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the sea.

How oft, thou wanderer of the stormy deep,

right, gliding with great rapidity over the surface of Is the poor sea-boy wakened from his dream, Of home and home's delights : when half asleep,

It is only in bad weather that their flight is High in the shrouds, he hears thy startling scream! at any great elevation; their voice is extremely dis, Safe in the storm, unhurt by wave or wind,

agreeable, and resembles the braying of an ass. On through the fearful tempest dost thou soar, The fleetest vessels leaving far behind,

The principal resort of the Albatross tribe, of which Unchecked amidst the elemental roar.

there are four or five species, is the ocean in the Alas! how sure the hand that guides thy way,

vicinity of the Cape of Good Hope, but they are How safe the rudder, instinct, shapes thy course;

found in all parts of the South Seas. As an article Ah! how unlike things made by hands of clay,

of food, the Albatross is but little sought after; its Thy piercing eyes, thy pinions' matchless force!

flesh, on account of the nature of its food, being very The Albatross is the largest of all the birds that rank and disagreeable; it is, however, sometimes used frequent the sea-coast, and measures as much as by the sailors, who, after skinning it, place it in salt three feet in length, while its expanded wings are for a few days, and eat it with some strong seasoning. from nine to ten feet. The common Albatross has About the middle of September the female builds been called the Cape sheep, by the Dutch, on account a nest on the sand, about three feet in circumference, of its extreme corpulence. The beak of this bird is and lays a considerable number of eggs, of a greyish very powerful, but although so well provided with colour and speckled black; but a great portion of a weapon of offence, it is naturally a cowardly crea- these are destroyed by birds of prey, reptiles, &c.; ture, and seldom acts except on the defensive; it they are also much sought after by the inhabitants of gets rid of the sea-gulls who are constantly teasing the Cape of Good Hope and islands of the Indian it, in rather a singular manner, by descending Ocean, as an article of food, as they partake in a rapidly through the air, and plunging its assailant very slight degree of the peculiar flavour of the into the water.

flesh of the birds themselves. It is a singular fact, Small marine animals, zoophytes, and the


that the yolk of these eggs never becomes hardened of fishes, form the chief food of the Albatross; but by the process of cooking. it also greedily devours all descriptions of fishes, when it can obtain that food, and is so voracious, as to be taken with a hook and line baited merely with things, even in vulgar matters, worthy of observation.-

He that gives his mind to observe, will meet with many a piece of sheep's skin.

BACON. On account of their great weight, these birds have much difficulty in raising themselves into the air, and Real alleviation of the loss of friends, and rational tranare obliged to assist themselves in this manoeuvre by quillity in the prospect of our own dissolution, can be striking the surface of the water with their feet; but received only from the promises of Him in whose hands when once on the wing, their fight is rapid, and are life and death, and from the assurance of another and apparently performed with great ease, as they appear and the whole soul shall be filled with joy. Philosophy

better state, in which all tears will be wiped from the eyes, to do little else than sway themselves in the air, may infuse stubbornness, but religion only can give patience, sometimes inclining to the left, and at others to the DR. JOENSON..

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THE PRIMITIVE CHRISTIAN CHURCHES. proceeding to an "upper room" (such as was that

in which the Passover was eaten), to elect, after due The House of our Dovelike Religion is simple : built on high, and in open prayer and supplication, another Apostle in the stead

view ; looking towards the Light, as the figure of the Holy Spirit; and of Judas, (Acts i. 13.) The second chapter of the to the East, as the representation of Christ. - TERTULLIAN, A. D. 198.

Acts relates, that, “when the day of Pentecost (which

also was the first day of the week,) was fully come, 5 &

they were all, with one accord, in one place." Whether that one place” was the same which was prepared

for the Last Supper,—whether it was the same in CO B


which our Lord manifested himself to the disciples, on the evening of the day when he arose again, and

also on the eighth (or Lord's) day following,—and 6 a e

whether the vacant Apostleship was here allotted to

Matthias, we venture not, on the authority of the 12

above instances, to assert; though there appears A SHORT explanation of the above diagram (for the nothing unreasonable in the supposition. Be this as construction of which we are indebted to the early it may, there exists no doubt, that, wherever the Christian writers), may not be unacceptable to the infant churches were planted, some place of concourse reader of these pages. Obscure as are the vestiges (similar to that in which the faithful met, within the of that remote period, we doubt not that the house walls of Jerusalem) was specially appropriated to the of Prayer, of whatever extent, comeliness, or antiquity, worship of our Lord and Saviour. In sacrificing is an object of lively interest and reverential contem- their possessions to the furtherance of Christian truth, plation to the faithful of these latter times. And, many would gladly devote, if not their houses, at perhaps, the following remarks cannot be better least the principal apartment therein, to this holy introduced, than by collecting, as far as we are able, ase. To which the Apostle seems frequently to some account of the places set apart for Christian allude, when, in writing to particular Christians, he worship, from the days of the Apostles themselves. speaks of the “ Church in their house,” that is, of the

