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to breathe, while the body remained floating at ease beneath the surface."

"But presently the megatherium himself appears, toiling slowly on, from some great tree recently laid low, and quite stripped of its green covering. The earth, as he proceeds, groans under the enormous mass; each step bears down and crushes the thickly growing reeds and other plants; but the monster continues to advance toward a noble tree, the monster of this primeval forest. For a while he pauses before it, as if doubting whether, having resisted the storms of so many seasons, it will yield even to his vast strength. But soon his resolution is taken. Having set himself to the task, he first loosens the soil around the tree to a great depth by the powerful claws on his fore-feet, and in this preliminary work he employs himself for a while. And now observe him carefully. Marching close to the tree, watch him as he places his monstrous hind feet carefully and earnestly, ⚫ the long-projecting claw taking firm and deep hold in the ground. His tail is so placed as to rest on the ground and support the body. The hind legs are set, and the animal, lifting itself, up like a huge kangaroo, grasps the tree with its fore legs at as great a height as possible, and firmly grapples it with the muscles of the trunk, while the hind limbs, animated by the nervous influence of the unusually large spinal cord, combine all their forces in the effort about to be made. And now conceive the massy frame of the megatherium convulsed with the mighty wrestling, every vibrating fiber reacting upon its bony attachment with the force of a hundred giants. Extraordinary must be the strength and proportions of the tree, if, when rocked to and fro, to right and left, in such an embrace, it can long withstand the efforts of its assailant. The tree at length gives way; the animal, though shaken and wearied with the mighty effort, at once begins to strip off every green twig. The effort, however, even when successful, was not unattended with danger. The tree in falling would sometimes by its weight crush its powerful assailant, and the bulky animal, unable to guide it in its fall, might often be injured by the trunk or the larger branches. To guard against some of this risk, the skull, the most exposed part, is found to exhibit more than usual strength and thick


It is more cellular than usual with other animals, and the inner and stronger plate is covered with an outer plate and intermediate walls to resist a sudden and violent shock.

iously watching their prey. Other serpents, in gaudy colors, were darting upon the smaller quadrupeds and birds, and myriads of insects glittered in the sunbeams. All these indications of life and activity existed, and that, too, not far distant from the spots on which are now placed proud cities."

Before we conclude we may add, that many general readers do not perceive the difference between the geological terms, "Fossils" and "Remains." The first word is applied to the forms of animals and vegetables which have become petrified, that is, changed into stone. These are always found in the various secondary strata, and hence these strata are called "fossiliferous." The second word is applied to the bodies or limbs of animals, or vegetables which are not petrified; but the bony structure remains, and in rare instances the flesh also, as in the well-known case of the body of an extinct species of elephant, called Mammoth, found imbedded in the frozen mud and sand of the River Lena, in Siberia, the flesh of which was so completely preserved as to afford food to the dogs of arctic fishermen. These remains are found in the diluvium, or drift, and alluvium formation or strata.

The preceding discoveries of geology cannot be read without wonder, and, we would think, without reflecting on the power and vastness of the Creator's works. Even considering the low scale of intelligence exhibited in many races of animals, we are still struck, when we dwell on the lowest enjoyments of animal life, what an amount of enjoyment must have been felt, by the myriads of mollusks, fishes, saurians, &c., and of insects that have lived and died on our earth. Who that has observed the evident signs of not mere life only, but of actual pleasure in the motions of mollusks and fish in their native element, and of the insects fluttering in the sunbeams, can doubt of the benevolence as well as wisdom and power of the great Creator?

"Meanwhile the waters are not destitute of inhabitants. Here we behold the mighty whale, monarch of the deep, sporting in the pre-Adamite seas as he now does amid the icebergs of the Arctic Ocean; the walrus and the seal, now denizens of the colder climes, mingling with the tropical manati; while the rivers were peopled with gigantic crocodiles, turtles, and tortoises. In the forest, troops of monkeys might be seen skipping lightly from branch to branch in the various trees, or heard mowing and chattering in the deep recesses of the wood. Of the birds, some, clothed in plumage of tropical brilliancy, were busy in the forests, while others, such as the eagle and vulture, hovered over the spots where death had been busy. Gigantic serpents might have been seen insid- them all!"

