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ceiving it a duty he owed to the laws, not to suffer any sedition to take place on his account. Contenting himself with protesting his innocence, and fin. cerely lamenting the public phrensy, he exclaimed, as Plato had done before during the distractions of the Athenian Commonwealth, “ If the times “ should mend, I shall recover my station; if not, " it is a happiness to be absent from Rome;" and departed without regret into exile, fully convinced of its advantages to a mind incapable of finding repose except on foreign shores, and which at Rome must have been incessantly tortured by the hourly sight of a fickly State and an expiring Republic.

RUTILIUS also, feeling the same contempt for the sentiments and manners of the age, voluntarily withdrew himself from the corrupted metropolis of the Republic. Afia had been defended by his integrity and courage against the ruinous and op. pressive extortion of the publicans. These noble and spirited exertions, which he was prompted to make not only from his high sense of justice, but in the honourable discharge of the particular duties of his office, drew on him the indignation of the Equestrian Order, and excited the animosity of the faction which supported the interests of Marius, They induced the vile and infamous Apicius to become the instrument of his destruction. He was accused of corruption! and, as the authors and abet, tors of this false accusation sat as judges on his trial, Rutilius, the most innocent and virtuous citizen of the Republic, was of course condemned; for, indeed, he scarcely condescended to defend the cause. Seeking an asylum in the East, this truly respecta. ble Roman, whose merits were not only overlooked, but traduced, by his ungrateful country, was every where received with profound veneration and unqualified applause. He had, however, before the term of his exile expired, an opportunity of exhibiting the just contempt he felt for the treatment he had received; for when Sylla earnestly folicited him to return to Rome, he not only refused to comply with his request, but removed his refidence to a greater distance from his infatuated country.


CICERO, however, who possessed in an eminent degree all the resources and sentiments which are necessary to render Solitude pleasant and advantageous, is a memorable exception to these instances, of happy and contented exiles. This eloquent patriot, who had been publicly proclaimed “ The « Saviour of his Country,” who had pursued his measures with undaunted perseverance, in defiance of the open menaces of a desperate faction, and the concealed dangers of hired aflaffins, sunk into de jection and dismay under a sentence of exile. The Arength of his constitution had long been impaired


by his incessant anxiety and fatigue; and the terrors of banishment so oppressed his mind, that he loft all his powers, and became, from the deep melancholy into which it plunged him, totally incapable of adopting just sentiments, or pursuing spirited measures. By this weak and unmanly conduct he disgraced an event by which Providence intended to render his glory complete. Undetermined where to go, or what to do, he lamented, with effeminate fighs and childish tears, that he could now no longer enjoy the luxuries of his fortune, the splendor of his rank, or the charms of his popularity. Weeping over the ruins of his magnificent manfion, which Clodius levelled with the ground, and groaning for the absence of his wife Terentia, whom he soon afterwards repudiated, he suffered the deepest melancholy to seize upon his mind; became a prey to the most inveterate grief; complained with bitter anguish of wants, which, if supplied, would have afforded him no enjoyment; and acted, in short, so ridiculously, that both his friends and his enemies concluded that adversity had deranged his mind. Cæfar beheld with secret and malignant pleasure the man who had refused to act as his Lieutenant suffering under the scourge of Clodius. Pompey hoped that all sense of his ingratitude would be effaced by the contempt and derision to which a benefactor, .whom he had shamefully abandoned, thus meanly


exposed his character. Atticus himself, whofe mind was bent on magnificence and money, and who, by his temporizing talents, endeavoured to preserve the friendship of all parties without enlisting in any, blushed for the unmanly conduct of Cicero, and, in the censorial style of Cato, instead of his own plausible dialect, severely reproached him for continuing so meanly attached to his former fortunes. Solitude had no influence over a mind so weak and depressed as to turn the worst side of every object to its view. He died, however, with greater heroism than he lived. “ Approach, old soldier !” cried he, from his litter, to Pompilius Laenas, his former client and present murderer, “ and, if you have the



courage, take

“ These instances,” says Lord Bolingbroke, “ Thew,' that as a change of place, simply con

fidered, can render no man unhappy, so the 's other evils which are objected to exile, either

cannot happen to wise and virtuous men, or, if so

they do happen to them, cannot render them « miserable. Stones are hard, and cakes of ice are

cold, and all who feel them feel alike; but the good or the bad events which fortune bring's

are felt according to the qualities that we, not they, poffefs. They are in themselves inFi different and common accidents, and they acquire

“ strength

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upon us,

« strength by nothing but our vice or our weak « nefs. Fortune can dispense neither felicity nor « infelicity, unless we co-operate with her. Few

men who are unhappy under the lofs of an « estate would be happy in the possession of its ci and those who deserve to enjoy the advantages « which exile takes away, will not be unhappy « when they are deprived of them.”

An exile, however, cannot hope to see his days glide quietly away in rural delights and philofophic repose, except he has conscientiously difcharged those duties which he owed to the world, and given that example of rectitude to future ages, which every character exhibits who is as great after his fall as he was at the most brilliant period of his prosperity

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