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accumulated adapted affinities allied species America amount ancient animals appear become bees believe birds breeds cause cells characters cirripedes climate closely allied colour continuous crossed crustaceans degree difficulty distinct species divergence domestic doubt embryo Europe existing exterminated extinct extremely facts favourable fertility flowers formations forms fossil genera genus geological geological period Glacial period gradations greater number groups of species habits Hence hermaphrodites hybrids hybrids produced important increase in number individuals inhabitants inherited insects instance instincts intercrossing intermediate land larvae less living look male mammals manner migration modification modified descendants natural selection naturalists nearly nest offspring organic organisation palaeontologists palaeozoic perfect pigeons pistil plants pollen present probably produced progenitor ranked reciprocal crosses remarked resemble rudimentary seeds seems sexual selection Silurian slight South America sterility structure struggle successive suppose swimbladder tend theory tion trees variability variation varieties vary whole widely
424 페이지 - In the distant future I see open fields for far more important researches. Psychology will be based on a new foundation, that of the necessary acquirement of each mental power and capacity by gradation. Light will be thrown on the origin of man and his history.
79 페이지 - I may be allowed to personify the natural preservation or survival of the fittest, cares nothing for appearances, except in so far as they are useful to any being. She can act on every internal organ, on every shade of constitutional difference, on the whole machinery of life. Man selects only for his own good: Nature only for that of the being which she tends.
70 페이지 - I counted thirtytwo little trees ; and one of them, with twenty-six rings of growth, had during many years tried to raise its head above the stems of the heath, and had failed. No wonder that, as soon as the land was enclosed, it became thickly clothed with vigorously growing young firs. Yet the heath was so extremely barren and so extensive that no one would ever have imagined that cattle would have so closely and effectually searched it for food. Here we see that cattle absolutely determine the...
169 페이지 - If it could be demonstrated that any complex organ existed, which could not possibly have been formed by numerous, successive, slight modifications, my theory would absolutely break down.
63 페이지 - Hence as more individuals are produced than can possibly survive, there must in every case be a struggle for existence, either one individual with another of the same species, or with the individuals of distinct species, or with the physical conditions of life.
167 페이지 - To suppose that the eye with all its inimitable contrivances for adjusting the focus to different distances, for admitting different amounts of light, and for the correction of spherical and chromatic aberration, could have been formed by natural selection, seems, I freely confess, absurd in the highest degree.
378 페이지 - Nothing can be more hopeless than to attempt to explain this similarity of pattern in members of the same class, by utility or by the doctrine of final causes. The hopelessness of the attempt has been expressly admitted by Owen in his most interesting work on the 'Nature of Limbs.
187 페이지 - Under changed conditions of life, it is at least possible that slight modifications of instinct might be profitable to a species; and if it can be shown that instincts do vary ever so little, then I can see no difficulty in natural selection preserving and continually accumulating variations of instinct to any extent that was profitable. It is thus, as I believe, that all the most complex and wonderful instincts have originated.