It is true, geology treats of the past But we are not to ages of our world. suffer it to impart any melancholy ideas of the extent of the ravages of death, as seen in fossils and remains. Natural history gives abundant facts to show, that life, in all its degrees and modes of enjoyment, is still all-pervading, and, to our ken, unlimited. "How manifold are thy works, O Lord! In wisdom hast thou made




or Christ's proper government of the Church, and those other cognate truths

ROBINSON's the elements of

there is more light to break forth from God's Holy Word, has been fully verified; though in a manner different from what is pretended by many who are fond of quoting his words. No new revelations have been made, no new books have been added to the sacred canon, nor has any light from heaven come in through transcendental flashes. The light has come from the Scriptures, and not from sources foreign to them. The Church has had the eyes of her understanding opened, to read new and wondrous things out of God's law. In this respect, individual experience and church experience are alike. Both are capable of growing in grace and knowledge. The experience is ever and anon drawing new light from the Word of God. The Christian is growing in knowledge, and yet the Bible is to him ever the same an unchangeable source of light. None of its old principles become obsolete, and no new truths are added to it. But to-day, through a new experience, he gains new views of truth. The providence of God illustrates the Word, or the Spirit of God opens the heart for a new illumination.

In like manner, the church has her seasons of new illumination, from the same unchanging source of truth. The elements of eternal truth come to bear on the public mind, in successive stages of development. No new principle of faith or piety-no new truth that was not in the Scriptures before-has been discovered; and yet important light has broken forth from a new development. So it was at the time of the Lutheran Reformation. The doctrine of the supreme authority of the sacred Scriptures, and the doctrine of justification by faith, then came forth upon the world, as a sun new risen. These truths had been overlaid by Romish corruption; and never, since the sacred canon was closed, had they been brought forth with such distinctness as in the preaching of the Reformers. But it was only a new light breaking forth from God's Holy Word, or rather the light that was then uncovered anew.

A hundred years later came the Puritan development. Then again Christianity travailed in birth for a new force to act on the heart of the world. Puritanism,

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Puritanism, opened upon the world a new course of events, causing the civil and social order to crystallize anew around itself. These truths, always contained in the Scriptures, then, for the first time, entered largely into the views and experience of men.

Still a hundred years later, a new light again broke forth; a result of the preceding. We allude to what is called the Great Awakening, or the remarkable revival in Great Britain and America. This outflow of the vital force of Christianity was in some sense new and peculiar. Yet it was a consequence, both of the Lutheran Reformation and of the Puritan movement preceding it. It went forth in the power of the doctrines of the Reformation. But it brought forth, from the apostolic writings, views of more thrilling power, and made truth to bear on the conscience with unprecedented effect. The simplest idea of Christianity, as a call to repentance, an offer of mercy, an opening of heaven, filled the hearts and fired the tongues of the preachers of that age.

In about forty years that development also had become complete; but its beneficial results did not pass away. The same glad tidings continued to be proclaimed with happy effect; while a new evangelic power, proceeding from the bosom of this, but acting with an energy peculiar to itself, was about to come forth. The era of missions now opened. This was something more than a transfer to heathen lands of the spirit of the revival It brought into play a different order of motives and emotions, and gave prominence to a class of objects that had not before been so distinctly discerned. The habits and views of the Church have been revolutionized by the spirit of missions. After this work had fully commenced, it might have been said that old things were passed away, and all things had become



The tone, the dialect, the topics of thought, the occupations of the Church, had changed with wonderful rapidity. The revival era had brought the vital energies of religion to act with a new intensity. While that concentrated, this diffused. The revival era brought the light of heaven to bear on the individual soul. The mis

sionary era came in as a beam of day covering a broad expanse. The personal piety that is nurtured with the missionary spirit, contrasts, in some respects, with that which grew up under the revivals of the last century, or in the Puritan age.

Though the missionary era has completed its development, considered as the introduction of a new order of motives, the work to be done under that order is but just begun. A mode of procedure for evangelizing the world has been established, and the results in years to come are to be a hundredfold more than what

they have been. Yet the age for the development of the spirit of missions has passed; and the way has been opened for the development of another class of Christian motives. Hence, in later years, the zeal of the public mind has taken a direction toward the relief of bodily suffering, through the medium of various reforms in the personal habits and social conditions of men. This has proceeded, not unnaturally, from the preceding developments. The Gospel quickens the conscience, and compels us to seek the salvation of others. The care of the soul comes first; but that of the body is sure to follow. The missionary abroad discovers and reports the bodily wants of the millions. Sympathies, drawn out in that direction, return upon the sufferings of men nearer home, the victims of vice, or lust, or oppression, or slavery. It is true that Christianity ever had an eye to the temporal wants of men. But that development of Christian compassion toward them which is giving its character to this age, is taken on a broader view, and a more intense realization of the Christian motives to compassion.

