had the good Fortune to be approv'd of by al Parties of what Denomination foever ; and therefore the Psalmist directs his. Precept not to any peculiar Church of God, but to all Lands, to serve the Lord with Gladness, and to come before his Presence with a Song.
It has that Force upon the Passions, as to compose our Thoughts, to dispate our Sorrow's, and to enliven our Devotion. It suits the Spirits when heavy with Grief, or exalted with Joy, and brings them into a Temper of grateful Seriousness. How ravishing and delightful is this Exercise when perform'd with Skill in a becoming Manner ? And how much unlike itself when made up hars and disagreeable Sounds ? They must have very harmonious Souls, who can hear the one without*Plezkire, or the other without Pain: I may appeal to agreat many of our Country Congregations for the Truth If this ; and yet with how much difficulty are they p rficded to Sing in Tune, or to forsake that they have been accustomed to: What terrible Outcries do they make such Forie has Prejudice ) against any Alterations : and if their Undex.
standing does not help 'em to any Arguments against the thing itself, they immediately cry out Popery! A frightful Iord, often made use of by such as have neither Knowledge enough to judge of a thing nor Prudence to let it alone.
The Désign of this Undertaking is to better and improve this excellent and useful Part of our Service, to keep up an Uniformity in or Parish Churches, and bring them as much as may be, to imitate their Mother Churches the Cathedrals ; and therefore all the Tunes and Anthems are in Four Parts, and so make up that fulness of Consonancy which cannot be expected in Two or Three : Each Part when suing alone, is as Musical as could be allowed, which renders them easy to the Learner; and the Compass of the Parts is such, that there mall scarce a Tune ablc Voice be found, but one at least, of the Four Parts hall contain and confijt of those Notes which that Voice will most naturally and easily perform ; so that all that are capable of Harmany. may join in this Confort, and Young Men and Maidens, Old Men and Children may praise the Name of the LORD.
It is very much to be wish'd that this Religious Exercise might be more esteem'd, and that ( since it is an esential Part of the Duty and Homage we owe to the Divine Majesty ) a decent Performance of the same might be countenanced and encouraged by the better fort ; this would be a means to add to the Church daily, and make us glad to go into the House of the LORD; this would tend so to 6.cite and heighten the devotional Pasions, and so to move the Affections of the Mind towards God, that our Psalms audilymos would become Spiritual Songs, when in Imitation of the blessed Chorus above, we sing unto the LORD, with Grire in our Hearts, and with the Voice of Melody.
HE Garut, or Scale of Mufack, confits of Lines and Spaces, on wbich are placed thele leven Letters, viz. A, B, C, D, E, F, G; which are repeated as often as the Compals of Musick
requires. The three Characters which are in the Scale, viz. are the three Single Cliffs ; the first of which is called the G Cliff, becaule the Lerter G is placed on the lame Line with it; and in this Cliff is pricked the Treble, or highet Pare in Musick. The Second is the c Cliff, because the Letter C is pla. ced on the same Line with it ; and in this are pricked the Medius, Tenor, and all inner Parts in Musick. The Third is the F Cliff, because the Letter Fis placed on the same Line with it; and in this Cliff is pricked the Bass, or lowet Part in Mufick.
An Tunes are generally pricked within the Compass of five Lines, in
which the three Signal Cliffs are placed thus, The
G Cliff on the second
C Clif sometimes
Line, the F Cliff on the fourth Line ; the on one Line, and sometime's on another.
But to prevent any Difficuly that might arile from the removal of the Cliffs, each of the four Parts in this Book is constantly pricked in its oral Cliff, i. e. the Treble is always in the G Cliff; the Medius in the C Cliff fer on the third Line ; the Tenor in the c Cliff let on the fourth Line, and the Bass in the F Cliff, as in this Example.
Thele leven Letters, viz. A, B, C, D, E, F, G; are called Keys, each of which is a leveral Degree of Sound, which is more grave is acuto, according to the Line or Space in which it is placid.
That these Degrees may be performed by the Voice, four Syllables, viz. Mi, Fa, Sol, La, are appropriated to the seven Keys in such m:n. ner, as to express their several Sounds, however varied by the  Flat and [ 11 ] Sharp, and yet keep the same Distance of Sound cach to other; E. & Sol is always the next Note after Fa; the same Distance of Sound that is between Fa and Sol, fuppofing th.7 are plac'd on the Ktys C, D, is the fame in Vocal Musick, when they are plac'd on F, G, and to of the reft.
In a gradual Series of eight Notes are contained all the several Sounds in Mufick. Now these cight Notes are not so many equal Degrees, buc cont of five Tones or whule Nores, and two Semitones or balt Notes, wholc Order differs according to the Key they are compuced from.
The Key is the principal or fundamnental Nore of a Tunc, to which the other Notes have proper Rclation, and in which the Bassalways con. cludes. It is called Fat or Sharp, not from the Flats and Sharps fet at the beginning of the Tone, but with respect to the Third, Sixth, and Seventh above it ; fur it the Third, Sixrh, and Seventh above the Key be Leffer, the Key is Flar; if Greater, the Key is Sharp. 2
Thirds, &c. are called Greater or Lefjer, according to the Number of Semicones coorain'd in then, A Greater Third consists of 4 Semitones; a Lesser Third of 3 Semitones ; a Greater Sixit of 9 Semitones; a Leller Sixth of 8; and 10 of the Seventh, as will calily he demonstrated, when :he Places of (wo Semitones in the Scale ofeight Nores are oblery'd.
The Places of the Serai tones are distinguished by the Note Fa; E. g. from Mi to Fa, and from La to Fa is a Semitone ; from Fa to soi, lion Sol to La, and from Lato Mi, is a Tope, as in this Scale, in which the Semitones are marked with a Star.
Any three of thefe Notes are called a Third, which reckun'd inclusive. ly, contains buğ two Nores; now if one of these be a Semitone, bir Tbird is called Leser, but if they be iwo whole Tones, it is called Greater !