The Chamber, in which our Lord was pleased to assemblage of believers, resorting to some determinate solemnize his last Passover with the disciples, appears place beneath their roof. In blaming the Corinthians to have afforded the pattern of those oratories, in for their irreverence in partaking of the Lord's Supper, which, after his resurrection and ascension, they were he asks them, “ Have ye not houses to eat and drink wont to participate in holy counsel and devotion. In in ?" Thereby drawing a distinction between their this apartment, made ready beforehand by his own habitations, and those portions of them which were miraculous appointment, we find him, on the eve of set apart for holy purposes. his sufferings, discharging the several ministrations Proceeding from the Apostolic age to the times of peculiar to his Gospel. Here it was, that, in washing the Fathers, we find a continuance of testimony to the feet of the disciples, he did not only teach them the same purport. Clemens, one of the most ancient, the humility required of his followers; but further, writes, in his epistle to the Corinthians, that our he did intimate to Peter, in the memorable words, Lord did not only determine by whom, and at what “If I wash thee not, thou hast no part in me,” that, particular seasons, the ordinances of his Religion without the washing of regeneration, by baptism into should be solemnized,—but also, the places wherein his death, we cannot obtain the benefits of his Cross he would receive the homage of his worshippers. and Passion. Here also, (as need hardly be men- Justin Martyr, another early authority, mentions the tioned) he instituted the most comfortable Sacrament faithful as assembling together, in one place, on the of his most precious body and blood. Within these Lord's day. Tertullian, whose words stand at the walls, was uttered that holy valedictory address to head of these remarks, speaks not only of the Church, the future Pastors of his Church, as well as that or House of God, but describes, also, its form and solemn prayer to the Father, for its unity and truth, arrangement. Lucian, a heathen writer of the second which closed his earthly ministry. And, lastly, century, although no friend to the Christians, beneath this roof did the Saviour and his chosen describes with accuracy the apartment, in which they uplift the hymn of praise and thanksgiving, when were accustomed to meet for the purposes of devoabout to retire to that dread scene of his desertion tion. and agony, the garden in the Mount of Olives.

Until the reign of Constantine, carly in the fourth Consecrated as this chamber was, by the last inter- century, the Christians, alternately persecuted and view with their divine Master, it is not unreasonable tolerated by the imperial power, appear to have to conjecture (even were tradition silent), that the attended little to the exterior decoration of their Apostles did, from time to time, resort thither, in places of worship. But, that Emperor having issued memory of that solemn evening; washing, as he had edicts prohibitory of Paganism, and in favour of taught them, in all humility, each other's feet: par. Christianity, structures of unusual beauty and magnitaking, in the symbols of bread and wine, of his tude were erected to the promotion of our faith, not spiritual body and blood ; discoursing of his marvel- only in the cities of the empire, but in its less populous acts, and heavenly doctrines; and uniting in lous districts. These were called “Kuriaka,” that is prayer and praise to the Author of our salvation. to say, “houses of the Lord;” whence our terms Scripture, it is true, says little as to the place of their “Kirk” and “ Church.” We proceed to the considerassemblage. It mentions the appearance of Jesus to ation of their general form and arrangement, by them, on the day of his resurrection, which was the reference to the plan above given. first day of the week; and again, eight days after, The entrance was under a porch, or vestibule, (A), (John xx. 19, 26.) “when the doors were shut;" consisting, in their more sumptuous edifices, of a proof that they were accustomed to meet together marble, and frequently adorned with fountains. Hero in private, as on the eve of our Lord's sufferings; stood the lowest order of penitents, beseeching the probably in the same chamber to which He had, on prayers of the faithful, as they crossed the sacred that occasion, directed them. After his ascension, threshold. To this custom we may attribute the we find the Eleven, on their return to Jerusalem, crigin of that appendage to some of our Cathedrals