As it has been, so it will be. There is in revealed truth a latent power, of which we may form some general and safe conclusions as to the future. From time to time Christianity will be read and pondered in a new light. The Lutheran Reformation wrought its wonders only by bringing men to read and discover in the Bible what they had not so plainly discovered there before. The revival in the days of Wesley and Whitefield produced a similar result, and brought out a new light from the Scriptures. So the missionary zeal of the last generation has given us, in one department of duty, as it were a new Bible; or rather has brought VOL. IX.-5

out from unexplored portions of the word of God, passages that had slumbered long, as so much latent power. It has converted the Bible into a missionary manual. In ages gone it would not have been right to condemn the ministry for the neglect of these missionary texts, as we should now deserve to be condemned if we were to neglect them.

So it is still, as to portions of the Bible relating to other matters of which we have too little thought. Under the most familiar passages there slumbers a force and vitality of which we are little conscious. There are passages, which, when the time of awakening comes, will break like thunderbolts upon us. The preacher will tremble when he utters his text, and hearers will tremble when he expounds and applies it. But what, in that case, will be new? Not the text; not the critical learning that has dug out a fossil sense never dreamed of before; but the new mind and heart opened to receive and apply one of the simplest truths of the Bible.

But there are many, who, in the general, admit the Divine source of the Scriptures, to whom all the power of the written word is in a measure a latent power. The light which has put life into successive generations, has never exerted any living force upon them. What they need is, to have the mind brought in contact with an undeveloped power in the word of God. What they want is, not critical skill to tread the maze of any dark passage; not a profounder intellect to fathom the deeper mysteries of revelation; but a heart to apprehend, feel, and apply the plainest and most palpable of its truths.

If this view be correct, then any new development of the truth does not displace or make obsolete that which is old. When we gain new and more impressive views of any truth, the new throws back a richer light upon the old. What are called the doctrines of the Reformation have no less of value and force now than when they first came forth in that remarkable era. But all the successive developments have condensed an additional power and energy upon them. What is wanted in forming Christian character is a combination of all the light from the Scriptures. Our piety must lay its foundations in the doctrines of the Reformation, and must embody in itself

the characteristics of the Puritan age, the life and simplicity of the revival era, and the benevolence of the missionary development. And then this large experience, and generous Christian growth, will put us into a posture to receive and appropri- | ate whatever light is further to break forth from God's holy word.


tion, or when age descends to impart to youth its own wisdom.

It would be tedious to repeat the whole catalogue of formal sayings which pass uninterruptedly between equals whenever they happen to meet. The words are always the same. Until dinner it is always Good day! that your day may prove fortunate! After dinner, Good evening! that your evening may prove fortunate! And in addition to this at all hours

POLITENESS is nowhere more gen- May your arrival prove to be in a good

erally at home than in the Orient; and the most courteous Orientals are those branches of the Arab race, whose forefathers ruled in Spain during the Middle Ages, and who had opportunities, through their intercourse with the equally ceremonious Castilian and Aragon chivalry, to enrich their store of formulas with all the severe precepts which governed that knighthood. Hence, no where are the courtesies of life more accurately and minutely defined by set ceremonies, no people are more sensitive to a breach of etiquette, and none censure want of decorum more than the Arabs.

hour!-Be ye saluted!-How goes your time?-How do you do?-How are your circumstances ?-How do your children do?

The inquiries after the health of the host's or guest's wife are most peculiarly roundabout. It requires considerable acquaintance with the scruples of an Arab, in every conversation alluding to his wives, to determine, by the various shades of inquiry, the object of the question. To name the wife, even on the most important occasions, is the greatest breach of good manners; therefore, the interest one wishes to display on her behalf must be exhibited Politeness is among this peculiar people indirectly. How are Adam's children ?— not taught, as in Europe, by experience, How goes it in your tent ?-How is your but is treated as a science, carefully handed family?-How is your grandmother? Any down by the father to his son, and by the too special description would rouse jealmaster to his pupil, by precept and instruc-ousy in the mind: He has seen my wife; tion, and in which they are examined, as we examine in mathematics, geography, &c.

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The Arabs say, "Politeness is a coin, which every man coins for himself, and which is yet universally current." No one knows better than an Arab how to avail himself of those endearing expressions which render approach easy, facilitate admittance, or insure a good reception. | No one understands so well how to suit his language to the exigences of the moment, or the circumstances of his society; yet their politeness cannot be classed with that free homage paid to character or rank which distinguishes European urbanity, for Arabian politeness is exactly classified, graduated, and determined-every one receives what is his due, not a single word more or less. The laws and forms of this politeness descend, through assiduous tuition, from generation to generation, and from tribe to tribe, and not one tittle is taken from or added to tradition.

