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and the breast forward. In this position, draw slowly as deep an inspiration as possible, and retain it by an increased effort for a few seconds. Then breathe it gradually forth. After a few natural breaths, repeat the long inspiration. Let this be done for fifteen or twenty minutes every day, and in six weeks' time a perceptible increase in the diameter of the chest and in its prominence will be very evident.
The breasts are liable to many diseases, especially to tumors, which destroy their shape. But these come strictly within the province of the surgeon, and need not be mentioned here. So, too, the breasts require especial attention during and after confinement, while nursing, and at weaning, both to preserve their health and their beauty, but as these points have been spoken of at length, in the Physical Life of Woman," to which we have referred, the repetition is superfluous. We would, however, call attention to the fact that if a woman does not intend to nurse her child, she should, to preserve her breast in shape, dry up her milk at the outset by artificial means.
The lower part of the chest is more capacious than the upper, and incloses some of the most important organs of the economy. At the waist, the body should have the least circumference. While this is true, it is an absurd and ugly fashion, not sanctioned by any rule of art, and in positive opposition to the laws of health and beauty, to compress, fasten, and
HOW BEAUTY IS SPOILED.
lace it down to that “wasp-like waist," against which artists and physicians have so long and so vainly protested.
The circumference of the waist in a woman five feet high should not be less than twenty-five inches, and from this it should increase half an inch in circumference for every additional inch in height, so that a woman five feet eight inches high should measure twenty-nine inches around the waist, of course without the clothing.
The result of any greater compression than this is disastrous in every respect. We have already shown how it spoils the shape of the shoulders, and flattens and displaces the breasts. Were this all, it might pass. But far more serious consequences arise. The. lungs are cramped and cannot expand. The blood, in consequence, is not purified, the complexion soon becomes muddy, the lips pale or purple, and if there is any tendency to consumption, it is promptly developed. The pressure downward is equally productive of harm. A physician who pays special attention to diseases of women, recently told us that four-fifths of the cases of uterine complaint which he had to treat in unmarried women were directly traceable to this violent and unnatural pressure upon the contents of the abdomen. Our own experience convinces us that his statement is hardly overdrawn. With these consequences plainly staring them in the face, it is
scarcely credible that women, who wish to preserve either their health or their beauty, will deliberately continué to take so certain a means of destroying both as this compression of the waist.
If support is what is needed, a light steel bråce is infinitely preferable, more cleanly, more durable, and more healthful. Excellent ones can be bought in all our large cities. If it is desired to reduce an exuberant form, we have already laid down the rules for that. If the object is to make up the figure,” those have the best success who, like the Italian ladies, depend on the arrangement of the dress and a careful carriage, and not on forcing the body into unnatural positions.
There has been said so much on this topic by physicians that it is probably a tiresome one to readers. Perhaps they are ready to paraphrase Shakspeare and exclaim against the doctors as "fellows of iteration.” We make our attack on the custom from a new quarter, and in the interests of beauty itself demand that respect be paid to fundamental laws of health. Unless • We are implicitly obeyed here, we cannot keep our promise that our readers shall remain beautiful longer than they are young.
THE HEAD, FACE, AND EXPRESSION.
THE SHAPE OF THE HEAD.
THE head is that part of the body which distinguishes
the noble races and individuals from those which are ignoble. Its highest type is never seen except in the most civilized families of the white race, where, by its symmetrical proportions, it manifests the superiority of this over other varieties of our species.
It should appear as a perfect oval, whether looked at from above downward, or from in front. Its height should be a little less than one-eighth of the whole height of the person. The greatest diameter should extend from the forehead to the back of the skull above the neck, the shortest from one temple to the other. The two hemispheres should be perfectly alike, and the curve of the summit regular and even.
As the seat of the brain and the mental faculties, it has been supposed that by an examination of the outside of the head, some conclusion could be formed of
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the character and abilities of the person. Under the name of phrenology, this popular notion was cultivated diligently some years ago by itinerant lecturers, but of late the business seems to have fallen off. We well remember a friend at college, now holding a prominent and responsible position as an educator, who pointed out to us with great satisfaction a small lump about the middle of his forehead, which he confidently maintained had grown there since he had addressed himself to the study of history. Since then, like others, he has lost faith in Gall and Spurzheim.
To confess the truth, we know absolutely nothing about the functions of the various parts of the brain. The least difficult theory is that the anterior third is the seat of the intellectual faculties, the middle third controls nutrition and emotion, while the posterior third governs muscular action, and the sentiments of. reproduction.
No doubt the capacity of the skull, that is to say, the size of the brain, has a close connection with the mental power. But it is very far from true that a large head is a guarantee of a strong intellect. Daniel Webster had the largest head in Congress, and John Randolph the smallest, but the latter was very little inferior to the former in close, logical argument, and was much quicker at repartee and satire. Women have somewhat smaller heads than men in proportion