which, (in reference to its distance from those equally certain, that no images were allowed a place precincts which were formerly accounted most within their churches. When censured by their eneholy), is still called the “Galilee,” and beyond mies on this very account, the writers in defence of which, in former times, offenders were forbidden our faith, far from denying the charge, appear to have to proceed, until reconciled to the Church. Im considered it as an additional evidence of the simplimediately within the doors, was the “Narthex," city and holiness of their religion. We cannot, per(B), a term, for which no accurate translation haps, give a better summary of their opinions on this can be given, but which answers, in point of situa- subject, than in the words of Origen, who flourished tion, to what we should call the ante-church..” The towards the middle of the third century. He tells Narthex was subdivided into three parts; in the his adversaries, that the images which the Christians first (a) stood the “catechumens,” or learners of dedicated to God were not to be carved by the hand Christianity; in the second (6), (where was also the of artists, but to be formed and fashioned in us by baptismal font (c),) were placed the "energumeni,” or the Word of God; being the virtues of justice and those possessed by Satan; and the third (a), was temperance, of wisdom and piety, that conform us to reserved for the middle class of penitents, who were the Image of his Son. “These (says he) are our only permitted to hear the public worship, but not to enter statues, formed in our minds; and by which alone we the congregation. Next to the Narthex, lay the are persuaded to honour Him, who is the Image of principal body of the church, called “Naos," or the Invisible God, the prototype and archetypal pat

Nevis," (c) whence our term "nave;" subdivided tern of all such images.” Figurative, (and, in some also into two parts.

The first of these (e) was degree, fanciful) as these allusions may seem, they allotted to the higher class of penitents; above whom evidence, how little of external circumstance was was placed the "Ambo,” (f), answering the pur- necessary to strengthen the faith, or quicken the poses of our pulpit and reading-desk. Beyond this devotion of believers in that day. Kneeling towards was the place (g) where sat those who were called those precincts which had been consecrated by the “the faithful,” and who alone were admitted to par- bodily presence of the “Sun of Righteousness," and take of the Lord's Table. The third, and last principal with that glorious symbol of his Spirit, the light of division of the Church was the “Bima,” or “Hiera- Heaven, before their eyes; how vain, how derogatory tium,” (D), raised above the floor of the nave, and would they deem every endeavour of art, to imprint separated from it by rails (h), which were termed the person of the Saviour on their memories, or to “cancelli.” whence the corresponding portion of our portray their conceptions of his unspeakable beauty churches is named the “chancel," to this day. Within and holiness! this was the “Thusiasterion,” or altar (i); so named It were unjust to close these remarks, without admetaphorically, because there was offered the com- verting to the memory of those great and pious men, memorative sacrifice of Christ's body and blood; upon whom, in later times, devolved the charge of also spoken of by the Greek Fathers, as the “Hagia removing from our churches the superstitious vanities Trapeza,” or holy table. At the extremity of the which, during the lapse of centuries, had grown with “Bima," and immediately under the east window, was the growth, and strengthened with the strength of the chair, or throne (k) from which the bishop ad- the Papal supremacy. Comparing the simplicity of dressed the people; and to the right of which were those arrangements which we have been considering, the seats of the presbyters, elders, or priests, (). with the gorgeous superfluities, introduced by, and The deacons were not permitted to sit there. On the still retained in, the Church of Rome; we cannot too north of the chancel, was the “diaconicon,” (m), highly appreciate the caution and judgment of our where the vessels and garments appointed for divine Reformers, in adopting such details of the primitive service were kept. Lastly, on the south was the model, as were warranted by the circumstances of “ prothesis,” (n) where were laid the alms, oblations, their times. Whether it would have been judicious, and remainder of the consecrated elements, until or even practicable, to carry the resemblance beyond properly disposed of.

this point, is not for us to decide; so different was Such were the edifices dedicated to Christian wor- the position of the Church, when triumphing, in the ship, in the earlier and purer ages of the Church. No might of her Lord, over the paganism of the Empire, superfluous ornament, no appeal to the senses by the from her state, when emerging from the darkness and hand of art, no antiscriptural practice or ceremony, bondage of the middle ages.. But this we may with had then intruded within their portals. The Lord's truth affirm that they acted upon, and illustrated that Table, though figuratively styled (as in our days) the noble principle, which should ever be observed in the “Altar," in reference to the sacrifice and death of maintenance of the worship of God, -the preservaChrist, there commemorated,—to the sacrifice of tion of its dignity from pomp, its simplicity from praise and thanksgiving, there offered,—and the alms and oblations laid thereon, as unto God, in behalf of

T. P. O. the necessitous; resembled as little in the costliness of its materials, as in its usage, those pompous altars

THE SABBATH. which were the boast of the Heathen temples, and which afterwards were but too successfully rivalled

Lo! smiling like an angel from the sky,

The Sabbath-morning comes to bless mankind : by the mistaken zeal and overweening pride of a