The children listen to the words of adults with that deep respect which they evince when they receive religious instruc

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he knows her, for he troubles himself about her!

In conversation, religious allusions are frequent, and the salute between members of the same tribe and persuasion have also a religious character, for the name of Allah, or of the Prophet, is sure to occur in each. The Arab displays considerable tact and politeness in avoiding these allusions when in the society of those who do not share his faith, or of those whose belief is unknown to him, for fear of offending their feelings. He then gives his salutation a different form, if he happens to salute a non-] on-Mohammedan, or some one who is an entire stranger, partly not to bestow on infidels the blessings conveyed in a Mussulman's greeting, partly to avoid profaning the name of the Prophet in the salute of unbelievers, and partly to avoid wishing people blessings which to them are valueless or disagreeable; he greets them simply with, "Salam ála hali!" (Blessed be those who wish me well!)

Many Arabian families would, however, consider it a too great concession to an

infidel to desire him blessings on condition of wishing him well; they, therefore, endeavor to avoid conveying any benediction by making it ambiguous, and they say, "Salam âla aul esalem! (Blessed are the men of salvation!) or, Salam ála men luba' el houda?" (Blessed be those who obey the law!)

In the provinces under French dominion, fanaticism is indeed silenced by discretion, and the Arabs salute the conquering Christian with the greatest civility of which his language is capable; but in addressing Jews, that race so much oppressed and despised by the sons of Ishmael, they have not yet assumed the tone to which the equality of the French laws would seem to entitle them. When an Arab honors a Jew by speaking to him, which is only done in cases of emergency, when he desires to display a kindly feeling toward the Israelite, he greets him with, "Allah yaicheck!" (Allah permit your life!) or "Allah youneck!" (Allah helps you!) Both expressions are condescending to the Jew, but rude to a Mussulman.

The official etiquette of the Arabs is most peculiarly severe. Every word, every sign, is prescribed most accurately and minutely. The subordinate salutes his superior by kissing his hand if he meets him on foot, or his knee, if he happens to be mounted.

hands on their breast and bend very lowly. This extraordinary mark of respect, for instance, was shown to the Emir, Abd-elKader. On the return of warriors from a successful campaign or a bold excursion, they are greeted by all the maids and wives of the tribe, congregated together, and uttering a species of rhythmical, sharp, and exclamatory sounds, which are not without their power of exciting the nerves. An Arab will never pass a meeting of superiors or equals without exclaiming in a measured tone, "Esalam alicoum !" (Bless you!) and this is answered by "Alicoum Esalam !" (Be you blessed!)

The invariably earnest expression of countenance which the Arab preserves while greeting any one is in peculiar contrast to the friendliness which characterize our salutes.

If any one were to ask an Arab after his health in a light, happy tone, or to greet him smilingly, he would look upon it as the greatest insult, and as a gross breach of good manners. They are, therefore, quite unable to accustom themselves to the European mode of greeting, and are always reprehending the smile and happy expression with which European friends and acquaintances meet each other. "Is it then," they say," such a laughable affair, that one can ask after the health of a friend, or the happiness of one's connection and family, only laughingly!"

Although Mussulmans consider it unnecessary to bare their heads when greeting any one, they yet feel bound, when

ously formed straw hat which they wear in summer over the kapuse.

The Marabouts (priests) and Talebs, (learned,) and all persons directly or indirectly connected with education and religion, understand very clearly how to conceal, under the garb of holy humilia-meeting a superior, to remove the curition, the pride of caste, which more or less influences most of them. Thus they withdraw their hands with humble mien from the grasp of the pious, who desire to kiss them, only when these have given the most unambiguous evidences of an intention of paying this tribute of reverence; they at the same time permit all salutations which have no similarity with the marks of respect paid to the worldly great.

The unceasing interruptions made in all conversations by formal inquiries, make a most curious impression on Europeans. It is not rare that in the midst of a dialogue about peace and war, commerce, &c., one of the speakers commences to inquire, "How do you do?-How do you spend your time?-How are things in your tent ?" and then resumes his speech exactly where he left off, without waiting for an answer to his questions. The number of these interruptions depends on the degree of friendship which one feels toward another, or upon the time which has elapsed since the last meeting. When any one When a great warrior or prince passes sneezes, all present exclaim, “ Nedjak Alby, those who are seated rise, riders de-la!" (God save you!) and the party sneezscend from their steeds, and all cross their ing, replies, "Rahmek Allah!" (God have

When a subordinate on horseback meets a superior also on horseback, he dismounts at a considerable distance, in order to kiss his knee. Equals, when they meet, salute each other's faces with their lips, or else they lightly place their right hands together and kiss the thumbs.

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