Before her face earth's meaner pleasures fly, Church, arrogating to herself the supreme rule in all

And grov'ling cares. Th’ emancipated mind things spiritual. Whence one of the principal objec- Now feels its freedom, casts the world behind, tions urged against the Christians, was, that they had And with glad welcome hails the happy train no altars. To which the Fathers made reply, that That wait upon her steps. There REST, reclined they needed none; the only true altar being a pure

On Peace, advancing, cheers the toil-worn-swain ;

Devotion moves with meek and solemn mien, and holy mind;-the best and most acceptable sacri

By CONTEMPLATIon wrapt in holy trance: fice, a pious heart, and an innocent and religious life.

HOPE, led by Truth, regardless of the vain “ These (said they) are our oblations; these the And transient joys of life, with forward glance, sacrifices which we owe to God."

Beholds, while Fairu directs her raptured eye And, as we learn hence, that all superstitious usages

Th' unbroken SABBATH of ETERNITY, of the Christian altar were then unknown, so is it Chichester, Oct. 1834.





somewhat wider, of course, than the former one. It is astonishing to observe what an inclination pre- They have also been attributed to insects. The vails amongst some persons, when they meet with any

least plausible theory is that of lightning; the most extraordinary appearance in the natural world, the plausible, that of fungi. Insects are a consequence real cause of which they cannot exactly understand, of the fungi, rather than a cause of the circle; for to ascribe its existence to a supernatural influence; where there are fungi, there will be insects to devour to Satan, for instance, or to those fancied beings,

them. Fungi are also always found, more cr less, called Fairies. This is the case with respect to what about them. I have seen them of so large a species, are named Satan's FOOTSTEPS, and FAIRY RINGS. that, in their growth, they totally destroyed the grass Any one who endeavours to remove these superstitious beneath them, dividing the green ring into two, and opinions, by explaining the real causes of such things, leaving one of bare rich mould between them. The does good service to those who make such mistakes,

origin of these circles, too, which hitherto has and with this view, we transcribe the following ex

escaped the eyes of the naturalist, but which is tracts from an interesting little work, Howitt's Book of nothing more than a small mushroom-bed, made by the Seasons.

the dung of cattle lying undisturbed in the grass,

till it becomes completely incorporated with the soil SATAN S FOOTSTEPS.

beneath, favours, more than all, the theory of the There is a singular appearance often observed in fungi. Every one knows than where this occurs, a spring, which has excited many a superstitious tuft of rank grass springs up, in the centre of which terror in the minds of the simple country people, a crop of fungi sometimes appears, and again perishes. and which, in reality, is very striking. It is the There, then, is the nucleus of a fairy ring. The next print of footsteps across the grass of the fields, as year the tuft is found to have left a green spot, of though they had been footsteps of fire. The

perhaps a foot and a half diameter, which has already grass is burnt black in the foot prints, presenting parted in the centre. This expansion goes on from a startling_contrast with the vivid green of that year to year; the area of the circle is occupied by around. The common people have, consequently, common grass, and successive crops of fungi give a concluded these to be the traces of the nocturnal vivid greenness to the ring which bounds it

. That perambulations of Satan, whereas they are those of only a few tufts are converted into fairy rings may some one of themselves, who has crossed the fields' be owing to their not being sufficiently enriched to while the night-frost was on the grass, which, at this become mushroom-beds; but that all fairy rings season, is very tender, and is as effectually destroyed which exist have this origin will be found to admit by the pressure of a foot, in its frosty brittleness, as of little doubt.

D.I. E. by fire, and with much the same appearance.—p. 85.

LET every man in the first address to his actions, consider, These singular appearances in the grass, called whether, if he were now to die, he might safely and pru

dently do such an act; and whether he would not be Fairy Rings, are never more conspicuous than infinitely troubled that death should surprise him in his during the Autumn months. Even when all other present dispositions; and then let him proceed accordingly. grass is brown, they exhibit a well-defined and -St. BERNARD. bright-green circle. The production of these remarkable circles, and the property which they possess, of Even in the fiercest uproar of our stormy passions, conevery year becoming larger, have, of late years, been science, though in her softest whispers, gives to the suprethe subject of various theories. They have been

macy of rectitude the voice of an undying testimony.

CHALMERS. attributed to lightning; they have been attributed to fungi, (that is, mushrooms, toadstools, and such

LONDON: things) which every year grow upon the outer mar JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. gin of the circle, and then perishing, cause, by the PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTHLY PARTS remains, a fresh circle of vivid green to appear, Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingdom,



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